Yassine Nait Chabane

PhD
Attaché Temporaire d'Enseignement et de Recherche (ATER)

Publications

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    ABSTRACT: Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen of increasing importance due to its multiple resistance to antibiotics and ability to survive in the hospital environment linked to its capacity to form biofilms. To fully characterize the contribution of AdeABC, AdeFGH, and AdeIJK resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type efflux systems to acquired and intrinsic resistance, we constructed, from an entirely sequenced susceptible A. baumannii strain, a set of isogenic mutants overexpressing each system following introduction of a point mutation in their cognate regulator or a deletion for the pump by allelic replacement. Pairwise comparison of every derivative with the parental strain indicated that AdeABC and AdeFGH are tightly regulated and contribute to acquisition of antibiotic resistance when overproduced. AdeABC had a broad substrate range, including β-lactams, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines-tigecycline, macrolides-lincosamides, and chloramphenicol, and conferred clinical resistance to aminoglycosides. Importantly, when combined with enzymatic resistance to carbapenems and aminoglycosides, this pump contributed in a synergistic fashion to the level of resistance of the host. In contrast, AdeIJK was expressed constitutively and was responsible for intrinsic resistance to the same major drug classes as AdeABC as well as antifolates and fusidic acid. Surprisingly, overproduction of AdeABC and AdeIJK altered bacterial membrane composition, resulting in decreased biofilm formation but not motility. Natural transformation and plasmid transfer were diminished in recipients overproducing AdeABC. It thus appears that alteration in the expression of efflux systems leads to multiple changes in the relationship between the host and its environment, in addition to antibiotic resistance. Increased expression of chromosomal genes for RND-type efflux systems plays a major role in bacterial multidrug resistance. Acinetobacter baumannii has recently emerged as an important human pathogen responsible for epidemics of hospital-acquired infections. Besides its remarkable ability to horizontally acquire resistance determinants, it has a broad intrinsic resistance due to low membrane permeability, endogenous resistance genes, and antibiotic efflux. The study of isogenic mutants from a susceptible A. baumannii clinical isolate overproducing or deleted for each of the three major RND-type pumps demonstrated their major contribution to intrinsic resistance and to the synergism between overproduction of an efflux system and acquisition of a resistance gene. We have also shown that modulation of expression of the structural genes for the efflux systems results in numerous alterations in membrane-associated cellular functions, in particular, in a decrease in biofilm formation and resistance gene acquisition. Copyright © 2015 Yoon et al.
    mBio 01/2015; 6(2). DOI:10.1128/mBio.00309-15 · 6.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The clinical importance of Acinetobacter baumannii is partly due to its natural ability to survive in the hospital environment. This persistence may be explained by its capacity to form biofilms and, interestingly, A. baumannii can form pellicles at the air-liquid interface more readily than other less pathogenic Acinetobacter species. Pellicles from twenty-six strains were morphologically classified into three groups: I) egg-shaped (27%); II) ball-shaped (50%); and III) irregular pellicles (23%). One strain representative of each group was further analysed by Brewster's Angle Microscopy to follow pellicle development, demonstrating that their formation did not require anchoring to a solid surface. Total carbohydrate analysis of the matrix showed three main components: Glucose, GlcNAc and Kdo. Dispersin B, an enzyme that hydrolyzes poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG) polysaccharide, inhibited A. baumannii pellicle formation, suggesting that this exopolysaccharide contributes to pellicle formation. Also associated with the pellicle matrix were three subunits of pili assembled by chaperon-usher systems: the major CsuA/B, A1S_1510 (presented 45% of identity with the main pilin F17-A from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli pili) and A1S_2091. The presence of both PNAG polysaccharide and pili systems in matrix of pellicles might contribute to the virulence of this emerging pathogen.
    PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e111660. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0111660 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The molecular mechanisms at the origin of eating disorders (EDs), including anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia and binge-eating disorder (BED), are currently unknown. Previous data indicated that immunoglobulins (Igs) or autoantibodies (auto-Abs) reactive with α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) are involved in regulation of feeding and emotion; however, the origin of such auto-Abs is unknown. Here, using proteomics, we identified ClpB heat-shock disaggregation chaperone protein of commensal gut bacteria Escherichia coli as a conformational antigen mimetic of α-MSH. We show that ClpB-immunized mice produce anti-ClpB IgG crossreactive with α-MSH, influencing food intake, body weight, anxiety and melanocortin receptor 4 signaling. Furthermore, chronic intragastric delivery of E. coli in mice decreased food intake and stimulated formation of ClpB- and α-MSH-reactive antibodies, while ClpB-deficient E. coli did not affect food intake or antibody levels. Finally, we show that plasma levels of anti-ClpB IgG crossreactive with α-MSH are increased in patients with AN, bulimia and BED, and that the ED Inventory-2 scores in ED patients correlate with anti-ClpB IgG and IgM, which is similar to our previous findings for α-MSH auto-Abs. In conclusion, this work shows that the bacterial ClpB protein, which is present in several commensal and pathogenic microorganisms, can be responsible for the production of auto-Abs crossreactive with α-MSH, associated with altered feeding and emotion in humans with ED. Our data suggest that ClpB-expressing gut microorganisms might be involved in the etiology of EDs.
    Translational Psychiatry 10/2014; 4:e458. DOI:10.1038/tp.2014.98 · 4.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen causing infections worldwide. One reason for this emergence is due to its natural ability to survive in the hospital environment, which may be explained by its capacity to form biofilms. Cell surface appendages are important determinants of the A. baumannii biofilm formation and as such constitute interesting targets to prevent the development of biofilm-related infections. A chemical agent called virstatin was recently described to impair the virulence of Vibrio cholerae by preventing the expression of its virulence factor, the toxin coregulated pilus (type IV pilus). The objective of this work was to investigate the potential effect of virstatin on A. baumannii biofilms. After a dose-response experiment, we determined that 100 muM virstatin led to an important decrease (38%) of biofilms formed by A. baumannii ATCC17978 grown under static mode. We demonstrated that the production of biofilms grown under dynamic mode was also delayed and reduced. The biofilm susceptibility to virstatin was then tested for 40 clinical and reference A. baumannii strains. 70% of the strains were susceptible to virstatin (with a decrease of 10 to 65%) when biofilms grew in static mode, whereas 60% of strains respond to the treatment when their biofilms grew in dynamic mode. As expected, motility and atomic force microscopy experiments showed that virstatin acts on the A. baumannii pili biogenesis. By its action on pili biogenesis, virstatin demonstrated a very promising antibiofilm activity affecting more than 70% of the A. baumannii clinical isolates.
    BMC Microbiology 03/2014; 14(1):62. DOI:10.1186/1471-2180-14-62 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two colistin-susceptible/colistin-resistant (ColS/ColR) pairs of Acinetobacter baumannii strains assigned to the worldwide prevalent international clone 2 were sequentially recovered from two patients after prolonged colistin administration. Compared with the respective ColS isolates (Ab248 and Ab299, both having colistin MIC 0.5 μg/ml), both ColR isolates (Ab249 and Ab347, colistin MICs 128 and 32 μg/ml, respectively) overexpressed significantly pmrCAB genes, had single aminoacid shifts in PmrB protein and exhibited significantly slower growth. The ColR isolate Ab347, tested by proteomic analysis in comparison with its ColS counterpart Ab299, underexpressed the proteins CsuA/B and C from the csu operon (necessary for biofilm formation). This isolate also underexpressed aconitase B and different enzymes involved in the oxidative stress response (KatE catalase, superoxide dismutase, alkyl hydroperoxide reductase), suggesting reduced response to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and, consequently, impaired colistin-mediated cell death through hydroxyl radical production. ColS isolates that were indistinguishable by macrorestriction analysis to Ab299 caused six sequential bloodstream infections and isolates indistinguishable to Ab248 severe soft tissue infection, while ColR isolates indistinguishable to Ab347 and Ab249 were mainly colonizers. In particular, a ColS isolate identical to Ab299 was still invading the bloodstream 90 days after the colonization of this patient by ColR isolates. These observations indicate considerably lower invasiveness of A. baumannii clinical isolates following the development of colistin resistance.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 11/2013; DOI:10.1128/AAC.01439-13 · 4.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interestingly, Acinetobacter baumannii presents an enhanced capacity to form biofilms (also named pellicles) at the air-liquid interface as compared to the other Acinetobacter species. This characteristic questions the contribution of this phenotype to an increased risk of clinical infections by this pathogen. By a proteomic approach using 2-D gel electrophoresis-LC-MS/MS mass spectrometry, we compared the membrane protein patterns of A. baumannii 77, a pellicle-forming clinical isolate, grown in planktonic and in sessile modes. We identified 52 proteins with a differential expression, including 32 up-regulated and 20 down-regulated in the pellicle state. Several proteins, differentially expressed during pellicle development, were of particular interest. We determined the over-expression of four siderophore iron uptake systems including the acinetobactin and enterobactin receptors and confirmed that the development of this type of biofilm is promoted by ferric ions. Two over-expressed proteins, CarO and an OprD-homologue, putative carbapenem-resistance associated porins, would be involved in the transport of specific compounds, like ornithine, a biosynthesis precursor of a siderophore from the hydroxamate family. We evidenced the overexpression of a lipase and a transporter of LCFA that may be involved in the recycling of lipids inside the pellicle matrix. Finally, we demonstrated both by proteomic and by AFM studies that this particular type of biofilm required multiple pili systems to maintain this cohesive structure at the air-liquid interface; two of these systems have never been described in A. baumannii. Our study demonstrated that several proteins, overexpressed at a late state of pellicle development, could be potentially involved in virulence processes. Therefore, regarding the number of potential virulence factors that are over-expressed in this growth mode, the pellicle-forming clinical isolates should be kept under survey.
    PLoS ONE 10/2011; 6(10):e26030. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0026030 · 3.53 Impact Factor

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