Article: Pegfilgrastim prophylaxis is associated with a lower risk of hospitalization of cancer patients than filgrastim prophylaxis: a retrospective United States claims analysis of granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF).[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Myelosuppressive chemotherapy can lead to dose-limiting febrile neutropenia. Prophylactic use of recombinant human G-CSF such as daily filgrastim and once-per-cycle pegfilgrastim may reduce the incidence of febrile neutropenia. This comparative study examined the effect of pegfilgrastim versus daily filgrastim on the risk of hospitalization. METHODS: This retrospective United States claims analysis utilized 2004--2009 data for filgrastim- and pegfilgrastim-treated patients receiving chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) or breast, lung, ovarian, or colorectal cancers. Cycles in which pegfilgrastim or filgrastim was administered within 5 days from initiation of chemotherapy (considered to represent prophylaxis) were pooled for analysis. Neutropenia-related hospitalization and other healthcare encounters were defined with a "narrow" criterion for claims with an ICD-9 code for neutropenia and with a "broad" criterion for claims with an ICD-9 code for neutropenia, fever, or infection. Odds ratios (OR) for hospitalization and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by generalized estimating equation (GEE) models and adjusted for patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics. Per-cycle healthcare utilization and costs were examined for cycles with pegfilgrastim or filgrastim prophylaxis. RESULTS: We identified 3,535 patients receiving G-CSF prophylaxis, representing 12,056 chemotherapy cycles (11,683 pegfilgrastim, 373 filgrastim). The mean duration of filgrastim prophylaxis in the sample was 4.8 days. The mean duration of pegfilgrastim prophylaxis in the sample was 1.0 day, consistent with the recommended dosage of pegfilgrastim - a single injection once per chemotherapy cycle. Cycles with prophylactic pegfilgrastim were associated with a decreased risk of neutropenia-related hospitalization (narrow definition: OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.16--1.13; broad definition: OR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.24--0.59) and all-cause hospitalization (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.35--0.72) versus cycles with prophylactic filgrastim. For neutropenia-related utilization by setting of care, there were more ambulatory visits and hospitalizations per cycle associated with filgrastim prophylaxis than with pegfilgrastim prophylaxis. Mean per-cycle neutropenia-related costs were also higher with prophylactic filgrastim than with prophylactic pegfilgrastim. CONCLUSIONS: In this comparative effectiveness study, pegfilgrastim prophylaxis was associated with a reduced risk of neutropenia-related or all-cause hospitalization relative to filgrastim prophylaxis.BMC Cancer 01/2013; 13(1):11. · 3.01 Impact Factor
Article: Mortality following bone metastasis and skeletal-related events among patients 65 years and above with lung cancer: A population-based analysis of U.S. Medicare beneficiaries, 1999-2006.Nalini Sathiakumar, Elizabeth Delzell, Michael A Morrisey, Carla Falkson, Mellissa Yong, Victoria Chia, Justin Blackburn, Tarun Arora, Meredith L Kilgore[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To quantify the impact of bone metastasis and skeletal-related events (SREs) on mortality among older patients with lung cancer. Using the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database, we identified patients aged 65 years or older diagnosed with lung cancer between July 1, 1999 and December 31, 2005 and followed them to determine deaths through December 31, 2006. We classified patients as having possible bone metastasis and SREs using discharge diagnoses from inpatient claims and diagnoses paired with procedure codes from outpatient claims. We used Cox regression to estimate mortality hazards ratios (HR) among patients with bone metastasis with or without SRE, compared to patients without bone metastasis. Among 126,123 patients with lung cancer having a median follow-up of 0.6 years, 24,820 (19.8%) had bone metastasis either at lung cancer diagnosis (9,523, 7.6%) or during follow-up (15,297, 12.1%). SREs occurred in 12,665 (51%) patients with bone metastasis. The HR for death was 2.4 (95% CI = 2.4-2.5) both for patients with bone metastasis but no SRE and for patients with bone metastasis plus SRE, compared to patients without bone metastasis. Having a bone metastasis, as indicated by Medicare claims, was associated with mortality among patients with lung cancer. We found no difference in mortality between patients with bone metastasis complicated by SRE and patients with bone metastasis but without SRE.Lung India 01/2013; 30(1):20-6.
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ABSTRACT: Neutropenic complications (NCs) after myelosuppressive chemotherapy are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We described NC rates by using US hospital discharge data. This cross-sectional analysis used data from the US National Inpatient Sample database. Hospital discharges with cancer diagnoses (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] code) from 1989 to 2007 were analyzed for the ICD-9-CM neutropenia code. NC rates per 10,000 discharges were calculated for all adult discharges without radiation therapy (study population, all cancers); lung cancer, breast cancer, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL); and all three combined. The use of growth factors and myelosuppressive chemotherapy from 1994 to 2008 was estimated by using the IMS Health Drug Distribution Database. Estimated lung cancer and breast cancer discharges remained relatively steady, whereas NHL discharges increased. NC rates for each study cancer increased two-fold until the late 1990s before stabilizing and/or declining. The average hospital stay for all three cancers decreased from 10.4 days to 7.1 days. The mortality rates for NCs for the three cancers combined decreased at a fairly constant rate from 10% in 1989 to 5.4% in 2007. Estimated discharges for NCs from 1989 to 2007 ranged from 111,000 to 169,000 for the study population, from 57,000 to 103,000 for all cancers, and from 21,000 to 40,000 for the three study cancers. The use of growth factors and myelosuppressive chemotherapy increased from 1994 to 2008. Whereas the number of hospitalizations with cancer diagnoses has remained steady since 1989, hospitalizations for NCs increased approximately two-fold from 1989 to 1997 and then stabilized.Journal of Oncology Practice 05/2012; 8(3):149-55.
Victoria M Chia, Cynthia D O'Malley, Mark D Danese, Karla J Lindquist, Michelle L Gleeson, Michael A Kelsh, Robert I Griffiths[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Studies suggest comorbidity plays an important role in ovarian cancer. We characterized the epidemiology of comorbid conditions in elderly U.S. women with ovarian cancer. METHODS: Women with ovarian cancer age ≥66years, and matched cancer-free women, were identified using the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry linked to Medicare claims. Prevalence before diagnosis/index date and 3- and 12-month incidence rates (per 1,000 person-years) after diagnosis/index date were estimated for 34 chronic and acute conditions across a broad range of diagnostic categories. RESULTS: There were 5087 each of women with ovarian cancer and cancer-free women. The prevalence of most conditions was similar between cancer and cancer-free patients, but exceptions included hypertension (51.8% and 43.5%, respectively), osteoarthritis (13.4% and 17.3%, respectively), and cerebrovascular disease (8.0% and 9.8%, respectively). In contrast, 3- and 12-month incidence rates (per 1000 person years) of most conditions were significantly higher in cancer than in cancer-free patients: hypertension (177.3 and 47.4, respectively); thromboembolic event (145.3 and 5.5, respectively); congestive heart failure (113.3 and 28.6, respectively); infection (664.4 and 55.2, respectively); and anemia (408.3 and 33.1, respectively) at 12months. CONCLUSIONS: Comorbidities were common among elderly women. After cancer diagnosis, women with ovarian cancer had a much higher incidence of comorbidities than cancer-free women. The high incidence of some of these comorbidities may be related to the cancer or its treatment, but others may have been prevalent but undiagnosed until the cancer diagnosis. The presence of comorbidities may affect treatment decisions.Gynecologic Oncology 02/2013; · 3.89 Impact Factor
Article: Obesity-related hormones and endometrial cancer among postmenopausal women: a nested case-control study within the B~FIT cohort.Cher M Dallal, Louise A Brinton, Douglas C Bauer, Diana S M Buist, Jane A Cauley, Trisha F Hue, Andrea Lacroix, Jeffrey A Tice, Victoria M Chia, Roni Falk, Ruth Pfeiffer, Michael N Pollak, Timothy D Veenstra, Xia Xu, James V Lacey[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Endometrial cancer risk is strongly influenced by obesity, but the mechanisms of action remain unclear. Leptin and adiponectin, secreted from adipose tissue, reportedly play a role in such carcinogenic processes as cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and insulin regulation. In this case-control study, nested within the Breast and Bone Follow-up of the Fracture Intervention Trial (B~FIT) (n=15,595), we assessed pre-diagnostic serum leptin, total adiponectin, and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin in relation to endometrial cancer among postmenopausal women. During the 10-year follow-up, 62 incident endometrial cases were identified and matched to 124 controls on age, geographical site, time of fasting blood draw at baseline (1992-1993) and trial participation status. Adipokines and C-peptide were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated via conditional logistic regression, with exposures categorized in tertiles (T). Multivariable models considered C-peptide, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and estradiol (E2) as potential confounders. Endometrial cancer risk was significantly associated with higher leptin levels, adjusted for E2 and C-peptide (ORT3vsT1=2.96, 95% CI: 1.21-7.25; P-trend<0.01). After further adjustment for BMI, the estimates were attenuated and the positive trend was no longer statistically significant (ORT3vsT1=2.11, 95% CI: 0.69-6.44; P-trend=0.18). No significant associations were observed with adiponectin or HMW adiponectin and endometrial cancer. Our findings with leptin suggest that the leptin-BMI axis might increase endometrial cancer risk through mechanisms other than estrogen-driven proliferation. Continued exploration of these pathways in larger prospective studies may help elucidate mechanisms underlying observed obesity-endometrial cancer associations.Endocrine Related Cancer 12/2012; · 4.36 Impact Factor