Publications

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    Liat Tikotzky, Ruth Sharabany, Idit Hirsch, Avi Sadeh
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    ABSTRACT: In an experiment of nature, a normal cohort of parents who were raised under communal sleeping arrangements (CSA) in Israeli kibbutzim are raising their infants at home under home-based family sleeping arrangements. The present study focused on exploring the links between the early sleep experiences of CSA parents and their present sleep-related beliefs and behaviors. In particular, the study assessed whether the cognitions of CSA parents regarding infant sleep differ from cognitions of parents who were raised under home-based family sleeping arrangements. Furthermore, parental soothing methods and infant sleep patterns were compared. One hundred forty-one families participated in this study. The children's ages ranged between 4.5 to 30 months. Parental cognitions were evaluated by two questionnaires. Infant sleep was assessed by a questionnaire and by daily parental reports. As expected, CSA parents were more likely than were control parents to: (a) interpret infant night wakings as a sign of distress and (b) actively soothe their infants at bedtime, co-sleep with them, and report more night wakings of their infants. These findings support the hypothesis that early childhood sleep-related experiences of parents (“Ghosts in the Nursery”) influence their parental sleep-related cognitions that in turn affect infant sleep patterns.
    Infant Mental Health Journal 04/2010; 31(3):312 - 334. · 0.61 Impact Factor
  • Ruth Sharabany, Etziona Israeli
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    ABSTRACT: This chapter presents psychological issues and processes in adolescent patients who have also migrated or relocated from one country to another. Theoretical perspectives related to attachment processes illumine both migration and adolescence as changes for which secure bases are most needed, lost, and sometimes rediscovered. The psychodynamic processes underlying the difficulties encountered by such adolescents, and their meaning, are presented. Relationships with parents, which normally go through separation-individuation and renegotiation of the oedipal crisis, both of which are central to adolescence, are disrupted by migration. Migration poses new challenges and choices while identity formation is evolving during adolescence. These include adopting a new identity, embracing and letting go of the old, and accepting and integrating the new. The dual relationship with identity finds expression, for example, in language. Fluctuations in understanding and not understanding the new and the old language represent the ambivalence toward the new and the old. The developmental roller-coaster of adolescence, which involves more intense use of defense mechanisms, is heightened during immigration. Processes of idealization (of parents, therapist, old country, new culture) rapidly fade with the devaluation of the same targets. Mechanisms of splitting between good and bad, as well as massive repression of issues that are too hard to deal with at this crossroad, are profuse. Hopeful fantasies of rebirth are concurrent with despair, depression, and, in some cases, suicidal thoughts and attempts. Excerpts from a case in psychodynamic psychotherapy are presented, focusing on the evolving new balances: integrating the old and the new by maintaining attachments to the one while forming attachments to the other; relinquishing and mourning the lost paradise of childhood, as well as the old country, friends, culture, smells, and tastes; accepting disappointments when the shining new terrain of the new country is not the fantasized promised land; negotiating processes of splitting that have been employed in the false hope of quieting the internal turmoil of the transitions (the good vs. the bad country, parents, therapist, and developmental tasks); finding new ways of coping with the deep despair of losing all the above, and the urge to give it all up; and, finally, forming an integrated identity, built on both the old and the new. The processes are elucidated by examples from the psychotherapy of an adolescent Ethiopian-born immigrant to Israel.
    The Psychoanalytic study of the child 02/2008; 63:137-62.
  • Ruth Sharabany, Yohanan Eshel, Caesar Hakim
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    ABSTRACT: The development of intimate same- and other-sex friendships in Arab children and adolescents in Israel was investigated in relation to their perceived parenting styles. It was hypothesized that girls would show higher levels of intimacy than boys, and that cross-sex intimacy in both groups would increase with age, whereas same-sex intimate friendship maintains rather stable over the school years. We hypothesized further that intimate friendship would be contingent more readily on perceived parental authoritative style rather than on either permissive or authoritarian styles. Participants were 723 Arab students drawn from four schools, and from the 5th, 7th, 9th, and 11th grades. The Parental Authority Questionnaire and Intimate Friendship Scale were employed as measures. Findings indicated that girls were more intimate with their female friends than boys were with their male friends, especially in the higher grades, replicating previous studies. However, boys tended to score higher than girls on intimacy with the other gender. Girls equaled their level of intimacy only at the 11th grade. These findings suggest that traditional societies may foster specific characteristics of intimate friendship. A novel finding is the central role of the authoritative parenting style in determining intimate friendships. Results are discussed in terms of universal aspects of friendship and of their expression in the investigated cultural setting.
    International Journal of Behavioral Development 01/2008; 32(1):66-75. · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    04/2007;
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    Hadas Wiseman, Alon Raz, Ruth Sharabany
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    ABSTRACT: This research examined Blatt's personality styles in relation to overall interpersonal distress and problems in affiliation and dominance of young adults with difficulties in establishing long-term romantic relationships. Participants were 141 (73 males and 68 females) young adults comprising two groups: with difficulties in establishing long-term romantic relationships and without such difficulties. They completed the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire and the Mental Health Index (MHI), and they and their friend completed the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-C). Self-criticism and dependency contributed to greater self-reported interpersonal distress, over and above MHI depression and anxiety, while efficacy moderated the effects of these vulnerabilities. Self-criticism contributed to the friend's report of interpersonal distress only for those without difficulties in long-term romantic relationships. The findings are discussed in terms of Blatt's theory on interpersonal relatedness and self-definition in young adult's personality development and the complementary ways the personality styles influence the interpersonal world.
    The Israel journal of psychiatry and related sciences 02/2007; 44(4):280-91. · 1.36 Impact Factor
  • Ruth Sharabany
    The meaning of others: Narrative studies of relationships., Edited by R. Josselson, A. Lieblich, D. McAdams, 01/2007: chapter 11: pages 237-253; Washington, DC: APA Books.., ISBN: 978-1-59147-816-4
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    Ruth Sharabany
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    ABSTRACT: Among more communal societies social relationships are important but intimate and exclusive dyadic friendship among peers may be lower, such as among two very different communities -both kibbutz and Arab children in Israel.
    Peer Relationships in Cultural Context, Edited by B. Schneider, C. Xinyin, D. French, 01/2006: pages 452-478; New York: Cambridge University Press.
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    Hadas Wiseman, Ofra Mayseless, Ruth Sharabany
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the association between perceived quality of early parental bonding and loneliness of first-year university students in relation to two central personality-related conceptualizations, attachment and Blatt’s (1990) primary personality predispositions. Participants were 146 undergraduate (69 males and 77 females), who completed the Parental Bonding Instrument, an attachment styles questionnaire, the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire, and the UCLA Loneliness Scale in the middle of their first-year at university. As expected, parental care and secure attachment were negatively associated with loneliness, whereas ambivalent and avoidant attachment and self-criticism were positively correlated with loneliness. Ambivalence and self-criticism mediated in part the association between parental care and loneliness; self-criticism mediated in part the association between ambivalence and loneliness, yet both ambivalence and self-criticism uniquely predicted loneliness. Results are discussed in light of the related yet distinct contributions of attachment and personality vulnerabilities to the experience of loneliness.
    Personality and Individual Differences. 01/2006;
  • Anat Scher, Ruth Sharabany
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the authors compared 90 pairs of mothers and fathers with respect to aspects of negative emotionality experienced in the early parenting role. Mothers and fathers of 90 healthy 3-month-old infants completed questionnaires pertaining to parenting stress and separation anxiety. Mothers reported significantly higher levels of negative emotionality than did fathers. An interaction effect of parent with child gender on the level of parenting stress was indicated. Mothers of sons reported more stress than did mothers of daughters. The child's gender was not related to the level of separation anxiety expressed by mothers and fathers. The findings suggested that, at 3 months of age, the child's gender plays a role in the parenting experience, but the impact is (a) moderated by the parent's gender and (b) construct-specific (e.g., stress). These findings are in line with a multidetermined model of parenting.
    The Journal of Genetic Psychology 07/2005; 166(2):203-13. · 0.83 Impact Factor
  • R. Sharabany, B. Schneider
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    ABSTRACT: The article is uploaded.
    Newsletter of the International Society for the Study of Behavior Development. 01/2004;
  • Yohanan Eshel, Ruth Sharabany, Ester Bar-Sade
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    ABSTRACT: The authors used a longitudinal design to investigate 2 major issues: first, whether popularity with classmates results in better academic achievement or academic achievement improves popularity with classmates; and second, how time affects in-group and out-group contacts in the elementary school. The authors studied these issues by means of an interactive measure of reciprocated and unreciprocated contacts with peers. This measure indicated the extent to which aspirations for close relations were fulfilled or not fulfilled by each member of a dyad. Participants were 305 fifth- and sixth-grade Israeli students and 100 immigrant classmates. Results indicated (a) higher academic achievement predicted higher numbers of bids for reciprocal contacts in class but not higher numbers of bids for contacts that were not reciprocated; (b) a higher level of unreciprocated bids for contact seemed to have a detrimental effect on academic performance; (c) teachers tended to rate as more adjusted to school the immigrant students who were willing to engage in more intensive reciprocated contacts with Israeli peers; and (d) reciprocated contacts tended to increase whereas unreciprocated contacts were inclined to decrease as a function of time. These changes over time were more prominent for the dominant hosts than for their migrant classmates.
    The Journal of Social Psychology 01/2004; 143(6):746-62. · 0.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to measure the impact of group counseling on adolescents' intimacy with a close friend. The study population was comprised of 174 residential and day students of seven ninth-grade classes in a residential school in Israel. All participants were socially disadvantaged, with a problematic family background. They were randomly divided into experimental and control conditions: group counseling versus an in-class enrichment program. School personnel in the helping professions conducted all counseling groups after receiving training and supervision. Results of the counseling intervention showed a significant late effect in intimacy growth with a close friend. None of the three covariates (gender, residency, divorce) had a significant impact on results. The results support, to some extent, the dual process model of relationship development.
    International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 11/2002; 52(4):537-53. · 0.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study exploited a “natural experiment” which covered variations in child-rearing conditions within the communal setting of the Israeli kibbutz. The long-term effects of these variations and of childhood experiences on attachment styles of adults were examined. Three groups of mothers who were raised in the kibbutz participated: (1) a Communal group, mothers raised communally and now raising their child communally; (2) a Familial group, mothers raised in the family and now raising their child in the family, and (3) a Non-continuous group, mothers raised communally and now raising their child in the family. In keeping with studies with infants, we expected the familial group to show the most security, the communal group to show the least security, and the non-continuous to be in between. Participants were 152 women with school-age children. They reported on their attachment styles and availability of significant others during childhood. Additionally, they evaluated the child-rearing context of themselves and of their children. The three groups did not differ in their attachment security or in the reported availability of significant others in childhood. They differed in their evaluations of their own and their children’s child-rearing contexts. Specifically, they had negative evaluations regarding the communal sleeping arrangement. Security of attachment was related to reported availability of significant others in childhood. These results are discussed in view of the differentiation between contextual-distal variables and process-proximal variables.
    International Journal of Behavioral Development 01/2001; 25(3):214-225. · 1.58 Impact Factor
  • Y Eshel, R Sharabany, U Friedman
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    ABSTRACT: Intimacy in young heterosexual adults was studied as a function of their familial roles. The 168 males and females employed represented four familial role groups: late adolescents, single adults, married people and parents. Participants were administered two forms of an Intimacy Scale (Sharabany, 1994) in which they described their desired and their obtained intimacy with a same-sex and an opposite-sex best friend. Results indicated that (a) intimacy of adults with opposite-sex partner was higher than intimacy with same-sex friend. (b) Although no direct effect of familial role on intimacy was found, the married and parent groups displayed greater intimacy towards their spouses than late adolescents and single adults towards their opposite-sex partners. (c) Women who were late adolescents and women who were married scored significantly higher than men in intimacy. However, single women expressed significantly lower intimacy than single men. (d) Higher intimacy with opposite-sex partner was associated with a concurrent lower same-sex intimacy. (e) Satisfaction with other-sex partner was higher in the married group than in the other groups.
    British Journal of Social Psychology 03/1998; 37 ( Pt 1):41-57. · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    OFRA MAYSELESS, RUTH SHARABANY, ABRAHAM SAGI
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    ABSTRACT: The present study examined the relation between attachment concerns of mothers and three of their close relationships: with their husband, best woman friend, and infant. Forty-live mothers completed an Attachment Concerns Questionnaire based on the Hazan and Shaver attachment measure, and the Sharabany Intimacy scale regarding their relationships with their husband and with their same-sex best friend; they were also observed with their infants (aged 14 to 22 months) in the Ainsworth Strange Situation procedure. Mothers’attachment concerns were significantly correlated both to their infants’attachment classifications and to reunion scores in the Strange Situation procedure (e.g., concern with closeness was positively correlated with avoidance; fear of abandonment was positively correlated with avoidance and resistance). Intimacy with husband and best woman friend were also correlated with mothers’attachment concerns (e.g., concern with closeness was negatively correlated with intimacy with the husband and fear of abandonment was negatively correlated with intimacy with the best friend). The findings are discussed in terms of the concept of an internal working model of attachment, and, in light of the similarity and the modular hypotheses regarding the nature of relationships and concordance among relationships.
    Personal Relationships 08/1997; 4(3):255 - 269. · 1.41 Impact Factor
  • 01/1997; Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.., ISBN: 9780761905127
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    Ofra Mayseless, Rotem Danieli, Ruth Sharabany
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to examine the correlation between attachment patterns of adults and reactions to separations from their significant others on both a phenomenological and a representational level. Cluster analysis technique was used to classify 137 college students into four attachment pattern categories: secure, avoidant, ambivalent, and controlling (compulsive care giver). On the phenomenological level, the current relationships of the subjects with their parents and romantic partner were assessed, in order to explore how they manage the developmental task of separation from one's parents. On the representational level we assessed, using a projective test (the SAT) subjects' responses to mild and severe separations. As expected, subjects with different attachment patterns coped with separations according to their attachment style. For example, secure subjects coped well with this developmental task. They tended to live outside the parental home and to attribute the highest significance to their romantic partner while sustaining close communication with their mother. Ambivalent subjects also tended to live outside their parental home but were all single and reported less committed and close relationships with romantic partners. On a representational level they reacted with strong anxiety, rejection, and self-blame to separations and even mild separations elicited strong attachment reactions. Avoidant subjects tended to refrain from dealing with the developmental task of separation, while controlling subjects were characterized by their use of mechanisms of reaction formation. Overall the results underscore the importance of considering attachment patterns of adults in our attempts to understand coping with the developmental task of separation.
    Journal of Youth and Adolescence 09/1996; 25(5):667-690. · 2.72 Impact Factor
  • Ruth Sharabany
    Theoretical Frameworks for Personal Relationships, Edited by R. Erber & R. Gilmour, 01/1994: chapter 8: pages 157-178; New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates., ISBN: 13: 978-0805805734
  • R. Sharabany
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    ABSTRACT: The Intimate Friendship Scale is reviewed based on 16 studies relevant to children and preadolescents. The conceptual background is presented. Intimate friendship is considered a configuration of diverse but coherently related quantitatively commensurate elements, specified here. The structure of the original scale is described, as well as its eight dimensions of content. Data on the scale's reliability, content validity (through the use of judges), criterion validity (using reciprocity of choice), predictive validity (through follow-up comparisons after 7 years), construct validity (through comparisons involving kibbutz and city, social class, divorce, twins, defense mechanisms and group interventions) and discriminant validity (through comparisons with comradeship, popularity, role-taking, IQ and social desirability) are presented. The discussion addresses questions regarding the scale, and suggests directions for future research.
    Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 01/1994; 11(3):449-469. · 1.29 Impact Factor
  • Ruth Sharabany, Hadas Wiseman
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    ABSTRACT: In this article, studies on close relationships among kibbutz adolescents are reviewed. The case of the kibbutz is examined in terms of the balance between relationship with parents and relationship with peers in the kibbutz as compared to the city and moshav, as well as within the kibbutz between communal vs. familial sleeping arrangements. The reviewed studies address three issues: Intimacy with a best friend; self-disclosure and emotional expression toward peers, parents, and figures outside the family; and peer group relations. Studies on intimacy in young adults, married adults, and parent-daughter relationships are considered as pointing to the possible consequences of the patterns observed during adolescence. Differences in intimacy and emotional expression among adolescents in the different settings are interpreted in terms of the effects of structural variables (sleeping arrangement, degree of contact with parents and peers) being a marker for greater peer involvement. It is argued that adolescents are likely to maintain their more inhibited pattern of expression of intimacy into adulthood when they stay in the same setting. Change in the level of expressed intimacy is likely to occur in adulthood, with change of setting. Based on cross-sectional studies, it is speculated that it is possible to close developmental gaps in intimacy at a later stage, thus supporting a situational-based pattern of intimacy and closeness.
    Journal of Youth and Adolescence 01/1993; 22(6):671-695. · 2.72 Impact Factor

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