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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiology associates whole-grain (WG) consumption with several health benefits. Mounting evidence suggests that WG wheat polyphenols play a role in mechanisms underlying health benefits. The objective was to assess circulating concentration, excretion, and the physiologic role of WG wheat polyphenols in subjects with suboptimal dietary and lifestyle behaviors. A placebo-controlled, parallel-group randomized trial with 80 healthy overweight/obese subjects with low intake of fruit and vegetables and sedentary lifestyle was performed. Participants replaced precise portions of refined wheat (RW) with a fixed amount of selected WG wheat or RW products for 8 wk. At baseline and every 4 wk, blood, urine, feces, and anthropometric and body composition measures were collected. Profiles of phenolic acids in biological samples, plasma markers of metabolic disease and inflammation, and fecal microbiota composition were assessed. WG consumption for 4-8 wk determined a 4-fold increase in serum dihydroferulic acid (DHFA) and a 2-fold increase in fecal ferulic acid (FA) compared with RW consumption (no changes). Similarly, urinary FA at 8 wk doubled the baseline concentration only in WG subjects. Concomitant reduction in plasma tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) after 8 wk and increased interleukin (IL)-10 only after 4 wk with WG compared with RW (P = 0.04) were observed. No significant change in plasma metabolic disease markers over the study period was observed, but a trend toward lower plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 with higher excretion of FA and DHFA in the WG group was found. Fecal FA was associated with baseline low Bifidobacteriales and Bacteroidetes abundances, whereas after WG consumption, it correlated with increased Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes but reduced Clostridium. TNF-α reduction correlated with increased Bacteroides and Lactobacillus. No effect of dietary interventions on anthropometric measurements and body composition was found. WG wheat consumption significantly increased excreted FA and circulating DHFA. Bacterial communities influenced fecal FA and were modified by WG wheat consumption. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01293175. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 02/2015; 101(2):251-61. DOI:10.3945/ajcn.114.088120 · 6.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of beetroots (Beta vulgaris) on the formation of Maillard reaction (MR) products possessing health, nutritional and sensory implications were studied. The effect of dried beetroot juice on the formation of Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and Nε-(2-furoylmethyl)-L-lysine (furosine) was determined in a milk model system. Beetroot juice reduced furosine formation more than CML, inferring that betalains compounds present in the juice is more effective in reducing the formation of MR products in early stage than in advanced stage of MR. Beetroot water extract was fractionated on Sephadex LH20 and obtained three beetroot fractions were used to assess they effect on the formation of heterocyclic amines in a meat-protein model system. Beetroot fraction possessing the highest antioxidant capacity and containing the highest betalains content reduced the amounts of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo-[4,5-b]-pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethyl-imidazo-[4,5-f]-quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-Amino-3-methylimidazo-[4,5-f]-quinoline (IQ) by approximately 60, 77 and 87 %, respectively. Beetroot preparations were characterized by ultra performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS). The antioxidant activities of beetroots preparations were also evaluated by 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation (ABTS•+) scavenging capacity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and total phenolic compounds assays. Our findings could be useful for creating novel source of functional ingredients exerting anti-carcenogenic and antiglycation activities.
    Food Research International 02/2015; 70. DOI:10.1016/j.foodres.2015.01.026 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The lipodepsipeptide syringomycin E (SR-E) interacts with two mercury-supported biomimetic membranes, which consist of a self-assembled phospholipid monolayer (SAM) and of a tethered bilayer lipid membrane (tBLM) separated from the mercury surface by a hydrophilic tetraethyleneoxy (TEO) spacer that acts as an ionic reservoir. SR-E interacts more rapidly and effectively with a SAM of dioleoylphosphatidylserine (DOPS) than with one of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC). The proximal lipid monolayer of the tBLM has no polar head region, being linked to the TEO spacer via an ether bond, while the distal monolayer consists of either a DOPC or a DOPS leaflet. The ion flow into or out of the spacer through the lipid bilayer moiety of the tBLM was monitored by potential step chronocoulometry and cyclic voltammetry. With the distal monolayer bathed by aqueous 0.1M KCl and 0.8μM SR-E, an ion flow in two stages was monitored with DOPC at pH3 and 5.4 and with DOPS at pH3, while a single stage was observed with DOPS at pH5.4. This behavior was compared with that already described at conventional bilayer lipid membranes. The sigmoidal shape of the chronocoulometric charge transients points to an aggregation of SR-E monomers forming an ion channel via a mechanism of nucleation and growth. The ion flow is mainly determined by potassium ions, and is inhibited by calcium ions. The contribution to the transmembrane potential from the distal leaflet depends more on the nature of the lipid than on that of the ion channel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes 12/2014; 1848(4). DOI:10.1016/j.bbamem.2014.12.007 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) are the main determinants of radicchio bitterness and the control of their concentrations is a key point for the market value of this product. An innovative analytical approach based on two complementary mass spectrometers, Orbitrap-HRMS and MS/MS, was used for quantitative analysis of SLs in aerial part of four different varieties of chicory. Data highlighted the presence of eight SLs: 11β,13-dihydrolactucin, lactucin, 8-deoxy-lactucin, dihydro-8-deoxylactucin, dihydrolactucopicrin, lactucopicrin, lactuside C (jaquinellin glucoside) and dihydro-lactucopicrin oxalate. Significant varietal differences were found. The highest amount of SLs was found in the radicchio “Treviso Precoce” variety (189.71 μg/g), the lowest amount in “Treviso Tardivo” variety (45.78 μg/g). Lactucopicrin was the most abundant compound with concentration ranged between 99.36 in “Treviso Precoce” and 13.50 μg/g in “Treviso Tardivo” while dihydro-lactucopicrin oxalate was the less abundant in all analyzed varieties with an average concentration of about 1% on the total amount of SLs.
    Food Research International 11/2014; 67. DOI:10.1016/j.foodres.2014.11.021 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Raman spectroscopy, in its confocal micro-Raman declination, has been recently proposed as a spatially resolved method to identify carotenoids in various food matrices being faster, non-destructive, and avoiding the sample extraction, but no data are present in literature about its application to the evaluation of carotenoid pattern changes after thermal treatments on carrots.ResultsThe effect of three cooking methods (i.e. boiling, steaming and microwaving) was evaluated on frozen carrot comparing changes on carotenoid profiles measured by means of Raman spectroscopy with their HPLC determinations and colour. A more pronounced detrimental effect on carotenoids was detected in steamed carrots, in accordance with colour data. Differently, the boiling and, to a lesser extent, microwaving caused an increase of carotenoid concentration. Cooking procedures affected the Raman spectral features of carotenoids causing the shift of vibration frequencies toward a higher energy, the increase of the spectral baseline and of the peak intensities as well as the broadening of their width, probably in relation with the thermal degradation of longer carotenoids (i.e., the all trans form) and the isomerisation process. In particular, steamed samples showed a significantly higher increase of centre frequency in accordance with a more pronounced isomerisation and changes of colour parameters.Conclusions This work showed that the evolution of Raman spectral parameters could give information on carotenoid bioaccessibility for carrots differently cooked. This paves the way for a future use of this technique to monitor and optimize the cooking processes aimed at maximize carotenoids bioaccessibility and bioavailability.
    Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 11/2014; DOI:10.1002/jsfa.7009 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The formation of the Amadori products (APs) is the first key step of Maillard reaction. Only few papers have dealt with simultaneous quantitation of amino acids and corresponding APs (1-amino-1-deoxy-2-ketose). Chromatographic separation of APs is affected by several drawbacks mainly related to their poor retention in conventional reversed phase separation. In this paper, a method for the simultaneous quantification of amino acids and their respective APs was developed combining high-resolution mass spectrometry with ion-pairing liquid chromatography. The limit of detection was 0.1 ng/mL for tryptophan, valine and arginine, while the limit of quantification ranged from 2 to 5 ng/mL according to the specific sensitivity of each analyte. The relative standard deviation % was lower than 10 % and the coefficient of correlation was higher than 0.99 for each calibration curve. The method was applied to milk, milk-based products, raw and processed tomato. Among the analyzed products, the most abundant amino acid was glutamic acid (16,646.89 ± 1,385.40 µg/g) and the most abundant AP was fructosyl-arginine in tomato puree (774.82 ± 10.01 µg/g). The easiness of sample preparation coupled to the analytical performances of the proposed method introduced the possibility to use the pattern of free amino acids and corresponding APs in the evaluation of the quality of raw food as well as the extent of thermal treatments in different food products.
    Amino Acids 10/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00726-014-1845-5 · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thermal processing and Maillard reaction (MR) affect the nutritional and sensorial qualities of milk. In this paper an olive mill wastewater phenolic powder (OMW) was tested as a functional ingredient for inhibiting MR development in ultrahigh-temperature (UHT)-treated milk. OMW was added to milk at 0.1 and 0.05% w/v before UHT treatment, and the concentration of MR products was monitored to verify the effect of OMW phenols in controlling the MR. Results revealed that OMW is able to trap the reactive carbonyl species such as hydroxycarbonyls and dicarbonyls, which in turn led to the increase of Maillard-derived off-flavor development. The effect of OMW on the formation of Amadori products and N-ε-(carboxymethyl)-lysine (CML) showed that oxidative cleavage, C2-C6 cyclization, and the consequent reactive carbonyl species formation were also inhibited by OMW. Data indicated that OMW is a functional ingredient able to control the MR and to improve the nutritional and sensorial attributes of milk.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 10/2014; 62(41). DOI:10.1021/jf503329d · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper a new targeted metabolic profile approach using Orbitrap High Resolution Mass Spectrometry was described. For each food matrix various classes of bioactive compounds and some specific metabolites of interest were selected on the basis of the existing knowledge creating an easy-to-read fingerprinting named “FancyTiles”. The procedure resulted in a plot of semi-quantitative data allowed to highlight for each food the main metabolites related to the biological or sensorial attributes within an educated schema. Results showed that the FancyTile procedure is an useful tool for research programs aiming at improving the health potential of food and ingredients. In this paper the FancyTile was described and it was successfully applied to verify the differences in the metabolic profile. Olive oils from different cultivars, waste mill waters from olive grown in different location and artichokes cultivated with different agronomical practices was used as case study.
    Food Research International 09/2014; 63. DOI:10.1016/j.foodres.2014.01.001 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pseudomonas corrugata CFBP 5454 produces two kinds of cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs), cormycin A and corpeptins, both of which possess surfactant, antimicrobial and phytotoxic activities. In this study, we identified genes coding for a putative non-ribosomal peptide synthetase and an ABC-type transport system involved in corpeptin production. These genes belong to the same transcriptional unit, designated crpCDE. The genetic organization of this locus is highly similar to other Pseudomonas CLP biosynthetic clusters. MALDI-TOF MS analysis revealed that transporter and synthetase genomic knock-out mutants are unable to produce corpeptins, but continue to produce cormycin A. This suggests that CrpCDE is the only system involved in corpeptin production in P. corrugata CFBP 5454. In addition, phylogenetic analysis revealed that the CrpE ABC transporter clustered with the transporters of CLPs with a long peptide chain. Strains depleted in corpeptin production were significantly less virulent than the wild type strain when inoculated in tomato plants and induced only chlorosis when infiltrated in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Thus, corpeptins are important effectors of P. corrugata interaction with plants. Expression analysis revealed that crpC transcription occurs at high cell density. Two LuxR transcriptional regulators, PcoR and RfiA have a pivotal role in crpC expression and thus in corpeptin production.
    Molecular Plant Pathology 09/2014; DOI:10.1111/mpp.12207 · 4.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the major causes of cancer death worldwide. The development of novel anti-CRC agents able to overcome drug resistance and/or off-target toxicity is of pivotal importance. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays a critical role in CRC, regulating protein translation and controlling cell growth, proliferation, metabolism and survival. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of a combination of three natural compounds, eicosapentaenoic acid-free fatty acid (EPA-FFA), epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and proanthocyanidins (grape seed [GS] extract) at low cytotoxic concentrations on CRC cells and test their activity on mTOR and translational regulation. The CRC cell lines HCT116 and SW480 were treated for 24 h with combinations of EPA-FFA (0-150 μM), EGCG (0-175 μM) and GS extract (0-15 μM) to evaluate the effect on cell viability. The low cytotoxic combination of EPA-FFA 150 μM, EGCG 175 μM and GS extract 15 μM completely inhibited the mTOR signaling in HCT116 and SW480 cells, reaching an effect stronger than or comparable to that of the mTOR inhibitor Rapamycin in HCT116 or SW480 cells, respectively. Moreover, the treatment led to changes of protein translation of ribosomal proteins, c-Myc and cyclin D1. In addition, we found a reduction of clonal capability in both cell lines, with block of cell cycle in G0G1 and induction of apoptosis. Our data suggest that the low cytotoxic combination of EPA-FFA, EGCG and GS extract, tested for the first time here, inhibits mTOR signaling and thus could be considered for CRC treatment.
    Carcinogenesis 08/2014; DOI:10.1093/carcin/bgu173 · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A wide variety of natural sources are under investigation to evaluate their possible use for new functional ingredient formulation. Some records attested the traditional and ancient use of wild harvested microalgae as human food but their cultivation for different purposes started about 40 years ago. The most popular species are Arthrospira (traditional name, Spirulina), Chlorella spp., Dunaliella spp. and Haematococcus spp. Microalgae provide a bewildering array of opportunities to develop healthier food products using innovative approaches and a number of different strategies. Compared to other natural sources of bioactive ingredients, microalgae have many advantages such as their huge biodiversity, the possibility to grow in arid land and with limited fresh water consumption and the flexibility of their metabolism, which could be adapted to produce specific molecules. All these factors led to very sustainable production making microalgae eligible as one of the most promising foods for the future, particularly as source of proteins, lipids and phytochemicals. In this work, a revision of the knowledge about the use of microalgae as food and as a source of functional ingredients has been performed. The most interesting results in the field are presented and commented upon, focusing on the different species of microalgae and the activity of the nutritionally relevant compounds. A summary of the health effects obtained together with pros and cons in the adoption of this natural source as functional food ingredients is also proposed.
    Food & Function 06/2014; 5(8). DOI:10.1039/c4fo00125g · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of nutrient or sodium chloride (NaCl) salinity on pepper grown in closed soilless culture systems were studied. A control (2 dS m−1) and two saline nutrient solutions (4 dS m−1) differing in the salt sources (fertilizers or NaCl) were studied. Shoot biomass production as well as total and marketable yield were more affected by NaCl than nutrient salinity. Fruit dry matter and total soluble solids increased in both salinity treatments compared to the control. Total phenol content rose slightly (10%) with NaCl salinity, while the concentration of carotenoids was enhanced by 40% with NaCl compared to the control and nutrient salinity. The results showed that the response of pepper to salinity is both osmotic and ion specific, but a more negative effect was recorded under NaCl stress. Moreover, the highest content of antioxidant compounds in NaCl treated fruits may indicate that NaCl caused more stressful conditions than nutrient salinity.
    Journal of Plant Nutrition 06/2014; 37(9):-. DOI:10.1080/01904167.2014.881874 · 0.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed at elucidating the influence of food matrix on the release of antioxidant activity from five plant foods (apple, spinach, walnut, red beans and whole wheat). To this purpose a protocol based on sequential enzymatic digestion was adopted. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of solubilized and insoluble material were measured at each steps. Results showed that the overall TAC obtained by enzyme treatments was usually higher than that obtained by chemical extraction-based methods. In apple most of the TAC was released upon water washing and after pepsin treatment while in spinach, beans, and whole wheat the TAC released by treatments with bacterial enzymes was prominent. Walnut had the highest TAC value which was mainly released after pancreatin treatment. Therefore the enzyme treatment is fundamental to estimate the overall potential TAC of foods having a high amount of polyphenols bound to dietary fiber or entrapped in the food matrix.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 04/2014; 62(18). DOI:10.1021/jf500695a · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cooking induced many chemical and physical modifications in foods: among them also phytochemicals content can change. Many authors studied variations in vegetable nutrients after cooking, and great data variability was reported. In this review more than one-hundred articles from indexed scientific journals were considered in order to assess the effect of cooking on different phytochemical classes. Phytochemical changes upon cooking may result from two opposite phenomena: the thermal degradation reducing their concentration, and the matrix softening effect which increased phytochemical extractability resulting in a higher concentration respect to the raw material. The final effect of cooking on phytochemical concentration depends on the processing parameters, the structure of food matrix, the chemical nature of the specific compound. Looking at the different cooking procedure it can be concluded that steaming will ensure a better preservation/extraction yield of phenols and glucosinolates than other cooking methods: steamed tissues are not into direct contact with cooking material (water or oil) so the leaching of soluble compounds in water is minimized and at the same time thermal degradation is limited. Carotenoids showed a different behavior: a positive effect on extraction and the solubilization of carotenes were reported after severe processing.
    Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 04/2014; 94(6). DOI:10.1002/jsfa.6478 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammatory bowel diseases are associated with increased risk of developing colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). Epidemiological data show that the consumption of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) decreases the risk of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). Importantly, recent data have shown that eicosapentaenoic acid-free fatty acid (EPA-FFA) reduces polyp formation and growth in models of familial adenomatous polyposis. However, the effects of dietary EPA-FFA are unknown in CAC. We tested the effectiveness of substituting EPA-FFA, for other dietary fats, in preventing inflammation and cancer in the AOM-DSS model of CAC. The AOM-DSS protocols were designed to evaluate the effect of EPA-FFA on both initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis. We found that EPA-FFA diet strongly decreased tumor multiplicity, incidence and maximum tumor size in the promotion and initiation arms. Moreover EPA-FFA, in particular in the initiation arm, led to reduced cell proliferation and nuclear β-catenin expression, whilst it increased apoptosis. In both arms, EPA-FFA treatment led to increased membrane switch from ω-6 to ω-3 PUFAs and a concomitant reduction in PGE2 production. We observed no significant changes in intestinal inflammation between EPA-FFA treated arms and AOM-DSS controls. Importantly we found that EPA-FFA treatment restored the loss of Notch signaling found in the AOM-DSS control and resulted in the enrichment of Lactobacillus species in the gut microbiota. Taken together, our data suggest that EPA-FFA is an excellent candidate for CRC chemoprevention in colitis-associated colorectal cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    International Journal of Cancer 03/2014; 135(9). DOI:10.1002/ijc.28853 · 6.20 Impact Factor
  • Digestive and Liver Disease 03/2014; 46:S59. DOI:10.1016/S1590-8658(14)60171-7 · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    Digestive and Liver Disease 03/2014; 46:S24. DOI:10.1016/S1590-8658(14)60064-5 · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of the recent results of studies on extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and its interactions with other food ingredients during cooking, to highlight basic molecular aspects of the "magic" of EVOO and its role in Mediterranean gastronomy. The use of raw EVOO added to foods after cooking (or as a salad oil) is the best way to express the original flavour and to maximize the intake of natural antioxidants and compounds related to positive effects on human health (hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancerogenic, among others). EVOO, however, also exhibits its protective properties during/after cooking. Different chemical interactions between biophenolic compounds and other food ingredients (water, milk proteins, carotenoids of tomato, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned-in-oil fish and meat or fish proteins) occur. Even during cooking, EVOO exhibits strong antioxidant properties and influences the overall flavour of cooked foods. The physical (partitioning, emulsion) and chemical (hydrolysis, covalent binding, antioxidant properties) phenomena occurring during cooking of EVOO are discussed with emphasis on the changes in the sensory (bitterness and fruity flavour) and nutritional qualities of some traditional Mediterranean foods. In particular, tomato-oil interactions during cooking, fish canning in EVOO, meat marinated in EVOO before cooking and roasting and frying in EVOO are examined. The interactions between EVOO antioxidants and flavours with milk proteins are also briefly discussed.
    Cancer treatment and research 01/2014; 159:325-338. DOI:10.1007/978-3-642-38007-5_19
  • M. Palermo, N. Pellegrini, V. Fogliano
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    ABSTRACT: Cited By (since 1996):1, Export Date: 18 October 2014
    Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 01/2014; 94(6):1057-1070. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    Antonio Dario Troise, Alberto Fiore, Vincenzo Fogliano
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    ABSTRACT: Acrylamide detection still represents one of the hottest topics in food chemistry. Solid phase cleanup coupled to liquid chromatography separation and tandem mass spectrometry detection along with GC-MS detection are nowadays the gold standard procedure for acrylamide quantitation thanks to high reproducibility, good recovery, and low relative standard deviation. High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) is particularly suitable for the detection of low molecular weight amides, and it can provide some analytical advantages over other MS techniques. In this paper a liquid chromatography (LC) method for acrylamide determination using HRMS detection was developed and compared to LC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The procedure applied a simplified extraction, no cleanup steps, and a 4 min chromatography. It proved to be solid and robust with an acrylamide mass accuracy of 0.7 ppm, a limit of detection of 2.65 ppb, and a limit of quantitation of 5 ppb. The method was tested on four acrylamide-containing foods: cookies, French fries, ground coffee, and brewed coffee. Results were perfectly in line with those obtained by LC-MS/MS.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 12/2013; 62(1). DOI:10.1021/jf404205b · 3.11 Impact Factor

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