Effect of smoking on the cardiovascular system of man.

Circulation (Impact Factor: 14.95). 04/1958; 17(3):443-59. DOI: 10.1161/01.CIR.17.3.443
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this investigation was to study the influence of cigarette smoking on the development of gingivitis. Experimental gingivitis was induced in the mandibular anterior region by abstention from oral hygiene for 28 days. The study group consisted of 20 healthy dental students, 10 of whom were regular smokers. The clinical parameters studied were gingival bleeding on probing (60 g), gingival redness and gingival exudate. The results showed that the plaque formation rate was similar in both groups. However, smokers displayed a less pronounced gingival inflammatory reaction as compared with non-smokers. Concerning gingival bleeding and gingival redness, the reaction in smokers was significantly less elevated from d 14 through d 28 and concerning the amount of gingival exudate it was significantly less elevated from d 21 through d 28. The differences between groups tended to increase with time. These results suggest that the inflammatory gingival response to accumulating plaque may be suppressed under the influence of cigarette smoking.
    Journal of Periodontal Research 10/1986; 21(6):668 - 676. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0765.1986.tb01504.x · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Pensacola Thousand Aviator Study began in 1940 with the examinations of 1056 student aviators and flight instructors on a variety of physiological, psychological, and socio-economic parameters. Follow-up examinations on the group were conducted in 1951, 1957, and 1963. During the 1963 follow-up, smoking history information on 675 subjects was obtained by questionnaire and confirmed by interview, together with concurrent data from clinical examinations, laboratory tests, anthropometry, and personal history variables. Two smoking variables were created, Cigarette Amount (CA) and Cigarette Years (CY), each on a scale of 1 to 5 points. Fron the concurrent data, 62 variables were selected for relevance and general interest to be examined in relation to smoking. Twenty-four of the 62 variables had significant correlations (p <.05) with CA, and 16 showed significant relationships to CY. Findings are related briefly to previous research, and problems of cause-effect isolation are mentioned. It is concluded that results in general support previous findings on smoker-nonsmoker differences. Contributions of the study in delineating areas of research for longitudinal investigation are discussed. (Author)
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    ABSTRACT: Disputing the concept of "psychic dependence", the authors review six motivations to use addictive drugs, four of which pertain to the moment of assumption of the habit, and two of which, identifiable with physical and psychic dependence, depend on breaking of the habit. While physical dependence is linked to withdrawal syndrome, psychic dependence, in the authors' opinion, is related to a longstanding previous state of true of masked endogenous depression (in this case it would be well termed "neuropsychological dependence"), and the drug taking is only a maladaptive self-medication. This thesis is substantiated by the literature reporting, in chronic drug addicts, the use of the whole series of antidepressants (i.e. tricyclics, doxepine, lithium, etc.) with noticeable therapeutical success. In accordance with other reports and with personal experience, the authors assign great importance to the drugs acting, directly or indirectly, on GABA, i.e. L-glutamine, piracetam, and, particularly, N-dipropylacetic acid.
    Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 12/1977; 56(5):337-46. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0447.1977.tb06675.x · 5.55 Impact Factor


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