A faster method for 3D/2D medical image registration--a simulation study.
ABSTRACT 3D/2D patient-to-computed-tomography (CT) registration is a method to determine a transformation that maps two coordinate systems by comparing a projection image rendered from CT to a real projection image. Iterative variation of the CT's position between rendering steps finally leads to exact registration. Applications include exact patient positioning in radiation therapy, calibration of surgical robots, and pose estimation in computer-aided surgery. One of the problems associated with 3D/2D registration is the fact that finding a registration includes solving a minimization problem in six degrees of freedom (dof) in motion. This results in considerable time requirements since for each iteration step at least one volume rendering has to be computed. We show that by choosing an appropriate world coordinate system and by applying a 2D/2D registration method in each iteration step, the number of iterations can be grossly reduced from n6 to n5. Here, n is the number of discrete variations around a given coordinate. Depending on the configuration of the optimization algorithm, this reduces the total number of iterations necessary to at least 1/3 of it's original value. The method was implemented and extensively tested on simulated x-ray images of a tibia, a pelvis and a skull base. When using one projective image and a discrete full parameter space search for solving the optimization problem, average accuracy was found to be 1.0 +/- 0.6(degrees) and 4.1 +/- 1.9 (mm) for a registration in six parameters, and 1.0 +/- 0.7(degrees) and 4.2 +/- 1.6 (mm) when using the 5 + 1 dof method described in this paper. Time requirements were reduced by a factor 3.1. We conclude that this hardware-independent optimization of 3D/2D registration is a step towards increasing the acceptance of this promising method for a wide number of clinical applications.
Article: Fast generation of digitally reconstructed radiographs using attenuation fields with application to 2D-3D image registration[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Generation of digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) is computationally expensive and is typically the rate-limiting step in the execution time of intensity-based two-dimensional to three-dimensional (2D-3D) registration algorithms. We address this computational issue by extending the technique of light field rendering from the computer graphics community. The extension of light fields, which we call attenuation fields (AFs), allows most of the DRR computation to be performed in a preprocessing step; after this precomputation step, DRRs can be generated substantially faster than with conventional ray casting. We derive expressions for the physical sizes of the two planes of an AF necessary to generate DRRs for a given X-ray camera geometry and all possible object motion within a specified range. Because an AF is a ray-based data structure, it is substantially more memory efficient than a huge table of precomputed DRRs because it eliminates the redundancy of replicated rays. Nonetheless, an AF can require substantial memory, which we address by compressing it using vector quantization. We compare DRRs generated using AFs (AF-DRRs) to those generated using ray casting (RC-DRRs) for a typical C-arm geometry and computed tomography images of several anatomic regions. They are quantitatively very similar: the median peak signal-to-noise ratio of AF-DRRs versus RC-DRRs is greater than 43 dB in all cases. We perform intensity-based 2D-3D registration using AF-DRRs and RC-DRRs and evaluate registration accuracy using gold-standard clinical spine image data from four patients. The registration accuracy and robustness of the two methods is virtually identical whereas the execution speed using AF-DRRs is an order of magnitude faster.IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 12/2005; · 3.64 Impact Factor
Article: A fully automated calibration method for an optical see-through head-mounted operating microscope with variable zoom and focus.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ever since the development of the first applications in image-guided therapy (IGT), the use of head-mounted displays (HMDs) was considered an important extension of existing IGT technologies. Several approaches to utilizing HMDs and modified medical devices for augmented reality (AR) visualization were implemented. These approaches include video-see through systems, semitransparent mirrors, modified endoscopes, and modified operating microscopes. Common to all these devices is the fact that a precise calibration between the display and three-dimensional coordinates in the patient's frame of reference is compulsory. In optical see-through devices based on complex optical systems such as operating microscopes or operating binoculars-as in the case of the system presented in this paper-this procedure can become increasingly difficult since precise camera calibration for every focus and zoom position is required. We present a method for fully automatic calibration of the operating binocular Varioscope M5 AR for the full range of zoom and focus settings available. Our method uses a special calibration pattern, a linear guide driven by a stepping motor, and special calibration software. The overlay error in the calibration plane was found to be 0.14-0.91 mm, which is less than 1% of the field of view. Using the motorized calibration rig as presented in the paper, we were also able to assess the dynamic latency when viewing augmentation graphics on a mobile target; spatial displacement due to latency was found to be in the range of 1.1-2.8 mm maximum, the disparity between the true object and its computed overlay represented latency of 0.1 s. We conclude that the automatic calibration method presented in this paper is sufficient in terms of accuracy and time requirements for standard uses of optical see-through systems in a clinical environment.IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 12/2005; 24(11):1492-9. · 3.64 Impact Factor
Article: The Zernike expansion--an example of a merit function for 2D/3D registration based on orthogonal functions.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Current merit functions for 2D/3D registration usually rely on comparing pixels or small regions of images using some sort of statistical measure. Problems connected to this paradigm the sometimes problematic behaviour of the method if noise or artefacts (for instance a guide wire) are present on the projective image. We present a merit function for 2D/3D registration which utilizes the decomposition of the X-ray and the DRR under comparison into orthogonal Zernike moments; the quality of the match is assessed by an iterative comparison of expansion coefficients. Results in a imaging study on a physical phantom show that--compared to standard cross--correlation the Zernike moment based merit function shows better robustness if histogram content in images under comparison is different, and that time expenses are comparable if the merit function is constructed out of a few significant moments only.Medical image computing and computer-assisted intervention : MICCAI ... International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention. 02/2008; 11(Pt 2):964-71.