Effect of smoking on the cardiovascular system of man.

Circulation (Impact Factor: 15.2). 04/1958; 17(3):443-59.
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: The reasons why adult smokers have lower blood pressure than non-smokers have not been determined. It is possible that low blood pressure might precede the onset of smoking. This study investigates this hypothesis in a national cohort study in Britain. Blood pressures and pulse rates taken on a sample of 5019 members of the British Birth Cohort Study (BCS 70) at the age of 10 years were analysed in relation to self reported smoking behaviour at age 16+ years. Prospectively, those children who had lower diastolic blood pressure or pulse rate at age 10 were more likely to have smoked by age 16+ years. Using analysis of variance, pulse rate was significantly related to smoking in young men (p < 0.001). Seventy per cent of those with lower pulse (below the 10th centile), 58% with medium pulse, and 52% with the higher pulse (above the 90th centile) had ever smoked by age 16+ years. In young women, pulse rate (p = 0.003), diastolic pressure (p = 0.024), and systolic pressure (p = 0.032) at age 10 were all significantly related to smoking at age 16. This longitudinal study found that lower blood pressure and slower pulse rate were related to the onset of smoking in children. More research is needed on this new observation.
    Archives of Disease in Childhood 10/1995; 73(4):294-7. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigates the effect of smoking on retinal blood flow and autoregulation in smokers with and without diabetes. Eleven patients with diabetes mellitus and ten control subjects were investigated. Laser Doppler velocimetry and retinal photography were used to measure retinal blood flow; vascular autoregulation was assessed with 60% oxygen breathing. These procedures were performed before and after smoking. Both groups demonstrated a significant increase in heart rate and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.01). In both groups, smoking caused a significant decrease in retinal blood flow: 9.6% +/- 12% in the control group (P < 0.05) and 16.4% +/- 13.8% in the diabetic group (P < 0.01). The pre-smoking oxygen reactivity was comparable in both groups (P = 0.5); 27.9% +/- 3.3% and 32.0% +/- 5.0% in the control and diabetic groups, respectively. After smoking, oxygen reactivity was reduced significantly in the control group to 9.6% +/- 4.0% (P = 0.002) and eliminated in the patients with diabetes. This study shows that smoking reduces retinal blood flow and the ability of the retinal vessels to autoregulate to hyperoxia; these effects are likely to be due to the vasoconstrictive effect of nicotine, which is mediated through activation of the sympathetic system. Smoking has been shown previously to increase the level of carboxyhemoglobin, thereby reducing the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood, which, when associated with the reduced blood flow shown in the current study, may reduce retinal oxygen delivery. Hypoxia is a major factor in the progression of diabetic retinopathy; therefore, smoking may exert a detrimental influence, which may be compounded further by the additional effect smoking has on autoregulation.
    Ophthalmology 08/1994; 101(7):1220-6. · 5.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this investigation was to study the influence of cigarette smoking on the development of gingivitis. Experimental gingivitis was induced in the mandibular anterior region by abstention from oral hygiene for 28 days. The study group consisted of 20 healthy dental students, 10 of whom were regular smokers. The clinical parameters studied were gingival bleeding on probing (60 g), gingival redness and gingival exudate. The results showed that the plaque formation rate was similar in both groups. However, smokers displayed a less pronounced gingival inflammatory reaction as compared with non-smokers. Concerning gingival bleeding and gingival redness, the reaction in smokers was significantly less elevated from d 14 through d 28 and concerning the amount of gingival exudate it was significantly less elevated from d 21 through d 28. The differences between groups tended to increase with time. These results suggest that the inflammatory gingival response to accumulating plaque may be suppressed under the influence of cigarette smoking.
    Journal of Periodontal Research 10/1986; 21(6):668 - 676. · 1.99 Impact Factor


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