Resuscitative challenges in nerve agent poisoning.
ABSTRACT The threat of weapons of mass destruction such as nerve agents has become real since last year. The medical community has established protocols for the rapid evacuation and decontamination of affected civilians. However, protocols for resuscitative measures or acute perioperative care in cases of life-saving surgical interventions in toxic-traumatized casualties are still lacking. The database concerning the effects of nerve agent poisoning in humans is limited, and is largely based on reports of unintentional exposures to pesticide organophosphate poisoning and similar chemical substances. In this review, we summarize the knowledge on the possible pharmacological interactions between nerve agents and acute care.
- SourceAvailable from: nchea.comJAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 02/2000; 283(2):252-4. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 1. The effect of pyridostigmine on cardiorespiratory function after oxime + atropine injection was investigated in tabun poisoned guinea-pigs and without tabun poisoning. 2. The trachea, a carotid artery and jugular vein were cannulated in female urethane-anaesthetised Pirbright-white guinea-pigs. After baseline measurements the animals received pyridostigmine (0.05 mumol kg-1) and 30 min later atropine (29.5 mumol kg-1) plus obidoxime, HI 6 or HLö 7 (30 or 100 mumol kg-1) or tabun (1.85 mumol kg-1 = 5 x LD50) followed by oxime + atropine treatment (all i.v.). Erythrocyte, brain and diaphragm acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were determined. Similar groups without pretreatment were included for comparison. 3. Pyridostigmine aggravated the oxime + atropine induced hypotension and prevented the increase in heart rate but not the respiratory stimulation. The pyridostigmine inhibited AChE recovered only in the 100 mumol kg-1 kg oxime groups at the end of the experiment. 4. In tabun poisoning, pyridostigmine reduced the oxime + atropine induced circulatory recovery and decreased the survival time and rate. It did not affect the therapeutic oxime + atropine effect on respiratory function. 5. These results suggest that pyridostigmine enhances oxime + atropine related circulatory depression which may be the reason for the reduced efficacy of oxime + atropine treatment in tabun poisoning. The possible mechanisms are discussed.Human & Experimental Toxicology 09/1995; 14(8):634-42. · 1.45 Impact Factor
- Anesthesiology 11/1983; 59(4):330-9. · 5.16 Impact Factor