Sasan Nouranian

Chemical Engineering, Materials Chemistry, Nanotechnology

PhD
21.07

Publications

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    ABSTRACT: Molecular simulations were performed to study the energetics and geometries of bond rupture in single alkane molecules using three reactive hydrocarbon potentials: (1) modified embedded-atom method (MEAM) for saturated hydrocarbons, (2) ReaxFF, and (3) second-generation REBO. The total energy/force versus strain, strain at fracture, and strain energy release were compared for a homologous series of normal alkanes (ethane to undecane) with generalization to polyethylene. The C-C bond distances and C-C-C bond angles were quantified, and a fragment analysis was performed. Overall, the MEAM and ReaxFF potentials are in reasonable agreement with first-principles data with MEAM matching DFT-calculated lowest energy fragments.
    Chemical Physics Letters 08/2015; 635:278-284. DOI:10.1016/j.cplett.2015.06.071 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    O. Abuomar · S. Nouranian · R. King · T.M. Ricks · T.E. Lacy
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    ABSTRACT: In the context of data mining and knowledge discovery, a large dataset of vapor-grown carbon nanofiber (VGCNF)/vinyl ester (VE) nanocomposites was thoroughly analyzed and classified using support vector machines (SVMs) into ten classes of desired mechanical properties. These classes are high true ultimate strength, high true yield strength, high engineering elastic modulus, high engineering ultimate strength, high flexural modulus, high flexural strength, high impact strength, high storage modulus, high loss modulus, and high tan delta. Resubstitution and 3-folds cross validation techniques were applied and different sets of confusion matrices were used to compare and analyze the classifier’s resulting classification performance. The designed SVMs model is resourceful for materials scientists and engineers, because it can be used to qualitatively assess different nanocomposite mechanical responses associated with different combinations of the formulation, processing, and environmental conditions. In addition, the lead time required to develop VGCNF/VE nanocomposites for particular engineering application will be significantly reduced using the designed SVMs classifier. This work specifically present a framework for a fast and reliable classification of a large material dataset with respect to desired mechanical properties, and can be used for all materials within the context of materials science and engineering.
    Computational Materials Science 03/2015; 99. DOI:10.1016/j.commatsci.2014.12.029 · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of selected factors such as vapor-grown carbon nanofiber (VGCNF) weight fraction, applied stress, and temperature on the viscoelastic responses (creep strain and creep compliance) of VGCNF/vinyl ester (VE) nanocomposites were studied using a central composite design (CCD). Nanocomposite test articles were fabricated by high-shear mixing, casting, curing, and post curing in an open-face mold under a nitrogen environment. Short-term creep/creep recovery experiments were conducted at prescribed combinations of temperature (23.8–69.2 C), applied stress (30.2–49.8 MPa), and VGCNF weight fraction (0.00–1.00 parts of VGCNF per hundred parts of resin) determined from the CCD. Response surface models (RSMs) for predicting these viscoelastic responses were developed using the least squares method and an analysis of variance procedure. The response surface estimates indicate that increasing the VGCNF weight fraction marginally increases the creep resistance of the VGCNF/VE nanocomposite at low temperatures (i.e., 23.8–46.5 C). However, increasing the VGCNF weight fraction decreased the creep resistance of these nanocompo-sites for temperatures greater than 50 C. The latter response may be due to a decrease in the nanofiber-to-matrix adhesion as the temperature is increased. The RSMs for creep strain and creep compliance revealed the interactions between the VGCNF weight fraction , stress, and temperature on the creep behavior of thermoset polymer nanocomposites. The design of experiments approach is useful in revealing interactions between selected factors, and thus can facilitate the development of more physics-based models.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/app.42162 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The two-phase solid–liquid coexisting structures of Ni, Cu, and Al are studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using the second nearest-neighbor (2NN) modified-embedded atom method (MEAM) potential. For this purpose, the existing 2NN-MEAM parameters for Ni and Cu were modified to make them suitable for the MD simulations of the problems related to the two-phase solid–liquid coexistence of these elements. Using these potentials, we compare calculated low-temperature properties of Ni, Cu, and Al, such as elastic constants, structural energy differences, vacancy formation energy, stacking fault energies, surface energies, specific heat and thermal expansion coefficient with experimental data. The solid–liquid coexistence approach is utilized to accurately calculate the melting points of Ni, Cu, and Al. The MD calculations of the expansion in melting, latent heat and the liquid structure factor are also compared with experimental data. In addition, the solid–liquid interface free energy and surface anisotropy of the elements are determined from the interface fluctuations, and the predictions are compared to the experimental and computational data in the literature.
    Acta Materialia 03/2015; 86:169-181. DOI:10.1016/j.actamat.2014.12.010 · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations based on the modified-embedded atom method (MEAM) and a phase-field crystal (PFC) model are utilized to quantitatively investigate the solid-liquid properties of Fe. A set of second nearest-neighbor MEAM parameters for high-temperature applications are developed for Fe, and the solid-liquid coexisting approach is utilized in MD simulations to accurately calculate the melting point, expansion in melting, latent heat, and solid-liquid interface free energy, and surface anisotropy. The required input properties to determine the PFC model parameters, such as liquid structure factor and fluctuations of atoms in the solid, are also calculated from MD simulations. The PFC parameters are calculated utilizing an iterative procedure from the inputs of MD simulations. The solid-liquid interface free energy and surface anisotropy are calculated using the PFC simulations. Very good agreement is observed between the results of our calculations from MEAM-MD and PFC simulations and the available modeling and experimental results in the literature. As an application of the developed model, the grain boundary free energy of Fe is calculated using the PFC model and the results are compared against experiments.
    Physical Review B 01/2015; 91:024105. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.91.024105 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    Mark A. Tschopp · Kiran Solanki · Sasan Nouranian
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    ABSTRACT: Developing predictive models for material behavior often requires understanding the atomistic scale mechanisms associated with different physical/chemical phenomena, interactions with microstructure features, and quantifying the associated uncertainties. Thus, molecular statics/dynamics simulations and the interatomic potentials play an important role in exploring the physics at the nanoscale structures. While interatomic potentials are often designed for a specific purpose, they are often used for studying mechanisms outside of the intended purpose. Hence, we have incorporated design methodology approaches into the interatomic potential design process to develop a generalized framework that will allow researchers to tailor an interatomic potential towards specific properties. This methodology produces an interatomic potential design map, which contains multiple interatomic potentials and is capable of exploring different nanoscale phenomena observed in experiments. This methodology is efficient and provides the means to assess uncertainties in nanostructure properties due to the interatomic potential fitting process.
    TMS 2014 Annual Conference, San Diego, CA; 02/2014
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    ABSTRACT: In this work, we developed an interatomic potential for saturated hydrocarbons using the modified embedded-atom method (MEAM), a reactive semi-empirical many-body potential based on density functional theory and pair potentials. We parameterized the potential by fitting to a large experimental and first-principles (FP) database consisting of 1) bond distances, bond angles, and atomization energies at 0 K of a homologous series of alkanes and their select isomers from methane to n-octane, 2) the potential energy curves of H2, CH, and C2 diatomics, 3) the potential energy curves of hydrogen, methane, ethane, and propane dimers, i.e., (H2)2, (CH4)2, (C2H6)2, and (C3H8)2, respectively, and 5) pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) data of a dense high-pressure methane system with the density of 0.5534 g/cc. We compared the atomization energies and geometries of a range of linear alkanes, cycloalkanes, and free radicals calculated from the MEAM potential to those calculated by other commonly used reactive potentials for hydrocarbons, i.e., second-generation reactive empirical bond order (REBO) and reactive force field (ReaxFF). MEAM reproduced the experimental and/or FP data with accuracy comparable to or better than REBO or ReaxFF. The experimental PVT data for a relatively large series of methane, ethane, propane, and butane systems with different densities were predicted reasonably well by MEAM. Although the MEAM formalism has been applied to atomic systems with predominantly metallic bonding in the past, the current work demonstrates the promising extension of the MEAM potential to covalently bonded molecular systems, specifically saturated hydrocarbons and saturated hydrocarbon-based polymers.
    Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 01/2014; DOI:10.1039/c4cp00027g · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A design of experiments and response surface modeling were performed to investigate the effects of formulation and processing factors on the flexural moduli and strengths of vapor-grown carbon nanofiber (VGCNF)/vinyl ester (VE) nanocomposites. VGCNF type (pristine, surface-oxidized), use of a dispersing agent (no, yes), mixing method (ultrasonication, high-shear mixing, and a combination of both), and VGCNF weight fraction (0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 parts per hundred parts resin (phr)) were selected as independent factors. Response surface models were developed to predict flexural moduli and strengths as a continuous function of VGCNF weight fraction. The use of surface-oxidized nanofibers, a dispersing agent, and high-shear mixing at 0.48 phr of VGCNF led to an average increase of 19% in the predicted flexural modulus over that of the neat VE. High-shear mixing with 0.60 phr of VGCNF resulted in a remarkable 49% increase in nanocomposite flexural strength relative to that of the neat VE. This article underscores the advantages of statistical design of experiments and response surface modeling in characterizing and optimizing polymer nanocomposites for automotive structural applications. Moreover, response surface models may be used to tailor the mechanical properties of nanocomposites over a range of anticipated operating environments.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 11/2013; 130(3):2087-2099. DOI:10.1002/app.39380 · 1.64 Impact Factor
  • Sasan Nouranian
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is a powerful tool for exploring various materials phenomena at the nanoscale. However, successful prediction of these phenomena and associated material properties relies on the availability and use of an interatomic potential that correctly captures the energetics of the atomic interactions. Recently, a great deal of research interest has been expressed towards the MD simulation of damage initiation and evolution in various materials, specifically polymers and polymer/metal systems. Most interatomic potentials do not allow dynamic bond making and bond breaking during simulation, which is a prerequisite for studying the damage phenomena associated with the polymer failure at the molecular scale. Moreover, a great number of potentials have not been parameterized for multicomponent material systems. The objective of this work is to develop an interatomic potential for hydrocarbon-based polymers based on the modified embedded-atom method (MEAM), a reactive semi-empirical N-body potential based on density functional theory and pair potentials. To achieve the objective, an initial parameterization of the MEAM potential was performed for saturated hydrocarbons. The potential was parameterized by fitting to a large experimental and first-principles (FP) database consisting of bond distances, bond angles, and atomization energies of a homologous series of alkanes and their select isomers from methane to n-octane, and various potential energy curves of H2, CH, and C2 diatomics, hydrogen, methane, ethane, and propane dimers, and select pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) data of alkanes. The atomization energies and geometries of a range of linear alkanes, cycloalkanes, and free radicals calculated from the MEAM potential were compared to those calculated by other commonly used potentials for hydrocarbons, i.e., second-generation reactive empirical bond order (REBO) and reactive force field (ReaxFF). MEAM reproduced the experimental and/or FP data with great accuracy, comparable to or better than REBO or ReaxFF. The experimental PVT data for a relatively large series of methane, ethane, propane, and butane systems with different densities were predicted reasonably well by MEAM. This work is the first attempt to expand the parameter database of the MEAM potential beyond atomistic systems, i.e., metals and metallic alloys, to covalently bound molecular systems. The details of potential parameterization and results of various atomistic calculations are presented.
    2013 AIChE Annual Meeting; 11/2013
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    ABSTRACT: A full factorial design of experiments and response surface methodology were used to investigate the effects of formulation, processing, and operating temperature on the viscoelastic properties of vapor-grown carbon nanofiber (VGCNF)/vinyl ester (VE) nanocomposites. Factors included VGCNF type (pristine, oxidized), use of a dispersing agent (DA) (no, yes), mixing method (ultrasonication, high-shear mixing, and a combination of both), VGCNF weight fraction (0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 parts per hundred parts resin (phr)), and temperature (30, 60, 90, and 120°C). Response surface models (RSMs) for predicting storage and loss moduli were developed, which explicitly account for the effect of complex interactions between nanocomposite design factors and operating temperature on resultant composite properties; such influences would be impossible to assess using traditional single-factor experiments. Nanocomposite storage moduli were maximized over the entire temperature range (∼20% increase over neat VE) by using high-shear mixing and oxidized VGCNFs with DA or equivalently by employing pristine VGCNFs without DA at ∼0.40 phr of VGCNFs. Ultrasonication yielded the highest loss modulus at ∼0.25 phr of VGCNFs. The RSMs developed in this investigation may be used to design VGCNF-enhanced VE matrices with optimal storage and loss moduli for automotive structural applications. Moreover, a similar approach may be used to tailor the mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of nanomaterials over a range of anticipated operating environments.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 10/2013; 130(1):234-247. DOI:10.1002/app.39041 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, data mining and knowledge discovery techniques were employed to validate their efficacy in acquiring information about the viscoelastic properties of vapor-grown carbon nanofiber (VGCNF)/vinyl ester (VE) nanocomposites solely from data derived from a designed experimental study. Formulation and processing factors (VGCNF type, use of a dispersing agent, mixing method, and VGCNF weight fraction) and testing temperature were utilized as inputs and the storage modulus, loss modulus, and tan delta were selected as outputs. The data mining and knowledge discovery algorithms and techniques included self-organizing maps (SOMs) and clustering techniques. SOMs demonstrated that temperature had the most significant effect on the output responses followed by VGCNF weight fraction. SOMs also showed how to prepare different VGCNF/VE nanocomposites with the same storage and loss modulus responses. A clustering technique, i.e., fuzzy C-means algorithm, was also applied to discover certain patterns in nanocomposite behavior after using principal component analysis as a dimensionality reduction technique. Particularly, these techniques were able to separate the nanocomposite specimens into different clusters based on temperature and tan delta features as well as to place the neat VE specimens (i.e., specimens containing no VGCNFs) in separate clusters. Most importantly, the results from data mining are consistent with previous response surface characterizations of this nanocomposite system. This work highlights the significance and utility of data mining and knowledge discovery techniques in the context of materials informatics.
    Advanced Engineering Informatics 10/2013; 27(4):615–624. DOI:10.1016/j.aei.2013.08.002 · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Modern computational methods have proved invaluable for the design and analysis of structural components using lightweight materials. The challenge of optimizing light-weight materials in the design of industrial components relates to incorporating structure-property relationships within the computational strategy to incur robust de-signs. One effective methodology of incorporating structure-property relationships within a simulation-based design framework is to employ a hierarchical multiscale modeling strategy. This paper reviews techniques of multiscale modeling to predict the mechanical behavior of amorphous polymers. Hierarchical multiscale methods bridge nanoscale mechanisms to the macroscale/continuum by introducing a set of structure-property re-lationships. This review discusses the current state of the art and challenges for three distinct scales: quantum, atomistic/coarse graining, and continuum mechanics. For each scale, we review the modeling techniques and tools, as well as discuss important recent contributions. To help focus the review, we have mainly considered research devoted to amorphous polymers.
    Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology 07/2013; 131(4):041206. DOI:10.1115/1.3183779 · 0.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of vapor-grown carbon nanofiber (VGCNF) weight fraction, high-shear mixing time, and ultrasonication time on the Izod impact strengths of VGCNF/vinyl ester (VE) nanocomposites were studied using a central composite design. A response surface model (RSM) for predicting impact strengths was developed using regression analysis. RSM predictions suggested that an 18% increase in impact strength was possible for nanocomposites containing only 0.170 parts per hundred parts resin (phr) of VGCNFs (∼0.1 v%) that were high-shear mixed for 100 min when compared to that of neat VE. In general, the predicted impact strengths increased for high-shear mixing times above 55 min and VGCNF weight fractions below 0.400 phr. The predicted strengths decreased as the VGCNF weight fraction was further increased. Scanning electron micrographs of the nanocomposite fracture surfaces showed that increased impact strength could be directly correlated to better nanofiber dispersion in the matrix.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 04/2013; 128(2):1070-1080. DOI:10.1002/app.38190 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    54th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference; 04/2013
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of moulding condition and curing atmosphere on the flexural properties of a neat 33 wt.%-styrene epoxy vinyl ester (VE) were investigated. Specimens were prepared using either open or closed moulds, and thermally cured under either air or nitrogen atmosphere. Four-point bending tests were performed with both the top ("air-side") and the bottom ("mould-side") surfaces of the cured specimens in tension. The mean flexural moduli for nitrogen-cured and closed-mould specimens were 3% and 9% higher than for air-cured specimens, respectively. However, the mean flexural strength for open-mould air-cured specimens with their air-sides loaded in tension were 65% lower than the mean flexural strengths of open-mould nitrogen-cured or closed-mould specimens. This likely resulted from partial VE resin curing inhibition due to oxygen diffusion into the free surface region of the open-mould air-cured specimens. This creates gradients in the local stiffness and strength in the near-surface region due to lower crosslink density. This effect may be particularly important for thin specimens. These results underscore the significance of exposure to air during open-mould curing on the cured VE flexural properties. Such assessments are crucial for composite part manufacturing utilizing VEs.
    Polymers and Polymer Composites 03/2013; 21(2):61-64. · 0.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper characterizes the failure of a polymeric clamp hanger component using finite element analysis coupled with experimental methods such as scanning electron microscopy, X-ray computed tomography, and mechanical testing. Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the material was identified as a polypropylene. Internal porosity that arose from the manufacturing procedure was determined using three dimensional X-ray computed tomography. From static mechanical experiments, the forces applied on the component were determined and used in a finite element simulation, which clearly showed the process of fracture arising from the pre-existing processing pores. The fracture surfaces were observed under a scanning electron microscope confirming the finite element simulation results illustrating that low-cycle fatigue fracture occurred in which the fatigue cracks nucleated from the manufacturing porosity.
    Engineering Failure Analysis 12/2012; 26:230–239. DOI:10.1016/j.engfailanal.2012.07.020 · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of four critical formulation and processing factors on the flexural moduli and strengths of vapor-grown carbon nanofiber (VGCNF)/vinyl ester (VE) nanocomposites were investigated using a mixed-level full factorial experimental design. The factors included vapor-grown carbon nanofiber (VGCNF) type (pristine, surface-oxidized), use of a dispersing agent (no, yes), mixing method (ultrasonication, high-shear mixing, and a combination of both), and VGCNF weight fraction (0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 parts per hundred parts resin (phr)). Response surface models were developed to predict flexural moduli and strengths as a function of VGCNF weight fraction. The use of surface-oxidized carbon nanofibers, a dispersing agent, and high-shear mixing at 0.48 phr of VGCNF gave an average increase of 19% in the flexural modulus over that of the neat VE. High-shear mixing with 0.60 phr of VGCNF resulted in a remarkable 49% increase of nanocomposite flexural strength. This study highlights the use of design of experiments and response surface modeling to both predict and optimize nanocomposite mechanical properties.
    2012 AIChE Annual Meeting; 10/2012
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    ABSTRACT: Surface oxidation effects on the liquid vinyl ester (VE) monomer distributions near two oxidized vapor-grown carbon nanofiber (VGCNF) surfaces were studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Two overlapping graphene sheets containing oxygenated functional groups represented the oxidized VGCNF surfaces. Two liquid VE bisphenol-A dimethacrylates (designated VE1 and VE2, respectively) and styrene constituted the resin. Temporally and spatially averaged relative monomer concentrations, calculated in a direction away from the oxidized graphene surfaces, showed increased styrene and VE1 concentrations. Monomer molar ratios found within a 10Å thick region adjacent to the oxidized graphene sheets were substantially different from those in the bulk resin. Curing should result in the formation of a very thin interphase region of different composition. The crosslink structure of such an interphase will be distinct from that of an unoxidized VGCNF surface. The enhanced VE1 concentration near this oxidized surface should give a higher crosslink density, leading to a stiffer interphase than that adjacent to unoxidized VGCNF surfaces. VGCNF–matrix adhesion may also be modified by the different interphase monomer molar ratios. These studies may facilitate multiscale material design by providing insight into carbon nanofiber–matrix interactions leading to improved macroscale composite properties.
    Carbon 03/2012; 50(3):748-760. DOI:10.1016/j.carbon.2011.09.013 · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular dynamics simulations were used to study the effect of vapor-grown carbon nanofiber (VGCNF) surface oxidation on VGCNF-vinyl ester (VE) resin monomer interactions. It was anticipated that the interfacial interactions between resin monomers and the oxidized carbon nanofiber surface would result in different local molar ratios of the resin monomers compared to the bulk resin. The resin was comprised of styrene and two VE monomers with either one or two bisphenol A groups in their backbones (designated as VE1 and VE2, respectively). Differences in local molar ratios of these resin monomers may result in the formation of an interphase region in the final cured nanocomposite. The time-averaged relative concentration profiles were used to monitor the temporal and spatial distributions of the resin monomers in a simulation cell of size 60×50×60 Å3. Initially the cell was filled with monomers in a ratio consistent with a 33 wt% commercial epoxy vinyl ester resin (Derakane 441-400, Ashland Co.). The idealized VGCNF surface was represented by two overlapped (shingled) graphene sheets, which were in contact with the resin. Oxidation of the graphene sheets was represented by the introduction of functional groups on the edges and the surfaces of the graphene sheets. The edges were more highly oxidized than the surfaces, containing of hydroxyl, phenolic, lactone, quinone, hydroquinone, and anhydride functional groups. Hydroxyl, epoxide, aromatic, ketone and carboxylic acid groups were attached to the surfaces (e.g. basal planes). These functional groups have been previously identified in our laboratory [1]. The NVT (constant number of atoms, N; constant volume, V; constant temperature, T) ensemble was used for simulations. All simulations were conducted with a simulation time of 10 ns at 1000 K for monomer distribution equilibration followed by another 5 ns simulation at 300 K. The relative concentration profiles were generated for the direction roughly perpendicular to the graphene sheet surfaces. The VE1 monomer concentration was higher near the oxidized graphene surface, compared to a simulation performed using a pristine graphene [2], where VE1 was depleted near the graphene surface. Styrene accumulated in the interfacial region in both cases, but more so for the pristine surface. Overall, a ~5 Å thick interfacial region was observed near each surface of the graphene sheet. In these regions, the monomer molar ratios differed from those in the bulk resin. The increased concentration of VE1 near the oxidized carbon nanofiber surface may lead to a stiffer interphase compared to the bulk matrix. In addition, favorable VGCNF-matrix polar interfacial interactions may lead to increased interfacial adhesion and subsequently, increase the interfacial shear strength in the final cured nanocomposite. The results of this study can be extended to other resins and surfaces. [1] Lakshminarayanan, PV, Toghiani, H, Pittman, CU. Nitric acid oxidation of vapor grown carbon nanofibers. Carbon 2004; 42: 2422-2433. [2] Nouranian, S, Jang, C, Lacy, TE, Gwaltney, SR, Toghiani, H, Pittman Jr, CU. Molecular dynamics simulations of vinyl ester resin monomer interactions with a pristine vapor-grown carbon nanofiber and their implications for composite interphase formation. Carbon (In Press).
    2011 AIChE Annual Meeting; 10/2011
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    ABSTRACT: A design of experiments approach demonstrated how four formulation and processing factors (i.e., nanofiber type, use of dispersing agent, mixing method, and nanofiber weight fraction) affected the dynamic mechanical properties of carbon nanofiber/vinyl ester nanocomposites. Only <0.50 parts of nanofiber per hundred parts resin produced a 20% increase in the storage modulus vs. that of the neat cured resin. Statistical response surface models predicted nanocomposite storage and loss moduli as a function of the four factors and their interactions. Nanofiber type and weight fraction were the key interacting factors influencing the mean storage modulus. Nanofiber weight fraction, mixing method, and dispersing agent had coupled effects on the mean loss modulus. Employing this methodology, optimized nanocomposite properties can be predicted as a function of nanocomposite formulation and processing.
    Journal of Composite Materials 08/2011; 45(16):1647-1657. DOI:10.1177/0021998310385027 · 1.26 Impact Factor

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