"Initially it seems absurd to propose that intraluminally applied Ang II's direct effects on cardiac and smooth muscle cells are restricted to the coronary endothelial luminal membrane. Ang II is a small molecule, expected to diffuse across the endothelial wall, reach and act directly on adjacent cardiac and smooth muscle cells (Grotte, 1956; Koch-Weser, 1965; Renkin, 1964; Taylor and Granger, 1984), as long as these cells possess Ang II receptors. This explanation has been extensively challenged (Brutsaert, 1993; Castro-Chavez et al., 2006; Dempsey et al., 1971; Fujita and Endoh, 1999; Gul et al., 2008; Lopez et al., 1994; Salas et al., 2001) opening the possibility of poor permeability of intravascular Ang II into the interstitial cardiac space (de Lannoy et al., 1998; Dell'Italia et al., 1997; Richardson and Beaulnes, 1971). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diverse intracoronary hormones cause their cardiac effects solely via activation of their coronary endothelial luminal membrane (CELM) receptors. To test this hypothesis for Ang II, we synthesized: a) two large polymers of Ang II (Ang II-POL) and Losartan (Los-POL) which act only in the CELM's AT1R because they cannot cross the endothelial barrier and b) biotin-labeled Ang II (Ang II-Biotin) and Ang II-POL-Biotin to be identified by microscopy in tissues. Sustained coronary perfusion of Ang II (potentially diffusible) or Ang II-POL caused a positive inotropic effect (PIE) and an increase in coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) of equal magnitude that were blocked by Losartan and Los-POL. However, Ang II effects, in contrast to Ang II-POL effects, were transient due to desensitization and resulted in tachyphylaxis to a second administration of Ang II or Ang II-POL. Furthermore, if Ang II and Ang II-POL acted differently on the same receptor; a competition of effects would be expected. This was demonstrated by infusing simultaneously a molar ratio of Ang II:Ang II-POL. As this molar ratio decreased, Ang II-induced desensitization and tachyphylaxis decreased. Intravascularly-administered Ang II-Biotin and Ang II-POL-Biotin remained bound and confined to the endothelium. Our results support the hypothesis and indicate intravascular Ang II, not by mass exchange with the interstitium, but by an action restricted to the CELM's AT1R, causes release of endothelial chemical messengers that exert physiological effects and modulate the effects and metabolism of paracrine Ang II. Endocrine Ang II controls and communicates with its paracrine counterparts solely through endothelial receptors.
"On the basis of the permeability measurements to hydrophilic solutes of various sizes and before the availability of adequate structural evidence, physiologists postulated that the capillary endothelium contained both small and large hydrophilic pores [39, 112]. The ratio of small to large pores, though variable, seems to be in the range of about 30,000:1 [51, 138]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The endoneurial microenvironment, delimited by the endothelium of endoneurial vessels and a multi-layered ensheathing perineurium, is a specialized milieu intérieur within which axons, associated Schwann cells and other resident cells of peripheral nerves function. The endothelium and perineurium restricts as well as regulates exchange of material between the endoneurial microenvironment and the surrounding extracellular space and thus is more appropriately described as a blood-nerve interface (BNI) rather than a blood-nerve barrier (BNB). Input to and output from the endoneurial microenvironment occurs via blood-nerve exchange and convective endoneurial fluid flow driven by a proximo-distal hydrostatic pressure gradient. The independent regulation of the endothelial and perineurial components of the BNI during development, aging and in response to trauma is consistent with homeostatic regulation of the endoneurial microenvironment. Pathophysiological alterations of the endoneurium in experimental allergic neuritis (EAN), and diabetic and lead neuropathy are considered to be perturbations of endoneurial homeostasis. The interactions of Schwann cells, axons, macrophages, and mast cells via cell-cell and cell-matrix signaling regulate the permeability of this interface. A greater knowledge of the dynamic nature of tight junctions and the factors that induce and/or modulate these key elements of the BNI will increase our understanding of peripheral nerve disorders as well as stimulate the development of therapeutic strategies to treat these disorders.
"In 1956, Grotte et al. performed a series of additional dog lymph flow studies by employing various-sized dextran and plastic nanoparticles, the findings of which were the basis for the formulation of the dual pore hypothesis of microvascular permeability[12,13]. The experimental findings underlying the formulation of the dual pore hypothesis of capillary permeability are discussed herein from the physiologic perspective. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Much of our current understanding of microvascular permeability is based on the findings of classic experimental studies of blood capillary permeability to various-sized lipid-insoluble endogenous and non-endogenous macromolecules. According to the classic small pore theory of microvascular permeability, which was formulated on the basis of the findings of studies on the transcapillary flow rates of various-sized systemically or regionally perfused endogenous macromolecules, transcapillary exchange across the capillary wall takes place through a single population of small pores that are approximately 6 nm in diameter; whereas, according to the dual pore theory of microvascular permeability, which was formulated on the basis of the findings of studies on the accumulation of various-sized systemically or regionally perfused non-endogenous macromolecules in the locoregional tissue lymphatic drainages, transcapillary exchange across the capillary wall also takes place through a separate population of large pores, or capillary leaks, that are between 24 and 60 nm in diameter. The classification of blood capillary types on the basis of differences in the physiologic upper limits of pore size to transvascular flow highlights the differences in the transcapillary exchange routes for the transvascular transport of endogenous and non-endogenous macromolecules across the capillary walls of different blood capillary types.
The findings and published data of studies on capillary wall ultrastructure and capillary microvascular permeability to lipid-insoluble endogenous and non-endogenous molecules from the 1950s to date were reviewed. In this study, the blood capillary types in different tissues and organs were classified on the basis of the physiologic upper limits of pore size to the transvascular flow of lipid-insoluble molecules. Blood capillaries were classified as non-sinusoidal or sinusoidal on the basis of capillary wall basement membrane layer continuity or lack thereof. Non-sinusoidal blood capillaries were further sub-classified as non-fenestrated or fenestrated based on the absence or presence of endothelial cells with fenestrations. The sinusoidal blood capillaries of the liver, myeloid (red) bone marrow, and spleen were sub-classified as reticuloendothelial or non-reticuloendothelial based on the phago-endocytic capacity of the endothelial cells.
The physiologic upper limit of pore size for transvascular flow across capillary walls of non-sinusoidal non-fenestrated blood capillaries is less than 1 nm for those with interendothelial cell clefts lined with zona occludens junctions (i.e. brain and spinal cord), and approximately 5 nm for those with clefts lined with macula occludens junctions (i.e. skeletal muscle). The physiologic upper limit of pore size for transvascular flow across the capillary walls of non-sinusoidal fenestrated blood capillaries with diaphragmed fenestrae ranges between 6 and 12 nm (i.e. exocrine and endocrine glands); whereas, the physiologic upper limit of pore size for transvascular flow across the capillary walls of non-sinusoidal fenestrated capillaries with open 'non-diaphragmed' fenestrae is approximately 15 nm (kidney glomerulus). In the case of the sinusoidal reticuloendothelial blood capillaries of myeloid bone marrow, the transvascular transport of non-endogenous macromolecules larger than 5 nm into the bone marrow interstitial space takes place via reticuloendothelial cell-mediated phago-endocytosis and transvascular release, which is the case for systemic bone marrow imaging agents as large as 60 nm in diameter.
The physiologic upper limit of pore size in the capillary walls of most non-sinusoidal blood capillaries to the transcapillary passage of lipid-insoluble endogenous and non-endogenous macromolecules ranges between 5 and 12 nm. Therefore, macromolecules larger than the physiologic upper limits of pore size in the non-sinusoidal blood capillary types generally do not accumulate within the respective tissue interstitial spaces and their lymphatic drainages. In the case of reticuloendothelial sinusoidal blood capillaries of myeloid bone marrow, however, non-endogenous macromolecules as large as 60 nm in diameter can distribute into the bone marrow interstitial space via the phago-endocytic route, and then subsequently accumulate in the locoregional lymphatic drainages of tissues following absorption into the lymphatic drainage of periosteal fibrous tissues, which is the lymphatic drainage of myeloid bone marrow. When the ultrastructural basis for transcapillary exchange across the capillary walls of different capillary types is viewed in this light, it becomes evident that the physiologic evidence for the existence of aqueous large pores ranging between 24 and 60 nm in diameter in the capillary walls of blood capillaries, is circumstantial, at best.
Journal of Angiogenesis Research 08/2010; 2(1):14. DOI:10.1186/2040-2384-2-14
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