Article: Structure, composition, and location of organic matter in the enstatite chondrite Sahara 97096 (EH3)L Piani, F Robert, O Beyssac, L Binet, M BOUROT DENISE, S Derenne, C Le Guillou, Y Marrocchi, S Mostefaoui, J N ROUZAUDMeteoritics & planetary science 01/2012; · 2.72 Impact Factor
Article: 53Mn‐53Cr ages of Kaidun carbonates[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Abstract– We report the 53Mn-53Cr systematics of three dolomite grains from two different CI1 clasts contained within the Kaidun meteorite breccia. Three internal isochrones result in initial 53Mn/55Mn ratios of (4.2 ± 0.4) × 10−6, (4.6 ± 1.3) × 10−6, and (5.2 ± 1.1) × 10−6. These initial values are consistent with those measured for dolomite in the Orgueil CI1 chondrite (Hoppe et al. 2007; Petitat et al. 2009) but significantly lower than the initial ratio determined by Hutcheon et al. (1999) from a combination of different carbonate types within various lithologies of the Kaidun meteorite. We construct an accretion scenario for the Kaidun breccia by comparing the mineralogy and formation time scales of carbonates in the Kaidun CI1 lithologies to the analogous ones of the CI1 chondrite Orgueil. In Orgueil, dolomite precipitation precedes the formation of the first bruennerite grains by a few million years (Hoppe et al. 2007; Petitat et al. 2009). As the CI1 clasts in Kaidun lack breunnerite grains, and considering that aqueous alteration occurred prior to reaccretion of the various clasts onto the Kaidun parent body (e.g., MacPherson et al. 2009), we hypothesize that after rapid accretion and early aqueous alteration occurring within the first approximately 4 Myr after solar system formation, impact disruption of several asteroids and their reassembly into the Kaidun parent asteroid was complete within an additional approximately 2 Myr. This confirms that aqueous alteration, impact, and reaccretion of material in the asteroid belt were early processes that began contemporaneously with chondrule formation.Meteoritics & Planetary Science. 01/2011; 46(2):275 - 283.
Article: Implications of in situ calcification for photosynthesis in a ~3.3 Ga-old microbial biofilm from the Barberton greenstone belt, South AfricaF. Westall, B. Cavalazzi, L. Lemelle, Y. Marrocchi, J.-N. Rouzaud, A. Simionovici, M. Salomé, S. Mostefaoui, C. Andreazza, F. Foucher, J. Toporski, A. Jauss, V. Thiel, G. Southam, L. MacLean, S. Wirick, A. Hofmann, A. Meibom, F. Robert, C. Defarge[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Timing the appearance of photosynthetic microorganisms is crucial to understanding the evolution of life on Earth. The ability of the biosphere to use sunlight as a source of energy (photoautotrophy)would have been essential for increasing biomass and for increasing the biogeochemical capacity of all prokaryotes across the range of redox reactions that support life. Typical proxies for photosynthesis in the rock record include features, such as a matlike, laminated morphology (stratiform, domical, conical) often associated with bulk geochemical signatures, such as calcification, and a fractionated carbon isotope signature. However, to date, in situ, calcification related to photosynthesis has not been demonstrated in the oldest known microbial mats. We here use in situ nanometre-scale techniques to investigate the structural and compositional architecture in a 3.3 billion-year (Ga) old microbial biofilm from the Barberton greenstone belt, thus documenting in situ alcification that was most likely related to anoxygenic photosynthesis. The Josefsdal ChertMicrobial Biofilm (JCMB) formed in a littoral (photic) environment. It is characterised by a distinct vertical structural and compositional organisation. The lower part is calcified in situ by aragonite, progressing upwards into uncalcified kerogen characterised by up to 1% sulphur, followed by an upper layer that contains intact filaments at the surface. Crystallites of pseudomorphed pyrite are also associated with the biofilm suggesting calcification related to the activity of heterotrophic sulphur reducing bacteria. In this anoxygenic, nutrient-limited environment, the carbon required by the sulphur reducing bacteria could only have been produced by photoautotrophy. We conclude that the Josfsdal Chert Microbial Biofilm was formed by a consortium of anoxygenic microorganisms, including photosynthesisers and sulphur reducing bacteria.Earth and Planetary Science Letters 01/2011; 310(3-4):468-479. · 4.18 Impact Factor
Article: Extreme deuterium excesses in ultracarbonaceous micrometeorites from central Antarctic snow.J Duprat, E Dobrică, C Engrand, J Aléon, Y Marrocchi, S Mostefaoui, A Meibom, H Leroux, J-N Rouzaud, M Gounelle, F Robert[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Primitive interplanetary dust is expected to contain the earliest solar system components, including minerals and organic matter. We have recovered, from central Antarctic snow, ultracarbonaceous micrometeorites whose organic matter contains extreme deuterium (D) excesses (10 to 30 times terrestrial values), extending over hundreds of square micrometers. We identified crystalline minerals embedded in the micrometeorite organic matter, which suggests that this organic matter reservoir could have formed within the solar system itself rather than having direct interstellar heritage. The high D/H ratios, the high organic matter content, and the associated minerals favor an origin from the cold regions of the protoplanetary disk. The masses of the particles range from a few tenths of a microgram to a few micrograms, exceeding by more than an order of magnitude those of the dust fragments from comet 81P/Wild 2 returned by the Stardust mission.Science 05/2010; 328(5979):742-5. · 31.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A xenolith in the chondrite Isheyevo shows pristine mineralogy and the most extreme N isotopic variation measured in any solar system material - but no H and C isotopic anomalies. This poses new challenges for models for light element fractionation.02/2009; 40:1642.