We examine nitric oxide (NO) in signal transduction and pathology. We found every retinal cell normally produces NO and that NO is not freely diffusible in retina and hippocampus. We found adrenomedullin causes pathological increases in NO in early diabetic retinopathy and we found a drug that eliminates the pathology. We now focus on signaling pathways involved in traumatic brain injury in retina and brain and we are developing prophylactic and post-blast treatments.

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