Publications

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    ABSTRACT: Les contentions linguales font partie des contentions orthodontiques. Leurs qualités dépendent de plusieurs facteurs. Le but de cette étude est d’évaluer l’adhésion entre différents fils et composites utilisés comme contentions linguales.
    International Orthodontics 05/2015; 13(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ortho.2015.03.010
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    ABSTRACT: In daily orthodontic clinical practice retention is very important, and lingual retainers are part of this challenge. The failure of lingual retainers may be due to many factors. The aim of this study was to assess the retention forces and mechanical behavior of different types of wires matched with different kinds of composites in lingual retainers. A tensile test was performed on cylindrical composite test specimens bonded to orthodontic wires. The specimens were constructed using four different wires: a straight wire (Remanium .016×.022″ Dentaurum), two round twisted wires (Penta One .0215″ Masel, Gold Penta Twisted .0215″ Gold N'braces) and a rectangular braided wire (D-Rect .016×.022″ Ormco); and three composites: two micro-hybrids (Micro-Hybrid Enamel Plus HFO Micerium, and Micro-Hybrid SDR U Dentsply) and a micro-nano-filled composite (Micro-Nano-Filled Transbond LR 3M). The test was performed at a speed of 10mm/min on an Inström device. The wire was fixed with a clamp. The results showed that the bonding between wires and composites in lingual fixed retainers seemed to be lowest for rectangular smooth wires and increased in round twisted and rectangular twisted wires where the bonding was so strong that the maximum tension/bond strength was greater than the ultimate tensile strength of the wire. The highest values were in rectangular twisted wires. Concerning the composites, hybrid composites had the lowest interface bonding values and broke very quickly, while the nano- and micro-composites tolerated stronger forces and displayed higher bonding values. The best results were observed with the golden twisted wire and reached 21.46MPa with the Transbond composite. With the rectangular braided wire the retention forces were so high that the Enamel Plus composite fractured when the load exceeded 154.6N/MPa. When the same wire was combined with the Transbond LR either the wire or the composite broke when the force exceeded 240N. The results of this study show that, when selecting a lingual retainer in daily clinical practice, not only must the patient's compliance and dependability be considered but also the mechanical properties and composition of different combinations of composites and wires. Copyright © 2015 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
    International orthodontics 05/2015; 13(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ortho.2015.03.009
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    ABSTRACT: Background This work evaluated the accuracy and safety of a protocol for minimally-invasive flapless zygomatic implant placement that uses computer-guided stereolithographic mucosa-supported surgical templates.MethodsA total of six zygomatic implants were placed in three formalin-fixed human cadaver heads, with edentulous and severely atrophic posterior maxillae. CT scans of each cadaver head were performed after zygomatic implant placement, to evaluate the lateral error (LE) at implant tip and base, and the angular error (AE) of the implant body.ResultsExcluding the implant placed outside the drilling channel, the LE at the implant base was less than 1 mm in all cases. The average LE at the tip was 3.86 mm, and the AE was less than 6° in all cases, with an average of 4.5°.Conclusion Computer-guided minimally-invasive flapless zygomatic implant surgery remains challenging. Careful planning and perfect stability of the surgical guide are essential. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery 01/2015; DOI:10.1002/rcs.1646 · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: Photobiostimulation and photobiomodulation (PBM) are terms applied to the manipulation of cellular behavior using low intensity light sources, which works on the principle of inducing a biological response through energy transfer. The aim of this investigation was to identify a laboratory assay to test the effect of an infrared diode laser light (808 nm) on cell fission rate. Materials and methods: Sixty cells of Paramecium primaurelia were divided in two groups of 30. The first group (test group) was irradiated, at a temperature of 24°C, for 50 sec by a 808 nm diode laser with a flat top handpiece [1 cm of spot diameter, 1 W in continuous wave (CW), 50 sec irradiation time, 64 J/cm(2) of fluence]. The second group (control group) received no laser irradiation. All cells were transferred onto a depression slide, fed, and incubated in a moist chamber at a temperature of 24°C. The cells were exposed and monitored for 10 consecutive fission rates. Changes in temperature and pH were also evaluated. Results: The exposed cells had a fission rate rhythm faster than the control cells, showing a binary fission significantly (p<0.05) shorter than unexposed cells. No significant effects of laser irradiation on pH and temperature of Paramecium's lettuce infusion medium were observed. Conclusions: The 808 nm infrared diode laser light, at the irradiation parameters used in our work, results in a precocious fission rate in P. primaurelia cells, probably through an increase in metabolic activity, secondary to an energy transfer.
    Photomedicine and Laser Surgery 01/2015; 33(1). DOI:10.1089/pho.2014.3829 · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Summary OBJECTIVE : To evaluate the primary stability of different shaped miniscrews through the acquisition of data regarding maximum insertion torque, pullout force, and a radiodiagnosic evaluation of bone characteristics. Sixty fresh porcine bone samples were scanned by computed tomography (CT) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). By means of a dedicated software, CT and CBCT images were analysed to measure the insertion-site cortical thickness, cortical density, and marrow bone density. Sixty miniscrews of 12 different types were implanted with no predrilling pilot hole in the bone samples. Every device was tightened by means of a digital torque screwdriver and torque data were collected. Subsequently, pullout tests were performed. Spearman and Pearson correlations were employed to compare any relationship between continuous variables. Different types of miniscrews did not show statistically significant differences in their torque value (P = 0.595), instead a significant difference was revealed by considering their load measures (P = 0.039). Cortical bone thickness resulted strongly correlated both with value of load (P < 0.001), and modestly with torque measures (P = 0.004). A strong positive correlation was found between CT and CBCT both for cortical density (P < 0.001) and marrow bone density (P < 0.001). Bone characteristics play the major role in miniscrews primary stability. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    The European Journal of Orthodontics 12/2014; DOI:10.1093/ejo/cju081 · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background data: Low back pain is a common, highly debilitating condition, whose severity is variable. This study evaluated the efficacy of treatment with Ga-Al-As diode laser (980 nm) with a large diameter spot (32 cm(2)), in association with exercise therapy, in reducing pain. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the pain reduction efficacy of treatment with the Ga-Al-As diode laser (980 nm) in combination with exercise therapy, in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Methods: This study evaluated 100 patients with CLBP (mean age 60 years) who were randomly assigned to two groups. The laser plus exercises group (Laser+EX: 50 patients) received low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with a diode laser, 980 nm, with a specific handpiece [32 cm(2) irradiation spot size, power 20 W in continuous wave (CW), fluence 37.5J/cm(2), total energy per point 1200 J] thrice weekly, and followed a daily exercise schedule for 3 weeks (5 days/week). The exercises group (EX: 50 patients) received placebo laser therapy plus daily exercises. The outcome was evaluated on the visual analogue pain scale (VAS), before and after treatment. Results: At the end of the 3 week period, the Laser+EX group showed a significantly greater decrease in pain than did the EX group. There was a significant difference between the two groups, with average Δ VAS scores of 3.96 (Laser+EX group) and 2.23 (EX group). The Student's t test demonstrated a statistically significant difference between the two groups, at p<0.001. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the use of diode laser (980 nm) with large diameter spot size, in association with exercise therapy, appears to be effective. Such treatment might be considered a valid therapeutic option within rehabilitation programs for nonspecific CLBP.
    Photomedicine and Laser Surgery 09/2014; 32(9):490-494. DOI:10.1089/pho.2014.3715 · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2010, one of the authors proposed that lasers could be used to enhance the decontaminating action of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The authors conducted a study to compare the disinfection efficacy of laser-activated irrigation (LAI) by using a photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) tip with conventional irrigation and specifically LAI's ability to remove bacterial film formed on root canal walls.
    Journal of the American Dental Association (1939) 08/2014; 145(8):843-8. DOI:10.14219/jada.2014.46 · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective and background: Odontomas are hamartomatous developmental malformations of the dental tissues. We present a retrospective study of recent clinical experience using erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) (wavelength 2940 nm) and chromium-doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet lasers (Er,Cr:YSSG) (wavelength 2780 nm) for the surgical treatment of these lesions, and score postsurgical pain. Materials and methods: This retrospective study comprised 35 odontomas treated at the Department of Oral Pathology and Laser-Assisted Surgery, San Martino Hospital, University of Genoa, Italy. Of 35 Caucasian patients (23 male, 12 female; ages 8-35; odontomas localized at various oral subsites) those in Group 1 (n=25) had odontomas excised by laser (Er:YAG laser operating at 2940 nm, pulse width 100 msec, curved handpiece, truncated cone HPX tip, 400 μm with energy output 250-400 mJ per pulse, frequency 15 Hz; and Er, Cr: YSGG laser, power 3.5 W, frequency 20 Hz, 55% air/45% water spray, H (hard tissue) mode, pulse width 190-750 μsec variable). In Group 2 (n=10) odontomas were excised by conventional surgery. Pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). Clinical outcome was determined at 6-12 months. Results: Complete responses were achieved in 100% of the laser-treated odontomas, which compares favorably with reported results of conventional surgery. A statistically significant difference in VAS score was found between patients treated with traditional scalpel surgery (median=4.00) and those who underwent laser surgery (median=3.00). Conclusions: In treating odontomas, a laser surgery protocol effectively minimizes pain, maintains an excellent clinical outcome, and requires minimal additional treatment time compared with conventional surgery.
    Photomedicine and laser surgery 01/2014; 32(1):47-53. DOI:10.1089/pho.2013.3587 · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    Tosun Tosun, Stefano Benedicenti
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    ABSTRACT: The Erbium laser (Er:YAG, 2940 nm wavelength) with its high absorption in water and low penetration depth in soft and hard oral tissues, enables a high ablation depth control in bone surgery. This precise control offers a major advantage, especially in lateral approach sinus-grafting procedures, where often a thin bone wall is present. The pulse-duration control offered by erbium lasers dramatically affects clinical results in terms of ablation capability. Temporal profiles of dental Er:YAG lasers reveal that there are two distinct types of pulse profiles: Square Pulse and Gaussian. The aim of the present retrospective study is to make a clinical comparison of Square Pulse Er:YAG versus Gaussian Er:YAG lasers in maxillary sinus surgeries. The study consists of two groups: Square Pulse vs Gaussian. In the Square Pulse group, an articulated-arm-based Er:YAG device (LightWalker, Fotona) that produces a Variable Square Pulse (VSP) beam profile was used. The Square Pulse group consists of 7 cases with 10 sinus lifting procedures. The laser power settings used were 400 mJ x 10 Hz = 4 W, 50 µsec pulse duration, 44% air, 33% water spray. In the Gaussian group, a fiber delivery Er:YAG device (VersaWave, Hoya ConBio), which has not been available commercially since June 2011, was used. In the Gaussian group, there were 6 cases with 9 sinus lifting procedures. The power settings of the Gaussian group were 400 mJ x 15 Hz = 6 W, 300 µsec fixed pulse duration, under copious water/air cooling. The surgeon evaluated the clinical usefulness of the instruments by Visual Analog Scale (VAS) according to the parameters of handling, visibility of the surgical field, irrigation, bone cutting speed, working time duration, scoring each on a scale from "poor" 0 (zero) to "perfect" 10. Membrane rupture rate was registered as either absent or present. The Square Pulse group showed only one membrane rupture and shorter preparation times. According to the data collected during sinus surgeries, the VSP Er:YAG laser was found to be more effective in comparison with a fixed pulse duration Gaussian profile beam laser.
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    ABSTRACT: The aesthetic outcome of an implant-supported restoration is first of all dependent on the soft tissue volume. Because the labial bone plate resorbs in every direction after tooth extraction, even when an implant is placed immediately, most patients end up with compromised aesthetics. In this parallel-designed, randomized clinical trial, participants were randomly assigned to the test group (immediate load post-extractive implant treated with subepithelial connective tissue graft placed using the tunnel technique in the labial area) and control group (immediate load post-extractive implant treated without raising a flap) with an allocation ratio of 1:1. Both groups received deproteinized bovine bone mineral. Patients were observed at baseline, crown insertion, 1-year follow-up, and 2-year follow-up. Clinical, radiological and aesthetic parameters were recorded to assess primary treatment outcomes. A random permuted block system was blindly generated ensuring uniformity of the patient allocation during the trial by randomly distributing three participants to the test and three participants to the control group every six treated patients. At the 2-year examination, all 47 implants were successfully integrated, demonstrating stability and healthy peri-implant soft tissues as documented by standard clinical parameters. The results showed a soft tissue remodeling of -10% in thickness and -18% in highness in the non-grafted group, whereas in the grafted group there was a gain of 35% in thickness and a slight reduction of -11% in highness. Test group reported an increase of aesthetic result (mean pink aesthetic score [PES] 8) compared with control group (mean PES 6.65). This prospective study demonstrates the effectiveness of placing a soft tissue graft at the time of immediate implant placement in the aesthetic zone. At the 2-year follow-up, test group revealed a better aesthetic outcomes and stable facial soft tissues compared with control group.
    Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research 12/2013; DOI:10.1111/cid.12194 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) is a prenatal disorder of T lymphocyte development that depends on the expression of numerous genes. Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), previously known as juvenile chronic myeloid leukemia (JCML), is a rare, myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative disease typically presenting in early childhood. Two cases are described of immunodeficiency disorders, both treated with chemotherapeutic drugs (Busulfan plus cyclophosphamide) before bone marrow transplantation. After treatment, these two different cases showed several similar oral lesions: microdontia, root alterations, numerous tooth ageneses, incomplete calcification, enamel hypoplasia, premature apexification and hypodontia. Both subjects underwent dental and orthodontic treatment. The first phase comprised orthopaedic treatment using a removable appliance (Interim-G®) followed by rapid palatal expansion; in the second phase patients underwent tooth extraction and were treated using fixed appliances for 19 and 26 months, respectively (mean 2 years) to obtain final alignment and maximum intercuspation. In the third and final phase, reconstruction of malformed teeth was completed, and implant-supported protheses were applied. The difficulties of managing and treating these diseases are discussed, with particular focus on tooth anomalies and malocclusion disorders. Collaboration between dentist and paediatrician in dealing with patients with a variety of oral lesions and tooth anomalies is important in order to prevent any other possible tooth lesions and ensure correct jaw development.
    European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 12/2013; 14(4):328-32. · 0.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diastema closure is a frequently requested, technique-sensitive cosmetic procedure. There are many techniques and materials that can be employed to close diastemas. While direct composite techniques can be economical and successful, they do present challenges in achieving satisfactory clinical and esthetic results. Traditional porcelain veneer placement may offer an excellent esthetic result, but typically requires the removal of tooth structure; as such, this is an irreversible procedure. The present article reports the case of a maxillary midline diastema closure in a healthy dentition by means of sectional porcelain veneers simply cemented onto the natural teeth and without tooth preparation. A step-bystep procedure is proposed for illustrating the proper implementation of an additive-only and noninvasive indirect technique that yields a satisfactory clinical and esthetic outcome for clinician and patient.
    Quintessence international (Berlin, Germany: 1985) 03/2013; 44(3):201-6. DOI:10.3290/j.qi.a29058 · 0.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PurposeThe aim of this randomized clinical trial was to compare the potential of deproteinized bovine bone added to autologous bone or corticocancellous allograft block with or without the addition of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (rhPDGF-BB) to regenerate mandibular atrophic ridges. Materials and Methods Trial design: parallel, allocation ratio of 1:1 using a split-mouth model. Eligibility criteria for patients: adult patients; bilateral atrophic edentulous areas in the posterior area of the mandible; a preoperatory cone beam computed tomography scan; and absence of systemic diseases affecting the bone metabolism. Bone graft intervention for control group consisted of bone chips collected with a scraper mixed with deproteinized bovine bone covered with a resorbable membrane. Bone graft intervention for test group consisted of a corticocancellous allograft block, shaped before surgery, and protected with a collagen membrane. In addition, both groups received rhPDGF-BB or a saline solution as control. As primary outcome quantity, bone variation after a 1-year healing period was considered. A p-value of.05 was considered statistically significant. ResultsSixteen patients were enrolled in this trial. A total of 50 implants and 32 bone grafts were placed. All patients concluded the study (no dropouts). Change at 1 year in bone volume was not significantly different between the two groups (p-value=.25). Effect of treatment in terms of change in bone volume at 1 year was not significant (p-value=.89) when saline solution was used while was at limit of significance when rhPDGF-BB was used (p-value=.052). After 1 year, all the implants were successfully integrated. Conclusions The block allograft and the standard regenerative procedure showed similar results in terms of regenerated bone volume after 1 year of functional loading. The rhPDGF-BB positively influenced soft-tissue healing.
    Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research 01/2013; 16(5). DOI:10.1111/cid.12040 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The aim of this pig model study was to verify whether the use of devices (surgical templates) or procedures (flapless or flap) of guided surgery may cause a potentially pathologic increase of temperature during the bone preparation. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, pig ribs with mean cortical thickness of 1.90 mm were used. Open-flap and flapless guided surgery (experimental groups OGS and FGS) and open-flap and flapless conventional technique (control groups OSS and OFS) were performed. Temperature changes were recorded at a distance of 0.5 mm from the final test osteotomy by 2 thermocouples at depths of 1.5 (point A) and 12 mm (point B). Data were collected from 80 measurements, 10 for each group. Results: A statistically significant increase of temperature was reported for the FGS and OGS groups considering the measurement at point A (mean Δt 4.81 degrees and 4.21 degrees, respectively). The measurement at Point B for the FGS group compared to the FSS group did not differ significantly for the 3-mm drill, nor did the OSS group with the 2-mm drill. Conclusions: Site preparation with surgical stents generated higher bone temperature than conventional drilling. However, this heat generation did not reach temperature levels dangerous for the bone.
    The International journal of oral & maxillofacial implants 01/2013; 28(6):1464-9. DOI:10.11607/jomi.2854 · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    The European Journal of Orthodontics 09/2012; DOI:10.1093/ejo/cjs056 · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlations between bone characteristics, orthodontic miniscrew designs, and primary stability. Four different miniscrews were placed in pig ribs. The miniscrews were first scanned with a scanning electron microscope to obtain measurable images of their threads. Subsequently, the maximum insertion torque of the screws and the maximum load value in the pullout force tests were measured; furthermore, bone specimen characteristics were analyzed by using cone-beam computed tomography. For each bone sample, the insertion site cortical thickness as well as both cortical and marrow bone density were evaluated. The nonparametric Kendall rank correlation (tau) was used to evaluate the strength of the associations among the characteristics measured. The nonparametric Kruskall-Wallis test was used to evaluate the differences among the groups, and post-hoc comparisons were assessed by using the Nemenyi-Damico-Wolfe-Dunn test. A significant dependence was found between pitch and maximum insertion torque (tau, -0.49). Positive correlations were also found between pullout force and maximum insertion torque (tau, 0.64), cortical thickness (tau, 0.36), and marrow bone density (tau, 0.35). In this in-vitro experimental study, strong correlations were observed among miniscrew geometry, bone characteristics, and primary stability.
    American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics: official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics 08/2012; 142(2):228-34. DOI:10.1016/j.ajodo.2012.03.029 · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    Tosun Tosun, Giuseppe Iaria, Stefano Benedicenti
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Conventionally, crown lengthening surgery is achieved through an “open” mucoperiosteal flap access procedure and the use of rotary instruments. The introduction of mid-infrared laser wavelengths, e.g., erbium:YAG (2940 nm), has made possible a “flapless” approach to crown lengthening surgery, which has several advantages such as uneventful healing, less edema, and no sutures. Flapless surgery is a blind approach and the outcome of crevicular bony modeling in such a method is uncertain. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the topographic results of both surgical methods in a sheep model. Material and Methods: Ten fresh sheep mandibles were used. Bilateral crown lengthening was obtained on four molar teeth. Randomly, one side was used as test and the other as control. An Er:YAG laser (15 Hz frequency, 400 mJ energy, 200 μsec pulse duration, 6 W average power) was used on the test sides without raising a mucoperiosteal flap, and buccal crestal bone of 2 mm height was removed around each tooth. After laser application, each alveolar bone site was smoothed with Gracey curettes, and root planing was performed. Control sides underwent conventional open-flap surgery: 2 mm of buccal crestal bone was removed by a round diamond bur, at 800 rpm under saline irrigation, and root planing was performed with Gracey curettes. At the end of the operation, flaps were raised at the test sites. Impressions were taken by high-durometer silicone die material. Impression blocks were rendered uniform in size (10 x 28 mm surface). Stone models were cast and refined to uniform size and then scanned at 15,500 resolution. The data was analyzed using computer software. Macroscopic surface texture was compared by inspection of standardized digital images. Microscopic surface properties were analyzed by “current triangles” and “current vertices.” Results: Both groups revealed similar macroscopic features, but microscopically there were no significant correlations between current triangles and current vertices values of both groups (rcurrent triangles = 0.0207; rcurrent vertices = 0.0289). Conclusion: Macroscopically, both methods have similar effects on bone surface topography. The Er:YAG laser microscopically creates more rough surface on bone tissue. The results of this study confirm that flapless surgery performed by an Er:YAG laser is as effective in contouring crestal bone as conventional surgery and, taking into consideration the advantages of the flapless surgery, it is suggested as preferable to the conventional crown-lengthening procedure.
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    ABSTRACT: The thread shape factor (TSF) to evaluate the relationships between geometrical characteristics and mechanical properties of the temporary anchorage devices (TADs) has recently been introduced. This in vitro experimental study evaluated in 30 different tests with three TADs: ORTHOImplant (1.8 mm diameter and 10 mm length; 3M Unitek), Tomas (1.6 mm diameter and 10 mm length; Dentaurum), and Orthoeasy (1.7 mm diameter and 10 mm length; Forestadent). Scanning electron microscopy images were acquired for each TAD to measure the TSF; afterwards, the maximum insertion torque (MIT) was evaluated and thereafter pull-out tests on two differently designed organic bone analogs were carried out using a testing machine with a crosshead speed of 2 mm/minute being applied. One-way analysis of variance with group as factor was performed. Post hoc multiple comparisons Bonferroni test was used. Rank-transformed data were used when asymmetry of data was shown. To assess correlation between characteristics, load, and MIT, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used. A P-value of 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Significant direct correlations were found between TSF and depth and both load and MIT. Particularly, a correlation of 0.90 (P < 0.001) was found between depth and MIT for 2.2 mm cortical thickness. The authors conclude that MIT and maximum load values of pull-out test are statistically related to depth of the thread of the screw and to TSF.
    The European Journal of Orthodontics 01/2012; 35(3). DOI:10.1093/ejo/cjr145 · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that stem/progenitor cells exist in dental tissue. This study identified adult mesenchymal stem/stromal cell-like populations in the dental follicle of human impacted third molars.The immunohistochemical analysis, of dental follicle using known stem-cell markers: Cytokeratins (AE1-AE3), Smooth Muscle Actin, Ki-67, CD34, CD44, CD45, CD56, and CD133. A positive reaction for at least one of the markers typical of stromal phenotype (CD56, CD44 and CD271) was observed in seven cases . Interestingly, all positive cases showed coexpression of CD44 and CD56, except for one case which was CD56 positive and CD44 negative. Immunohistochemical reaction was negative in all 27 cases for Ki-67, Cytokeratins, Smooth Muscle Actin, CD34, CD133 and CD45. The association: negative for CD34, CD45, CD133, and positive for CD44, CD56 (markers of a subpopulation of stem cells from bone marrow) suggests these may be quiescent mesenchymal stem cells, a hypothesis supported by the negativity of Ki-67 (proliferative index). Our results are compatible with the identification of immature fibroblast cells with phenotypic features of stromal stem cells in the dental follicle.
    Frontiers in bioscience (Elite edition) 01/2012; 4:1009-14.

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