Zamzam Paknahad

associate professor
Head of Department
Isfahan University of Medical ... · Clinical Nutrition Department

Publications

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    ABSTRACT: Nutrition in childhood has a significant role in current and adulthood health. Recent studies have shown that the mother's life-style has an important role in the methods used by mother to feed child, child's diet and body mass index (BMI). This study paper aimed to investigate the association between mother's weight efficacy life-style (WEL) with feeding practices and diet in children aged 3-6 years. In this cross-sectional study, which was carried out in 18 Primary Schools of Rasht (Iran) in 2012, 165 mothers with children aged 3-6 years were participated. Mothers reported their own and their child's demographics. Aspects of mother's WEL and mother's control practices were assessed using WEL questionnaire and Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire respectively. Height and weight of mothers participated in the study were measured. Child's dietary intake was measured using Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). The role of mother's weight efficacy in predicting child's feeding practices and child's diet was assessed using the linear regression. Statistical significance for all P values was set at 0.003. The results were showed that mother's weight efficacy was related to child feeding practices and child's dietary intake. The mothers with similar WEL applied similar methods in child nutrition. Mothers with better weight efficacy used more encourage balance and variety (β = 1.860), environmental control (β = 0.437), child involvement (β = 0.203) and less emotion regulation using foods (β = -0.213) and their children eat fewer snacks (β = -0.318) (PV= 0.003). The result of this study showed that maternal life-style was associated with feeding practices and child's intake. There was no significant relation between the maternal self-efficacy and child BMI.
    International journal of preventive medicine 01/2014; 5(1):21-28.
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    ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease and one of the most important modifiable factors in the development and maintenance of bone mass are nutrition nutritional status and its relationship with Bone Mass Density (BMD) in postmenopausal women admitted in osteodensitometry Center, Isfahan, Iran.
    International Journal of Health Promotion and Education 01/2014; 3:48.
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    Hossein Hajianfar, Zamzam Paknahad, Ahmad Bahonar
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases in which antioxidant capacity changes. Omega-3 fatty acids have extensive biological effects including their advantage on lipoprotein metabolism, platelet function, cytokine production, clotting, fibrinolysis, and inflammatory factors. This study aimed to investigate the effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplements on antioxidant capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes. This clinical trial enrolled 71 women with type 2 diabetes in two case (treated with omega-3 capsules) and control (treated with placebo) groups. In the first stage, participants filled out a demographics questionnaire including age, height, weight, waist circumference, and hip circumference.Their blood sample was taken to evaluate glycosylated hemoglobin and antioxidant capacity. Then the case group received intervention for 8 weeks and weight, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured and a blood sample was taken again. The data were analyzed using SPSS 18 software. The mean difference of antioxidant capacity before and after intervention was significant (P < 0.001). Antioxidant capacity increased in the case group and reduced in the control group. With regard to the results of the present study, patients with type 2 diabetes increase their antioxidant capacity, enhance their antioxidant defense system, and probably prevent diabetes complications and related disease progress by taking omega-3 supplements.
    International journal of preventive medicine 05/2013; 4(Suppl 2):S234-8.
  • Tina Jafari, Zamzam Paknahad
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    ABSTRACT: Nowadays, hypertension is one of the most important causes of death all over the world because of its adverse effects on cardiovascular system. For this reason its study is very valuable. Vitamin D is one of the important factors that may influence blood pressure. Many studies have shown the modulatory effect of this vitamin on rennin-angiotensin system as well as its inhibitory effect on vascular smooth muscle hypertrophy. According to the fact that vitamin receptors are distributed in almost all organs of human body, we can't consider its role just as factor in calcium homeostasis. Therefore many other important roles could be attributed to it. So vitamin D deficiency could arise many problems. There are many causes for vitamin D deficiency. The most important is insufficient exposure to UV-B. In epidemiological studies the vitamin D deficiency is considered to be associated with high blood pressure, as emphasized in many cross-sectional studies. Concerning the cohort prospective studies, the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and hypertension is reported in some cases. The interventional studies about the association between vitamin D and hypertension are not many and the results are different or contradictory. Controversial results might be due to differences in dose of supplements or duration of supplement therapy. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the researches about the association between vitamin D deficiency and hypertension and discuss the power of them. This can be helpful to lighten the path to prospective investigations. Copyright © 2013 Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved.
    Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. 04/2013; 15:29.
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    ABSTRACT: Designing an intervention based on healthcare settings resources and patient acceptability is potentially important in the prevention of high blood pressure(BP) and other risk factors of cardiovascular disease. To explain a multicenter randomized controlled trial that is designed to examine the effects of the multicomponent lifestyle modification program on BP. The effectiveness of the lifestyle modification program versus usual care in health-care centers is evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. Patients aged 30years or older having a systolic blood pressure(SBP) of 140-179mmHg or a diastolic blood pressure(DBP) of 90-109 mm Hg or patients taking antihypertensive medications are eligible for the study. -The primary outcomes measured are SBP and DBP levels. Mediator outcomes include physical activity level, stress scale, dietary composition, and weight measurements. All measurements will be conducted after the 4weeks of intervention and also at 6months. Outcomes of the study will present the effects of implementing multicomponent lifestyle intervention programs to control BP in health-care centers settings.
    Journal of research in medical sciences 04/2013; 18(4):308-313. · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing prevalence of obesity is a major health concern. Lifestyle behaviors and diet play an important role in developing childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the association between major dietary patterns and overweight/obesity in a group of Iranian school-aged children. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Isfahan, Iran with 637 elementary school-aged children. A semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire was used to assess usual dietary intakes. Data on socio-demographic, physical activity and other lifestyle habits were collected using standard questionnaires. Obesity was determined based on national cut-offs. Factor analysis was used for identifying major dietary patterns. Three major dietary patterns were extracted; "Healthy," "Western," and "Sweet-Dairy." After adjusting for confounders, girls in the second quartile of healthy pattern, were more likely to be overweight (odds ratio [OR] =2.23, Confidence intervals [CI] =1.003, 4.96) compared to those in the highest quartile. Likelihood of being overweight was lower for girls in the second quartile of western dietary pattern versus the fourth quartile (OR = 0.46, CI = 0.21, 1.01). Accordingly, lower adherence to sweet and dairy pattern was associated with lower body mass index (BMI) among girls (OR = 0.42, CI = 0.21, 0.85). There was no significant relationship between western and sweet-dairy pattern with BMI among boys, however, significant association was observed between lowest and highest quartiles of healthy pattern (OR = 0.36, CI = 0.15, 0.84). We found significant associations between the three dietary patterns and obesity among girls. Only healthy pattern was related to weight status of schoolboys. Longitudinal studies will be needed to confirm these associations.
    International journal of preventive medicine 04/2013; 4(4):448-58.
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    Hossein Hajianfar, Zamzam Paknahad, Ahmad Bahonar
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Background: Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases in which antioxidant capacity changes. Omega‑3 fatty acids have extensive biological effects including their advantage on lipoprotein metabolism, platelet function, cytokine production, clotting, fibrinolysis, and inflammatory factors. This study aimed to investigate the effect of omega‑3 fatty acid supplements on antioxidant capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: This clinical trial enrolled 71 women with type 2 diabetes in two case (treated with omega‑3 capsules) and control (treated with placebo) groups. In the first stage, participants filled out a demographics questionnaire including age, height, weight, waist circumference, and hip circumference.Their blood sample was taken to evaluate glycosylated hemoglobin and antioxidant capacity. Then the case group received intervention for 8 weeks and weight, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured and a blood sample was taken again. The data were analyzed using SPSS 18 software. Results: The mean difference of antioxidant capacity before and after intervention was significant (P < 0.001). Antioxidant capacity increased in the case group and reduced in the control group. Conclusions: With regard to the results of the present study, patients with type 2 diabetes increase their antioxidant capacity, enhance their antioxidant defense system, and probably prevent diabetes complications and related disease progress by taking omega‑3 supplements
    International journal of preventive medicine 03/2013; 14(sup):s234-s238.
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    ABSTRACT: Flavonoids comprise a large group of plant metabolites, 6,000 of which have been identified to date. Some studies have shown the increased aerobic performance and maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)) and therefore fitness following quercetin intake as a result of elevated number of intracellular mitochondria caused by the flavonoid. This double-blind clinical trial comprised 60 male students having an athletic history of at least 3 years. Body composition, exercise performance, and some blood biomarkers were analyzed. The individuals were selected by convenient sampling, and then were assigned into four groups of equal number by using permuted block randomization. The first to fourth groups received a 500 mg supplemental quercetin capsule plus a 250 mg vitamin C pill, a 500 mg supplemental quercetin capsule plus a 250 mg placebo vitamin C pill, a 500 mg placebo quercetin capsule plus a 250 mg vitamin C pill, and a 500 mg placebo quercetin capsule plus a 250 mg placebo vitamin C pill, respectively, daily for 8 weeks. The participants were asked to continue their routine diet and physical activity during the study and they were monitored through phone calls or text messages. Lean body mass, total body water, basal metabolic rate, and total energy expenditure increased significantly in the quercetin group after intervention. On the other hand, VO(2max) increased in the "quercetin" and "quercetin + vitamin C" groups following the intervention, non-significantly. Our findings suggest that supplementation with quercetin in athletes may improve some indices of performance.
    International journal of preventive medicine 01/2013; 4(1):21-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The health promoting effects of green tea including anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects, decreasing heart attack risk and oxidative stress status has been widely demonstrated during the past decade. The purpose of this study was to determine the possible effects of green tea on the anthropometric indices, systolic and diastolic blood pressure in overweight and obese women. Methods: A before-after, randomized clinical trial was conducted during 45 days on 41 overweight and obese women. The randomly selected participants forming a treatment group consumed 3 to 5 cups of green tea (125 cc) daily for 45 days. Demographic information, anthropometric indices including height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist hip ratio (WHR), percent body fat and systolic/diastolic blood pressure were recorded at the beginning and the end of the study. Findings: Mean of age, BMI and body fat were 38.1 ± 1.7 years, 28.8 ± 3.5 Kg/m2 and 35.8 ± 3.51 percent, respectively. The mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 84.8 ± 12.9 mmHg and 130.1 ± 20 mmHg, respectively. There was a non-significant reduction in anthropometric indices such as weight, BMI, and body fat percent; and a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (P = 0.009); however, reduction in diastolic blood pressure was not statistically significant (P = 0.05). Conclusion: Daily intake of green tea was associated with a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure; however, reduction in anthropometric indices and diastolic blood pressure was not significant. Key words: Green Tea, Anthropometric Indices, Blood Pressure, Overweight, Percent Body Fat
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    ABSTRACT: Quercetin is a bioflavonoid occurs in many food items. Some previous studies on quercetin showed the inconsistent results on exercise performance and muscle damage in athletes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 8 weeks of quercetin supplementation on exercise performance and muscle damage indices in student athletes. This placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 60 male students for 8 weeks. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of the four groups: a) quercetin (500 mg/day quercetin + 200 mg/day placebo), b) quercetin+ vitamin C (500 mg/day quercetin + 200 mg/day vitamin C), vitamin C (500 mg/day placebo + 200 mg/day vitamin C), and placebo (500 mg/day placebo + 200 mg/day placebo). Time to exhaustion (TTE) for measuring performance, aspartate transaminase (AST), and creatine kinase (CK) for measuring muscle damage and body fat percent (BFP) were measured before and after intervention. CK levels reduced in group 1 significantly (P=0.045) and BFP reduced in group 1, 3, and 4, significantly, too (P=0.018, P=0.013, and P=0.043, respectively). Whereas statistically significant changes between groups were not observed for TTE, AST, CK, and BFP after 8 weeks of intervention. Supplementation with quercetin and vitamin C for 8 weeks did not improve exercise performance but reduced muscle damage and body fat percent in healthy subjects.
    Journal of research in medical sciences 04/2012; 17(4):328-31. · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Elevated total plasma homocysteine has been established as an independent risk factor for CVD. A strong relationship between plasma homocysteine levels and mortality has been reported in patients with CAD. Interference with folate and homocysteine metabolism by some drugs, may lead to increased plasma homocysteine levels. The object of the study was to examine the effect of AEDs on the serum concentrations of folic acid. A total of 22, older than 18-year-old, epileptic patients, admitted in the Neurology Clinic, who were treated with AED at least for one year were selected. Twenty-two sex- and age-range-matched controls were enrolled in the study. Concentrations of total homocysteine and folic acid in the serum were measured in a fasted status. Demographic and medicine information was collected via a questionnaire. Data were analyzed by spss(16) software. Mean of serum Hcy concentration in the patients was significantly higher compared to that in the controls (p = 0.04). Serum folic acid had a nonsignificant negative correlation with the dose of drug used (p = 0.2). Serum homocysteine was not significantly correlated with the dose and duration of drug consumption (p values were 0.4, 0.24, respectively). Serum homocysteine was not significantly correlated with the kind of drug (p = 0.4), but folic acid concentration was significantly lower in the monotherapy group than in the poly therapy group (p = 0.02). Homocysteine (Hcy) was not different between the epileptic and nonepileptic groups, although the means of the serum folic acid were similar. Possible mechanisms by which AEDs could cause hyper-homocysteinemia might be through the dysfunction of homocysteine metabolism, the acceleration of vitamin metabolism, and the interference in the metabolism of folic acid coenzymes.
    International journal of preventive medicine 03/2012; 3(Suppl 1):S186-90.
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    ABSTRACT: In a cross sectional study, 75 patients (42 males and 33 females) on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) were enrolled from October 2007 to February 2008. Serum levels of leptin, albumin, triglyceride, dialysis adequacy (total KT/V), renal creatinine clearance (Cr Cl), mid arm circumference and demographic findings were measured in all patients. The mean age of patients was 53±14.76. The history of hemodialysis was seen in 23 patients. Mean serum leptin level in women and men were 27±23µg/l and 16±13µg/l, respectively. A significant correlation of serum leptin level with body mass index (BMI) (p<0.001) and renal Cr Cl (p<0.001) was found. There was no significant correlation of serum leptin level with KT/V, duration of renal failure, serum triglycerides (TG), serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and mid arm circumference (p>0.05). To our knowledge, this is probably the first study to report that serum leptin level has a direct positive correlation with renal Cr Cl in CAPD patients. This may explain the increase in mortality in patients with lower serum leptin levels (Tab. 2, Fig. 2, Ref. 25).
    Bratislavske lekarske listy 01/2012; 113(8):486-9. · 0.47 Impact Factor
  • Clinical Biochemistry - CLIN BIOCHEM. 01/2011; 44(13).
  • Clinical Nutrition Supplements 01/2011; 6(1):204-204.
  • Zamzam Paknahad
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    ABSTRACT: seleium and health
    The 1 st International Applied Geological Congress, , Mashad; 04/2010
  • Mahnaz Noroozi, Zahra Rastegari, Zamzam Paknahad
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    ABSTRACT: The type of body fat distribution has an important role for identifying risk of diseases. One of the simple anthropometric indexes for estimating type of body fat distribution is waist circumference index. This study is aimed to determine the type of body fat distribution in postmenopausal women and its related factors. This is a cross sectional descriptive analytical study. Samples were 278 postmenopausal women in Isfahan who were selected by stratified sampling and then were invited to 64 health centers of Isfahan. Data was gathered using a questionnaire and standard meter. Data was analyzed using SPSS software and descriptive and inferential statistics. Results showed that in postmenopausal women the mean of waist circumference index was 93.63 (10.66) and its range was 54 to 119 cm. There was a meaningful relation between job, educational status, total pregnancies, total deliveries, age of first pregnancy, lactation history and menopausal age with waist circumference index. Results showed that the type of body fat distribution of postmenopausal women is of android type. Considering side effects of this kind of distribution, necessary teachings about healthy eating, movement and exercises must be given to women of these ages.
    Iranian journal of nursing and midwifery research 01/2010; 15(1):27-31.
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    Paknahad Zamzam, Talebi Narges, Azadbakht Leila
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is a pregnancy-specific condition that occurs after the 20th week of gestation. These physiologic changes can be aggravated by undernutrition. There are some evidence based on the importance of nutrient deficiency in developing this syndrome. Therefore, the aim of present study was to determine the nutritional risk factors for pregnancy induced hypertension in a group of pregnant women in Isfahan. METHODS: In this case-control study, we recruited 46 Isfahanian pregnant women in two groups (with and without PIH). They were 19 to 45 year-old and they did not consume any antihypertensive or diuretic medications. Demographic questionnaire and food frequency questionnaire were filled in both groups. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in energy and vitamin E and C intakes between the two groups. Zinc and calcium intakes were lower in women with PIH compared to those without PIH (P = 0.04 and P = 0.007, respectively). Riboflavin and protein intakes were lower in women with PIH compared to subjects without PIH (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Lower intake of calcium, zinc, riboflavin and protein should be considered as possible risk factors for PIH. Adequate intake of dairy products which are good sources of mentioned nutrients are recommended to prevent PIH. KEYWORDS: Pregnancy induced hypertension, diet, nutrient.
    Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. 01/2008;
  • Z. Paknahad, N. Talebi
    Clinical Nutrition Supplements 01/2008; 3:178-178.
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, diet-disease relations have been recommended to be looked for through dietary pattern approach rather than traditional approach (nutrient or food-oriented approach). Dietary pattern analysis allows consideration of the entire diet, rather than individual foods or ingredients. This approach can be particularly useful when traditional analyses in nutritional epidemiology cannot move beyond weak associations. The dietary pattern approach is more realistic than the food-based or nutrient approach, in that inter-correlations and biological interactions between foods and nutrients confound the associations of a single food or nutrient with a certain chronic disease. Several studies provide evidence supporting use of the dietary pattern approach in nutritional epidemiology. Most of these studies indicate that empirically derived food intake patterns by statistical methods are related to chronic diseases. This review aims to provide more detailed information about the methods of measurement, advantages and disadvantages of the dietary pattern approach and to assess whether major dietary patterns are related to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. KEYWORDS: Dietary patterns, factor analysis, cluster analysis, diet, dietary assessment.
    Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. 01/2008;
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is an important risk factor for many chronic diseases, BMI is an indicator for total body fat determination. Reports in Iran indicate that nearly 20% of middle age persons are obese and 40% are overweight. Other studies also reported iron deficiency anemia in women Obese women appear to have greater iron stores than do nonobese women. This cross-sectional survey consisted 1049 non pregnant-non lactating 15-49 years old women living in East Azarbaijan (Iran) which selected as random clustering suggested. Demographic Data was collected by questionnaire. Body weight and height was measured. Hb, Hct and MCV were measured in the fasting state. Means of age, parity was 28.8 and 3.94 respectively. The subjects were divided into quartiles of age, weight, BMI and childbearing number. Analysis of these classifications showed that means of Hb and Hct were significantly different between BMI quartiles and only Hct was significantly different between weight quartiles (p < 0.05). Discussion: Policy implications might include the development and implementation of programs to prevent excessive gestational weight gain and promote postpartum weight loss via dietary change and physical activity, concomitant with exclusive breast feeding. Because iron deficiency and excess are both probably undesirable, it would be of great help to identify more precisely populations at risk of iron deficiency; iron supplementation could then be more personalized.
    Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 01/2008;

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