William Anderson Newman

PhD
Emeritus Professor of Biological Oceanography * Curtor of Benthic Invertebrates

Publications

  • Source
    William A Newman
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In an ecologically oriented paper, Maruzzo et al. (2012) illustrate six developmental phases from the freshly settled cyprid larvae to the sessile juvenile in the barnacle, Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854), and in an evolutionarily oriented paper Høeg et al. (2012) do likewise for Megabalanus rosa (Pilsbry, 1916). Both video-based studies illustrate 5 unadorned increasingly sac-like phases leading up to the sessile juvenile (Phase 6). In both species, Phase 5 is not only illustrated as sac-like, it resides outside the protective canopy of the cyprid shell, and this is reminiscent of the situation described by Bernard and Lane (1962, Fig. 24A). However, it has been long known that not only is the metamorphosing balanoid larva within the cyprid carapace divided into a capitulum and peduncle, but the anlagen of plates can seen with light microscopy through the largely transparent cyprid carapace (Runnström, 1925; Walley, 1969; Gusenbauer, 2003), and primordial plates appear in SEMs in Phase 5, after the carapace has been shed (Glenner and Høeg, 1993; Gusenbauer, 2003). Maruzzo et al. and Høeg et al. neither recognize such plates nor do they recognize the peduncle in any of the phases. Yet it is largely the peduncle that is involved in the struggle to shed the cyprid carapace in the transition to semi-sessile Phase 5, which they describe and illustrate as a "bag-like body shape." Maruzzo et al. claim this phase persists for as much as 24 hours before becoming fully sessile (Phase 6), and they call for studies to assess its contribution to differential mortality. But Phase 5 has generally been observed to persist for less than three hours. Thus, the significantly longer duration being reported is either an artifact resulting from in vitro conditions and manipulations and/or failure to determine when the wall plates they illustrate in Phase 6 began to form. On the other hand, SEMs of Glenner and Høeg, and more recently Gusenbauer, show that semi-sessile Phase 5 is by and large comparable to that illustrated by Runnström (1925) and, therefore, an unadorned sac-like form surely does not exist. Thus, Phase 5 of Maruzzo et al. and Høeg et al., like that of Bernard and Lane (Fig. 14A), is most certainly an artifact.
    Journal of Crustacean Biology 01/2013; 33:582-585. · 1.02 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Mathias Harzhauser, William A. Newman, Patrick Grunert
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The origin of the mainly sea-turtle fouling balanomorph family Chelonibiidae is still poorly documented. Aside from an Eocene erratic specimen assigned to an extinct subfamily, the extant subfamily Chelonibiinae did not appear in the fossil record before the Late Miocene. Protochelonibiinae Harzhauser & Newman subfam. nov. is here introduced as an extinct sister-group of Chelonibiinae. The subfamily is known so far only from the proto-Mediterranean and the Paratethys seas and ranged from Early Miocene to Late Pliocene. Members of the subfamily are characterized by large walls with tripartite rostra which display distinct sutures on the external surface. The tripartite rostrum, however, has evolved independently several times in the evolution of the balanomorphs and cannot be treated as synapomorphy. The subfamily comprises one new genus and two species. Protochelonibia Harzhauser & Newman gen. nov. is the type genus of Protochelonibiinae and Protochelonibia submersa Harzhauser & Newman sp. nov. is introduced as type species of this genus. Chelonobia Capellinii [sic] De Alessandri, 1895, from the Late Pliocene of Italy, reassigned as Protochelonibia capellinii (De Alessandri, 189511. De Alessandri , G. 1895 . Contribuzione allo studio die Cirripedi fossili d’Italia . Bollettino della Società Geologica Italiana , 14 : 234 – 314 . View all references), is the youngest record of the subfamily. With the onset of the Pleistocene, Protochelonibiinae were fully replaced by Chelonibiinae, which had co-existed with Protochelonibiinae from the Late Miocene to the Pliocene. Surface imprints from the host substratum in one specimen of P. submersa are reminiscent of the sculpture of Caretta carapaces. Therefore, the Aquitanian Protochelonibia may be the earliest record of sea-turtle fouling in barnacles.
    Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 12/2011; 9(4):473-480. · 2.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    William A Newman, William J Jones
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The first adults of the calanticid, Calantica moskalevi Zevina and Galkin, 1989, and specimens of a new pachylasmatine balanomorph genus and species, have been recovered by MBARI's ROV Tiburon, from Juan de Fuca Ridge seamounts at ~46º N – 130º W in the NE Pacific off Oregon, ~1450 m and 2080 m depths, respectively. These two apparently allopathic populations evidently represent remnants of stocks most commonly confined to relatively deep waters around islands and occasionally continental margins of the Indo-West Pacific. These Juan de Fuca representatives can be inferred to be relicts of once broad Paleogene Tethyan populations rather than relatively recent immigrants by way of the NW Pacific. Appar-ently, the refugium afforded by seamount "islands" at bathyal and abyssal depths accounts for their survival in this rela-tively remote corner of Pacific Oceania. Introduction This paper reports on specimens of two barnacle populations recovered by the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute's ROV Tiburon, one a calanticid previously known by two minute juveniles and now by numerous adult specimens from the same locality on Axial Seamount, the other by numerous specimens of a new pachylasmatine balanomorph genus and species from nearby Vance B Seamount (Fig. 1). The localities, Axial Seamount (~45º 55'N–130º 00'W) and Vance B Seamount (~45° 30'N–130° 40'W), are on the Juan de Fuca Ridge and the principal physical characteristics of ambient waters at the time of collection are summarized (Table 1). Chadwick et al. (2010), in their introduction, note that Axial rises above the general ridge some 800 m, and is currently hydrothermally active near its summit, which is at approximately 1410 m below sea level. Nearby Vance Seamounts, being carried northwestward from the ridge crest with the Pacific Plate, consists of a chain of inactive summits (Clague et al. 2000) residing some 96 km SW of Axial. The fresh look of the pillow basalts from which the barnacles were taken is due to the relatively steep slopes of the outcrops being swept by gentle currents. The two early juveniles of a calanticid described by Zevina and Galkin (1989) were from within 10 to 30 m of active vents on Axial Seamount (~45° 55'N, 130°00'W, 1410 m) were cautiously assigned to Calantica and described as a new species, Calantica (?) moskalevi. These authors noted that other extant species of the genus were known only from the Indo-West Pacific (I-WP). Knowledge of what are surely adult specimens of the same species collected by ROV Tiburon at the type locality (Fig. 2) enlarges upon as well as validates their findings. ROV Tiburon also recovered samples of a new pachylasmatine balanomorph from nearby Vance B Seamount (45º 30'N – 130º 40'W, 2080 m; Fig. 4). The subfamily is represented by five extant I-WP genera, one of which has a representative, Pachylasma giganteum (Philippi, 1836), in the NE Atlanto-Mediterranean. While the new form
  • Source
    William A. Newman
    Journal of Crustacean Biology 01/2011; 31(1):209-211. · 1.02 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Barnacles are some of the most conspicuous and well-known ship fouling organisms in the world and thus many species no doubt owe parts of their modern distribution to human-mediated translocations over the past several centuries. Reviewed here, as a window into global patterns, are the introduced, cryptogenic, and range expanding barnacles of the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of North and South America. Five species of thoracic barnacles have invaded the Pacific coasts of the Americas: Amphibalanus improvisus, A. eburneus, and A. subalbidus, all from the Atlantic, and A. amphitrite and A. reticulatus from the Indo-West Pacific. Seven species have invaded the Atlantic coasts of the Americas; six of these are from the Pacific: A. amphitrite and A. reticulatus (shared as invaders with the Pacific coast) , and Balanus trigonus, B. glandula, Striatobalanus amaryllis, and Megabalanus coccopoma. The Western North Atlantic A. subalbidus has invaded the Western South Atlantic. Striking are the few barnacle invasions that have occurred on the Pacific coast of South America and these species (A. improvisus, A. amphitrite and A. reticulatus) are reported only from northernmost locations (Ecuador, Colombia, and Peru) . For the first 100 years (1853–1955) two species, A. amphitrite and A. improvisus, constituted the majority of invasion events in the Americas, the sole exception being the arrival of the Pacific Balanus trigonus in the 1860s and 1870s in the Atlantic. After 1955, the first records of invasions of A. reticulatus, A. eburneus, B. glandula, M. coccopoma, and S. amaryllis appear, an increased diversity of introductions in close concert with general observations of increasing invasions globally of marine organisms after World War II. Known since the 1970s in Brazil, M. coccopoma appears to be responding to warming northern latitudes and has expanded to North Carolina as of 2005. The native Western Atlantic barnacle Chthamalus fragilis arrived in New England in the 1890s, a range expansion perhaps facilitated by an earlier coastal warming period concomitant with the decline in abundance of its colder-water competitor Semibalanus balanoides, although the latter also appears to have expanded south on the North American Atlantic coast in the twentieth century due to increased habitat availability. Chthamalus is predicted to move north, and Semibalanus is predicted to return to its historical range, both due to continued warming. In turn, the native Eastern North Pacific barnacle Tetraclita rubescens is expanding north due to coastal warming as well. Future invasion scenarios include increased introductions facilitated through a newly expanded Panama Canal, the potential arrival of Austrominius modestus on the North American Atlantic coast (despite its failure to do so throughout the last half of the twentieth century) , and the arrival on the warmer North and Central American Pacific coasts of Chthamalus proteus. KeywordsCirripedia-barnacles-invasive-introduced-range expansion-climate change- Balanus - Amphibalanus - Megabalanus - Loxothylacus - Austrominius - Chthamalus - Tetraclita - Semibalanus - Fistulobalanus - Paraconcavus - Striatobalanus
    12/2010: pages 159-213;
  • Source
    Arnold Ross, William A. Newman
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The coral-inhabiting barnacle Pyrgoma cancellatum Leach, 1818 was considered the sole representative of Pyrgoma Leach, 1817 as previously defined. It now appears there are at least four other species that should be included within this genus, i.e. P. japonica Weltner, 1897, Paranobia kuri (Hoek, 1913), Paranobia projectum (Nilsson-Cantell, 1938) and Nobia sinica Ren, 1986. These re-assignments are based, in addition to the opercular morphology, on the presence in the basis of passageways to the external surface that develop between calcareous ladder to arch-like structures similar to those found in bryozobiines and certain armatobalanines. Pyrgoma lobata Gray, 1825, was considered a junior subjective synonym of P. cancellatum. However, it has a uniquely derived type of wall architecture resembling a torus suspended by flying buttresses, and therefore it is assigned herein to a new genus, Neopyrgoma.
    Journal of Natural History 12/2010; March 15(2002):407-421. · 0.78 Impact Factor
  • Source
    William A. Newman
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Maxillopoda Dahl (1956) was defined primarily by a 5–6–5 body plan; that is, a head supporting five pairs and a thorax six pairs of appendages, and an abdomen of five segments, the first of which may bear a pair of genital limbs and the last of which, the telson, bears caudal rami. Representatives as diverse as ostracods, cirripeds, orstenocarids and skaracarids appear in the Cambrian, so we are dealing with a radiation that in the most part took place over 500 million years ago. A progenetic origin of the maxillopodans, from an ur-malacostracan stock, has been proposed (Newman, W. A. 1983. Crustacean phylogeny—Crustacean Issues, Vol. 1, pp. 105–119). However, new information, including the recently discovered Cambrian forms Skaracarida and Orstenocarida, the structure of spermatozoa, and preliminary results from the sequencing of ribosomal RNA, suggests that the Maxillopoda are more deeply rooted in the crustaceans than previously supposed, likely closer to the ur-crustacean than to the ur-malacostracan.
    Acta Zoologica 04/2010; 73(5):319 - 322. · 1.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Robert J. Van Syoc, William A. Newman
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Four new genera, Eoatria, Poratria, Microporatria, and Multatria, are described, joining the previously described genus Bryozobia in the subfamily Bryozobiinae, a subfamily now represented by ten species of which four are new to science. Evidence is presented that Bryozobia is intimately associated with sponges, rather than bryozoans as Ross and Newman (1996) inferred from the intimate proximity of barnacle and bryozoan calcareous remnants. The four new genera are also associated with burrowing or encrusting sponges and generally possess secondary as well as primary radial atria between their basis and the substratum. The primary atria are aligned with portals in the suture between the wall plates and the basis whereas secondary atria can be parietal as well as interparietal.Eoatria has weakly developed, solid atria aligned with portals in the suture between the wall plates and the basis, but the atrial “ceilings” remain solid. The other genera have atria with pores or slits that develop from portals in the suture between the basis and the wall during ontogeny. All species of Bryozobiinae maintain contact with the substratum via calcareous outgrowths of the basis and/or wall, and their sponge symbiont grows from beneath and around them during ontogeny, nearly encasing them in sponge tissue. The basal atria enable the sponge to grow out from beneath the barnacle, and the evidence suggests chemical mediation by the barnacles induces the sponges to grow up around them, as it does in coral-inhabiting barnacles (Ross and Newman, 2000). This symbiosis apparently also provides the barnacles with a habitat relatively free of spatial competitors as well as protection from various predators, and allows the barnacles to thrive where other encrusting organisms cannot. While the porous, atriate bases found in some of the coral-inhabiting barnacles (Pyrgomatidae) are likely convergent, monophyly cannot presently be completely ruled out. The diagnosis of the sponge-inhabiting members of the subfamily Acastinae is amended to include only those species lacking atria that are completely embedded in host tissues: that is, having no basal contact with any other substratum.
    Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 01/2010; 392:65-88. · 2.26 Impact Factor
  • Source
    William A. Newman
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Acrothoracica constitutes a group of burrowing barnacles limited in distribution to calcareous substrata. Members are found in most warm waters of the world but the greatest diversity is reached in the coralline seas where they are found in coral skeletons, molluscs shells and limestone.Until recently some 37 acrothoracican species were known from the tropical and temperate region, all from waters less than 30 m in depth (Tomlinson, 1969). It was interesting therefore that the first moderately deep water form to become known, occurring at depths between 300 and 650m, should be from cold waters well south of the Antarctic Convergence (Newman & Ross, 1971). This animal, Cryptophialus tomlinsoni, burrows in coral and barnacle shells and does not differ in size and form from littoral members of the genus.The new species described in the present report burrows in foraminifera1 limestone off Bermuda. It is not only remarkable in occurring as deep as 1000 m but in being very much larger and more generalized than any previously known pygophorans. Furthermore it has what is interpreted here as a rostral shell plate, whereas all previously known forms are considered to be without calcereous armament. The existence of what appears to be a rostral plate in the new species has a significant bearing on our understanding of the evolution of the order.
    Journal of Zoology 08/2009; 165(4):423 - 429. · 2.04 Impact Factor
  • Source
    William A. Newman
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A new four-plated chthamalid genus, Tetrachthamalus, is described. The arrangement of wall plates is identical to that seen in the Lower Miocene chthamalid, Tessarelasma, but the two are not closely related. While Tessarelasma has been derived from the Hexelasma-Pachylasma group, Tetrachthamalus is derivable from the Chthamalus stellatus group. An analysis of four-platedness in the Balanomorpha suggests that a four-plated organization plan is in part an adaptation to an intertidal existence.Two populations of Tetrachthamalus are known; one from the upper end of the Red Sea, the other from the islands of the Seychelles-Mauritius Ridge in the Indian Ocean. No significant differences between the two were found, and they have been assigned to the same species; Tetrachthamalus oblitteratus gen. et sp. n. The disjunct and restricted distribution suggests T. oblitteratus is not presently competitive with six-plated chthamalids occupying the same habitat in the intervening areas–that is, the species is presumed to be a biological relict that at one time enjoyed a wider distribution than it does today.
    Journal of Zoology 08/2009; 153(4):423 - 435. · 2.04 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The hydrothermal-vent barnacle Vulcanolepas osheai of the subfamily Neolepadinae is one of the most conspicuous organisms at the Brothers Caldera, south Kermadec Arc, New Zealand. Like a neolepad species found in the Lau Basin, V. osheai harbours filamentous bacteria on its elongated cirral setae. To define the phylogenetic affiliation of the epibiotic bacteria and the nutrition of the barnacle host, we conducted molecular phylogenetic and isotopic analyses. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences of microbial communities on the cirral setae showed that among 91 bacterial sequences investigated, 28 sequences were related to the -proteobacterial endosymbiont of Alviniconcha aff. hessleri; 11 sequences were related to the epibiont of the bresiliid shrimp Rimicaris exoculata. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that in contrary to results from the 16S rRNA gene-sequence library, approximately 80% of the filamentous bacteria hybridized with a probe targeting the sequences related to the epibiont of the bresiliid shrimp R. exoculata. The fatty-acid profiles of the filamentous bacteria and the host barnacle both contained high levels of monounsaturated C16 and C18 fatty acids, and the carbon isotopic compositions of the biomass and monounsaturated C16 and C18 fatty acids of both the bacteria and barnacle were nearly identical. This would suggest that the nutrition of the barnacle is highly dependent on bacteria thriving around the barnacle, including the epibiotic bacteria.
    Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 05/2009; 89(04):727 - 733. · 1.02 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Journal of Crustacean Biology 01/2009; · 1.02 Impact Factor
  • Source
    William A. Newman
    Journal of Crustacean Biology 01/2009; · 1.02 Impact Factor
  • Source
    William A. Newman, Arnold Ross, Alan J. Southward
    Journal of Crustacean Biology 01/2009; · 1.02 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The paired fronto-lateral gland pores and lattice organs (LO1, 2, 3, 4, and 5) of seven species of pedunculate barnacles belonging to two thoracican suborders, Heteralepadomorpha (family Heteralepadidae: Heteralepas sp. 1 and 2) and Lepadomorpha (families Poecilasmatidae: Poecilasma inaequilaterale and Octolasmis aymonini geryonophila; and Lepadidae: Lepas pacifica, Dosima fascicularis, and Conchoderma virgatum), were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). While the fronto-lateral gland pores exhibit slight variation among species, with only L. pacifica showing a different morphology, the variations in the arrangement of LOs are phylogenetically instructive. The lattice organs in the foregoing species correspond in general to the inferred advanced type (Type C), but the distinct keel in the pore field in P. inaequilaterale and L. pacifica is reminiscent of, but not necessarily identical with the less advanced Type B. The arrangement of the anterior LOs (1-2) is rhomboidal in the two heteralepadomorph species, the two poecilasmatid species, and two of the three lepadid species, as it is in all previously and presently known lepadomorph cyprids except D. fascicularis. In this last species, they are deployed linearly along the hinge line. A linear arrangement of all the lattice organs is presumably the plesiomorphic condition for the Thoracica; an obvious exception being the pattern seen in Ibla cumingi. The arrangement of the first two pairs of posterior LOs (3-4) in O. a. geryonophila and C. virgatum differs from that of all previously described Lepadomorpha in being rhomboidal rather than aligned linearly along the hinge line. This same arrangement of LOs 3 and 4 in the two heteralepadomorph species is notable since it is not known in other thoracicans. Our results concerning variation in lattice organs of the lower Pedunculata are more or less consistent with current phylogenetic speculations and genetic information that ally Heteralepadomorpha with Lepadomorpha. Significance of this variation at lower taxonomic levels is also evident in the two similar forms of Heteralepas.
    Journal of Crustacean Biology 01/2009; 28:203-215. · 1.02 Impact Factor
  • Source
    James T Carlton, William A Newman
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The scientific names of living organisms can and do sometimes change. Such changes generally reflect advances in knowledge of the relationships of species and/or higher taxa. The new name, Amphibalanus amphitrite (subfamily Amphibalaninae), for a well-known fouling barnacle previously known as Balanus amphitrite (subfamily Balaninae), was proposed in accordance with the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and is now widely accepted. Clare and Høeg (2008) criticise this change but offer no scientifically valid reason to return to the earlier nomenclature of this or any other well-known species of barnacle.
    Biofouling 12/2008; 25(1):77-80. · 3.40 Impact Factor
  • Source
    William A. Newman, Frederick R. Schram
    Journal of Crustacean Biology - J CRUSTACEAN BIOL. 01/2007; 27(3):521-524.
  • Source
    W. Newman, E. Gomez
    Coral Reefs 01/2007; 26(4):909-909. · 3.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Buckeridge, J. S. and W. A. Newman
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The discovery of two diminutive and very distinct ibliform barnacles from shallow waters off northern New Zealand and northeastern Tasmania provides an opportunity to re-evaluate the Iblidae, the most primitive of the living thoracicans. These are retained within the Superorder Thoracica, but are distinguished at ordinal level from the remainder of the Pedunculata s.l. The resultant new order, the Ibliformes nov., comprises barnacles with predominantly chitinous rather than calcareous capitular plates; two families are recognized, the Iblidae s.s., comprising two subfamilies, the Iblinae (Ibla s.s.) and the Neoiblinae nov. (Neoibla gen. nov.), and the Idioiblidae nov. comprising the Idioiblinae nov. (Idioibla gen. nov.) and the Chaetolepadinae nov. (Chaetolepas Studer, 1889 and Chitinolepas gen. nov.). The monotypic Chitinolepas further highlights the high endemism and relict nature of the New Zealand marine fauna in particular and the southern hemisphere in general. On the basis of morphology and, where possible, genetic and larval work, it is recommended that the remainder of the stalked thoracicans be divided between three new orders, the †Cyprilepadiformes, Ibliformes, Lepadiformes and Scalpelliformes.
    Zootaxa 01/2006; 1136:1-36. · 1.06 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The majority of zoogeographic studies along the Chilean Pacific coast have focused on benthic organisms and oceanographic conditions are considered the main factors influencing their distributions. Herein we examined the geographic distribution of pelagic barnacles of the family Lepadidae collected from floating macroalgae at seven sampling areas between 23 and 50 degrees S. Four species were encountered and they are briefly described herein. The most abundant northern species was Lepas anatifera. and it diminished in abundance towards the South (33 degrees S). Moreover, this species was not found in waters with a sea surface temperature (SST) of less than similar to 18 degrees C. Lepas australis, primarily a circumpolar West Wind Drift species. diminished in abundance towards the north (33 degrees S). This species was restricted to waters of < 18 degrees C SST. A third species, L. pectinata. was encountered throughout almost the entire Study area, but it was most abundant between 29 and 33 degrees S. The fourth species, Dosima fascicularis. was only found at two sampling areas, namely at 27 degrees S and 33 degrees S. and this is the first record of this species from the central coast of Chile. The distributional pattern of the pelagic barnacles found herein corresponds to the three main zoogeographic regions as revealed by the majority of previous studies based on littoral organisms: the northern Peru-Chilean Province. the southern Magellanic Province, and the central Chilean Transition Zone where the two provinces overlap. Even though the present Study only considers four species of pelagic barnacles. the results support the hypotheses on the importance of oceanographic conditions (in particular SST) in determining the zoogeographic patterns along the south cast Pacific coast of Chile.
    Revista Chilena de Historia Natural. 01/2006; 79(1):13-27.

35 Following View all

88 Followers View all