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    ABSTRACT: Excessive inflammation and tumor-necrosis factor (TNF) synthesis causes morbidity and mortality in diverse human diseases including endotoxaemia, sepisis, rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel diseases. Highly conserved, endogenous mechanisms normally regulate the magnitude of innate responses and prevent excessive inflammation. The release of system, through the vagus nerve, can inhibit significantly and rapidly the release of macrophage TNF, and attenuate systemic inflammatory responses. This physiological mechanism, termed the ‘cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway’ has major implications in immunology and in therapeutics; however, the identity of the essential macrophage acetylcholine mediated (cholinergic) receptor that responds to vagus nerve signals was previously unknown. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are ionotropic receptors that form ligand-gated ion channels in cells' plasma membranes. Like the other type of acetylcholine receptors, muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs), their opening is triggered by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh), but they are also opened by nicotine. Also in contrast to muscarinic ACh receptors, nicotinic acetylcholine cys loop receptors do not operate with a second messenger, but open themselves forming an ion channel. Their action is inhibited by curare. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are present in many tissues in the body. The neuronal receptors are found in the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The neuromuscular receptors are found in the neuromuscular junctions of somatic muscles; stimulation of these receptors causes muscular contraction. Here we report that the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha-7 subunit is required for acetylcholine inhibition of macrophage TNF release. Electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve inhibits TNF synthesis in wide- type mice, but fails to inhibit TNF synthesis in 7 deficient cytokine syntheses by the cholinergic anti-inflammation pathway. Modeller 9v2 was used to design the receptor nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha-7 subunit. Genemaths XT was used for microarray analysis of the receptor. Molecular docking of nicotinic acetylcholine cys loop receptor (alpha-7 subunit) with the ligand 1sq3 by Autodock 4.0 to obtain biomolecules for the control of neural diseases.
    Researcher. 01/2011; 3:27-33.
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    ABSTRACT: Ethanol fuel is an alternative to gasoline. Ethanol can be used as additive to gasoline, and also as a feed chemical in the transesterification process for biodiesel. Ethanol can be mass produced by fermentation of sugar or by hydration of ethylene from petroleum and other resource that may offer environmental and long term economic advantages over fossil fuels, like gasoline or diesel. A number of biofeed stock are currently being experimented for biofuel production, algae have emerged as one of the most promising sources for biofuel production. The marine ecosystem has vast resources of biomass with high to very high carbohydrate percentage. The marine biomass e.g. macro algae having very good potential for bioethanol production marine algae e.g. Enteromorpha species is used as the starting material for the bioethanol production in the present investigation. This algae is very rich in carbohydrate source ranging from 70-72%. Successful bioconversions of algal biomass to ethanol have been achieved by a series of different pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation. The processed biomasses was subjected to different pretreatments such as Nitric acid, steam flashing and dilute sulphuric acid (H2SO4), after which hydrolysis was undertaken chemically as well as enzymatically to accesses degradation of polysaccharides to their monomers or fermentable sugars. The percentage of fermentable sugar was obtained by such hydrolysis ranges from 0.75 mg/gm to 0.940 mg/gm in dry algae and 0.21 to 0.52 mg/gm in case of fresh algae as partial hydrolysis of different polysaccharides. The fermentation process used by industrial yeast (Saccharomyses cerevisiae) has the efficiency of utilization of glucose, fructose and sucrose etc. In addition to marine algae, in current years bioethanol is produced from a number of renewable biomasses. Bioethanol is a versatile transportable fuel and fuel additive that offers excellent performance and reduce air pollution compared to conventional fuel. Its production and use adds very little release of CO2 to the atmosphere dramatically reducing the greenhouse gases responsible for global warming.
    Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences. 01/2011; 1:74-80.
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    sabitri nahak
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Biomass materials are used since millennia for meeting myriad human needs including energy. Main sources of biomass energy are trees, crops and animal waste. Bioethanol produced from renewable biomass has received considerable attention in current years. There has been an increasing interest in utilizing alternative sources of energy. Paddy straw and Paddy husk are the basic raw material chosen for boiethanol production in present study because of their abundant availability and representative sample of crops stovers and unutilizable agro wastes. Each one of this biomass having more than 60-70% cellulose appeared to be very suitable for presence study in collection with bioethanol production. The pretreatment method followed in the present investigation as review from the literature available with other cellulosic biomass are also applicable to this chosen biomass as the percentage of available cellulose free from lignin seal constitute crystalline cellulose and hemicellulose 68% percentage. The subsequent hydrolysis by both chemical and enzymatic methods following the standard method reported by many workers shows significant result in producing fermentable sugar within reasonable incubation period. However for standardization of the protocols use of model sources of cellulase in view of commercial enzyme needs further investigation. With the limitation of time the procedure follow in the present investigation shows encouraging result ranging from 0.583mg/gm to1.919mg/gm of fermentable sugar produced after 4 days incubation of reaction mixture in standard reaction, in enzymatic cellulolysis.
    environmental science an indian journal. 11/2010; 5(1):10.

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