Publications

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    ABSTRACT: Severe plasma ADAMTS13 deficiency results in the clinical disorder thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. However, other potential pathophysiological roles of ADAMTS13 in endothelial cell biology remain unexplored. The goals of this study were to understand the angiogenic pathways ADAMTS13 activates and to identify the important structural components of ADAMTS13 that stimulate angiogenesis. Incubation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with 150 ng/mL (1 nM) of recombinant human ADAMTS13 induced VEGF expression by 53 % and increased VEGF mRNA by over sixfold, both within 10 min; the measured VEGF levels steadily decreased over 2 h, as shown by Western blot and ELISA. Phosphorylation of VEGFR2 was significantly enhanced in HUVEC after incubation with ADAMTS13 (1 nM). Structure-function analysis showed that an ADAMTS13 variant containing thrombospondin type 1 (TSP1) 2-8 repeats (TSP1 2-8), TSP1 2-8 plus CUB domains (TSP1 2-8 plus CUB), or TSP1 5-8 repeats plus CUB domains (TSP1 5-8 plus CUB) increased HUVEC proliferation by 41-54 % as compared to the EBM-2 controls. Chemotaxis assays further demonstrated that the TSP1 domains of ADAMTS13 increased HUVEC migration by 2.65-fold. Incubation of HUVEC with both ADAMTS13 variants containing TSP1 repeats and anti-VEGF IgG abrogated the enhanced effect of ADAMTS13 on proliferation, migration, and VEGFR2 phosphorylation. In conclusion, ADAMTS13-induced endothelial cell angiogenesis occurs via the upregulation of VEGF and phosphorylation of VEGFR2. This angiogenic activity depends on the C-terminal TSP1 repeats of ADAMTS13.
    Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 06/2014; · 5.62 Impact Factor
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    X. Long Zheng
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    ABSTRACT: In this issue of Blood, Savchenko et al demonstrate that removal of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and inhibition of neutrophil recruitment by DNase I with or without ADAMTS13 or inactivation of peptidyl arginine deiminase 4 (iPAD4) protects from cardiac damage after myocardial infarction in mice.
    Blood 01/2014; 123(1):10-11. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ADAMTS13 (A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease with Thrombospondin type 1 repeats, 13) cleaves von Willebrand factor (VWF), thereby inhibiting thrombus formation. Proteolytic cleavage relies on the amino-terminal (MDTCS) domains, but the role of the more distal carboxyl-terminal domains of ADAMTS13 is not fully understood. A previous study demonstrated the presence of multiple surface-exposed free sulfhydryls on ADAMTS13 that seemed to interact with those on VWF under shear. Here, we determined the physiological relevance of such an interaction in antithrombotic responses under flow. A microfluidic assay demonstrated that a carboxyl-terminal fragment of ADAMTS13, comprising either 2 to 8 thrombospondin type 1 (TSP1) repeats and CUB domains (T2C) or 5 to 8 Thrombospondin type 1 (TSP1) repeats and CUB domains (T5C), directly inhibited platelet adhesion/aggregation on a collagen surface under arterial shear. In addition, an intravital microscopic imaging analysis showed that the carboxyl-terminal fragment of ADAMTS13 (T2C or T5C) was capable of inhibiting the formation and elongation of platelet-decorated ultra large (UL) VWF strings and the adhesion of platelets/leukocytes on endothelium in mesenteric venules after oxidative injury. The inhibitory activity of T2C and T5C on platelet aggregation and ULVWF string formation were dependent on the presence of their surface free thiols; pretreatment of T2C and T5C or full-length ADAMTS13 with N-ethylmaleimide that reacts with free sulfhydryls abolished or significantly reduced its antithrombotic activity. Our results demonstrate for the first time that the carboxyl terminus of ADAMTS13 has direct antithrombotic activity in a free-thiol-dependent manner. The free thiols in the carboxyl-terminal domains of ADAMTS13 may also contribute to the overall antithrombotic function of ADAMTS13 under pathophysiological conditions.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 12/2013; · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) can induce apoptosis in many tumors. However, the associated mechanisms are not clearly understood. We found that As2O3 significantly inhibited the proliferation of WSU-CLL cells and induced apoptosis in dose- and time-dependent manners. WSU-CLL cells treated with 2μM As2O3 showed survivin down-regulation and p53 up-regulation. Survivin siRNA combined with As2O3 further inhibited the proliferation of WSU-CLL cells. p53 inhibition by siRNA prevented the down-regulation of survivin by As2O3 and prevented the As2O3-induced cytotoxicity of WSU-CLL cells. These results suggest that As2O3 may be of therapeutic value for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
    Leukemia research 09/2013; · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    Hanby H.H., Zheng X.L.
    Advances in Biochemistry. 08/2013; 1(3):47-50.
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    Zheng X.L
    Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 06/2013; In press. · 6.08 Impact Factor
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    Thrombosis and Haemostasis 04/2013; · 5.76 Impact Factor
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    British Journal of Haematology 03/2013; · 4.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Key points Administration of AAV8-hAAT-mdtcs vector results in sustained expression of plasma ADAMTS13 activity and antigen.The AAV8-meidated expression of ADAMTS13 variant is a safe and efficacious approach for treatment of a murine model of TTP.
    Blood 03/2013; · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thienopyridine-derivatives (ticlopidine, clopidogrel, and prasugrel) are the primary antiplatelet agents. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare drug-associated syndrome, with the thienopyridines being the most common drugs implicated in this syndrome. We reviewed 20 years of information on clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory findings for thienopyridine-associated TTP. Four, 11, and 11 cases of thienopyridine-associated TTP were reported in the first year of marketing of ticlopidine (1989), clopidogrel (1998), and prasugrel (2010), respectively. As of 2011, the FDA received reports of 97 ticlopidine-, 197 clopidogrel-, and 14 prasugrel-associated TTP cases. Severe deficiency of ADAMTS-13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13) was present in 80% and antibodies to 100% of these TTP patients on ticlopidine, 0% of the patients with clopidogrel-associated TTP (p < 0.05), and an unknown percentage of patients with prasugrel-associated TTP. TTP is associated with use of each of the three thienopyridines, although the mechanistic pathways may differ.
    Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis 10/2012; · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    Zheng XL
    Hereditary Genet. 09/2012; 1(4):e102.
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    ABSTRACT: Prevailing approaches to manage autoimmune thrombotic disorders, such as heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) include immunosuppression and systemic anticoagulation, though neither provides optimal outcome for many patients. A different approach is suggested by the concurrence of autoantibodies and their antigenic targets in the absence of clinical disease, such as platelet factor 4 (PF4) in HIT and β(2)-glycoprotein-I (β(2)GPI) in APS. The presence of autoantibodies in the absence of disease suggests that conformational changes or other alterations in endogenous protein autoantigens are required for recognition by pathogenic autoantibodies. In TTP, the clinical impact of ADAMTS13 deficiency caused by autoantibodies likely depends on the balance between residual antigen, i.e. enzyme activity, and demand imposed by local genesis of ultralarge multimers of von Willebrand factor (ULvWF). A corollary of these concepts is that disrupting PF4 and β(2)GPI conformation (or ULvWF oligomerization or function) might provide a disease-targeted approach to prevent thrombosis without systemic anticoagulation or immunosuppression. Validation of this approach requires a deeper understanding of how seemingly normal host proteins become antigenic or undergo changes that increase antibody avidity, and how they can be altered to retain adaptive functions while shedding epitopes prone to elicit harmful autoimmunity.
    Blood 09/2012; · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated that coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) accelerates proteolytic cleavage of von Willebrand factor (VWF) by A disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 repeats (ADAMTS13) under fluid shear stress. In this study, the structural elements of FVIII required for the rate-enhancing effect and the biological relevance of this cofactor activity are determined using a murine model. An isolated light chain of human FVIII (hFVIII-LC) increases proteolytic cleavage of VWF by ADAMTS13 under shear in a concentration-dependent manner. The maximal rate-enhancing effect of hFVIII-LC is ∼8-fold, which is comparable with human full-length FVIII and B-domain deleted FVIII (hFVIII-BDD). The heavy chain (hFVIII-HC) and the light chain lacking the acidic (a3) region (hFVIII-LCΔa3) have no effect in accelerating VWF proteolysis by ADAMTS13 under the same conditions. Although recombinant hFVIII-HC and hFVIII-LCΔa3 do not detectably bind immobilized VWF, recombinant hFVIII-LC binds VWF with high affinity (K(D), ∼15 nm). Moreover, ultra-large VWF multimers accumulate in the plasma of fVIII(-/-) mice after hydrodynamic challenge but not in those reconstituted with either hFVIII-BDD or hFVIII-LC. These results suggest that the light chain of FVIII, which is not biologically active for clot formation, is sufficient for accelerating proteolytic cleavage of VWF by ADAMTS13 under fluid shear stress and (patho) physiological conditions. Our findings provide novel insight into the molecular mechanism of how FVIII regulates VWF homeostasis.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2012; 287(39):32459-66. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 repeats-13) cleaves von Willebrand factor, thereby modulating thrombosis and inflammation. Low plasma ADAMTS13 activity is associated with cardiovascular events, including myocardial and cerebral infarction. Here, we investigated the role of ADAMTS13 in the development of early atherosclerosis in a murine model. Apolipoprotein E-null (ApoE(-/-)) and Adamts13-null (Adamts13(-/-)) ApoE(-/-) mice were fed with a high-fat Western diet for 12 weeks. Atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta and aortic roots were quantified after staining. Leukocyte rolling and adhesion onto cremaster venules after oxidative injury were determined by intravital microscopy. Although plasma cholesterol levels were largely similar in both groups, the extent of atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta en face and in the aortic roots in the Adamts13(-/-)ApoE(-/-) mice increased ≈ 5.5-fold (P=0.0017) and ≈ 6.1-fold (P=0.0037), respectively. In addition, the ratio of plasma high- to low-molecular-weight von Willebrand factor multimers increased ≈ 3-fold. The leukocyte rolling velocities were significantly reduced (P<0.001), with an increased number of leukocyte rolling (P=0.0026) and macrophage infiltration into the atherosclerotic lesions in the Adamts13(-/-)ApoE(-/-) mice. Our results suggest that ADAMTS13 plays a critical role in modulating the development of early atherosclerosis, likely through the proteolytic cleavage of ultra-large von Willebrand factor multimers, thereby inhibiting platelet deposition and inflammation.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 05/2012; 32(8):1817-23. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    X Long Zheng
    Blood 04/2012; 119(16):3652-4. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Development of neutralizing Abs to blood coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) provides a major complication in hemophilia care. In this study we explored whether modulation of the uptake of FVIII by APCs can reduce its intrinsic immunogenicity. Endocytosis of FVIII by professional APCs is significantly blocked by mAb KM33, directed toward the C1 domain of FVIII. We created a C1 domain variant (FVIII-R2090A/K2092A/F2093A), which showed only minimal binding to KM33 and retained its activity as measured by chromogenic assay. FVIII-R2090A/K2092A/F2093A displayed a strongly reduced internalization by human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and macrophages, as well as murine BM-derived dendritic cells. We subsequently investigated the ability of this variant to induce an immune response in FVIII-deficient mice. We show that mice treated with FVIII-R2090A/K2092A/F2093A have significantly lower anti-FVIII Ab titers and FVIII-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses compared with mice treated with wild-type FVIII. These data show that alanine substitutions at positions 2090, 2092, and 2093 reduce the immunogenicity of FVIII. According to our findings we hypothesize that FVIII variants displaying a reduced uptake by APCs provide a novel therapeutic approach to reduce inhibitor development in hemophilia A.
    Blood 04/2012; 119(22):5294-300. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is primarily caused by immunoglobulin G (IgG) autoantibodies against A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease with ThromboSpondin type 1 repeats, 13 (ADAMTS13). Nearly all adult idiopathic TTP patients harbor IgGs, which bind the spacer domain of ADAMTS13, a region critical for recognition and proteolysis of von Willebrand factor (VWF). We hypothesize that a modification of an exosite in the spacer domain may generate ADAMTS13 variants with reduced autoantibody binding while preserving or enhancing specific activity. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to generate a series of ADAMTS13 variants, and their functional properties were assessed. Of 24 novel ADAMTS13 variants, 2 (ie, M4, R660K/F592Y/R568K/Y661F and M5, R660K/F592Y/R568K/Y661F/Y665F) exhibited increased specific activity approximately 4- to 5-fold and approximately 10- to 12-fold cleaving a peptide VWF73 substrate and multimeric VWF, respectively. More interestingly, the gain-of-function ADAMTS13 variants were more resistant to inhibition by anti-ADAMTS13 autoantibodies from patients with acquired idiopathic TTP because of reduced binding by anti-ADAMTS13 IgGs. These results shed more light on the critical role of the exosite in the spacer domain in substrate recognition. Our findings also help understand the pathogenesis of acquired autoimmune TTP. The autoantibody-resistant ADAMTS13 variants may be further developed as a novel therapeutic for acquired TTP with inhibitors.
    Blood 02/2012; 119(16):3836-43. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    D Li, J Xiao, M Paessler, X L Zheng
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    ABSTRACT: Immunoglobulin Gs (IgGs) against ADAMTS13 are major causes of acquired (idiopathic) thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). We report here a novel cell-based assay using glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored ADAMTS13 or variants expressed on cell membrane for assessment of autoantibodies in patients with TTP. We showed that IgGs from all 26 patients with acquired TTP bound to cells expressing a GPI anchored full-length ADAMTS13 (gFL) and a variant truncated after the spacer domain (gS). Also, IgGs from 25/26 (96.7%) of these TTP patients bound to cells expressing a GPI-anchored C-terminal fragment, TSP1 2-8 plus CUB (gT2C). In contrast, none of the 20 healthy blood donors showed detectable binding of their IgGs to the cells expressing gFL, gS, and gT2C. A moderate, but statistically significant correlation was observed between plasma concentrations of anti-ADAMTS13 IgG and positive cells expressing gFL (r=0.65), gS (r=0.67), and gT2C (r=0.42). These results suggest that the microtiter-plate assay and the cell-based assay may detect differential antigenic epitopes. Moreover, antigens clustered on cell membranes may enhance antibody binding affinity, thereby increasing analytical sensitivity. Finally, our assay was able to determine kinetic changes of plasma levels of anti-ADAMTS13 IgGs in TTP patients during plasma therapy. Together, our findings suggest that the novel cell-based assay may be applicable for rapid identification and mapping of anti-ADAMTS13 autoantibodies in patients with acquired TTP.
    Thrombosis and Haemostasis 09/2011; 106(5):947-58. · 5.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 repeats-13 (ADAMTS13) inhibits platelet aggregation and arterial thrombosis by cleavage of von Willebrand factor. However, the structural components of ADAMTS13 required for inhibition of arterial thrombosis are not fully defined. Using recombinant proteins and a murine model, we demonstrated that an ADAMTS13 variant truncated after either the eighth thrombospondin type 1 repeat or the spacer domain inhibits ferric chloride-induced arterial thrombosis in ADAMTS13(-/-) mice with efficacy similar to that of full-length ADAMTS13. The results obtained from monitoring thrombus formation in carotid and mesenteric arteries were highly concordant. Further analyses by site-directed mutagenesis and human monoclonal antibody inhibition assay revealed that the Cys-rich and spacer domains of ADAMTS13, particularly the amino acid residues between Arg559 and Glu664 in the spacer domain, may be critical for modulation of arterial thrombosis in vivo. Finally, the thrombosis-modulating function of ADAMTS13 and variants/mutants was highly correlated with the von Willebrand factor-cleavage activity under fluid shear stress. Our results suggest that the amino terminus of ADAMTS13, specifically the variable region of the spacer domain, is crucial for modulation of arterial thromboses under (patho)physiological conditions. These findings shed more light on the structure-function relationship of ADAMTS13 in vivo and may be applicable for rational design of protein- or gene-based therapy of arterial thromboses.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 07/2011; 31(10):2261-9. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a focal injury model, platelets adhere and activate under flow on a collagen-coated surface, creating a field of individual platelet aggregates. These aggregates exhibit distinct structural characteristics that are linked to the local flow conditions. By combining image analysis techniques and epifluorescence microscopy, we developed a robust strategy for quantifying the characteristic instantaneous width and length of a growing platelet deposit. We have confirmed the technique using model images consisting of ellipsoid objects and quantified the shear rate-dependent nature of aggregate morphology. Venous wall shear rate conditions (100 s(-1)) generated small, circular platelet deposits, whereas elevated arterial shear rates (500 and 1000 s(-1)) generated platelet masses elongated twofold in the direction of flow. At 2000 s(-1), an important regime for von Willebrand Factor (vWF)-mediated recruitment, we observed sporadic platelet capture events on collagen that led to rapidly growing deposits. Furthermore, inter-donor differences were investigated with respect to aggregate growth rate. After perfusion at elevated shear rates (1000 s(-1)) for 5 min, we identified a twofold increase in aggregate size (81.5 ± 24.6 μm; p < 0.1) and a threefold increase in growth rate parallel to the flow (0.40 ± 0.09 μm/s; p < 0.01) for an individual donor. Suspecting a role for vWF, we found that this donor had a twofold increase in soluble vWF relative to the other donors and pooled plasma. Microfluidic devices in combination with automated morphology analysis offer new tools for characterizing clot development under flow.
    Annals of Biomedical Engineering 02/2011; 39(2):922-9. · 3.23 Impact Factor

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