Publications

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    ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken to investigate the possible involvement of cattle in the epidemiology of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) as subclinical carriers. Cattle were exposed experimentally to PPR virus (PPRV) infection or placed in contact with PPR infected goats. Clinical samples including heparinized/EDTA blood, plasma, peripheral blood monocyte cells (PBMCs) and clotted blood (for serum) were collected periodically from 21 days post infection (dpi) to 397 dpi (21, 45, 50, 57, 65, 95, 111, 119, 148, 190, 203 and 397 dpi) and tested for PPRV antigen, nucleic acid and antibody. Exposed cattle seroconverted and maintained PPRV specific haemagglutinin antibodies and detectable PPRV antigen/nucleic acid in blood, plasma and PBMCs from 21 to 397 dpi. PPRV was recovered from blood and PBMC collected from experimental animals at 21 dpi, initially in B95a cells and then adapted to Vero cells. The study indicated that PPRV can infect cattle subclinically and PPRV antigen/nucleic acid persist in cattle for at least 397 days.
    VirusDisease. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Peripheral action of irisin improves glucose homeostasis and increases energy expenditure, with no data on a central role of irisin in metabolism. These studies sought to examine (1) presence of irisin in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and banked human hypothalamic tissue, (2) serum irisin in maternal subjects across varying adiposities with or without gestational diabetes (GDM), and (3) their respective neonate offspring. Methods: CSF, serum and neonatal cord serum were collected from 91 pregnant women with and without GDM attending for an elective Caesarean section (BMI: 37.7±7.6 Kg/m(2); age: 32±8.3 years). Irisin was assessed by ELISA and correlated with biochemical and anthropometric data. Irisin expression was examined in human hypothalamus by immunohistochemical staining. Results: Serum irisin in pregnant women was significantly lower in non-obese compared to obese and GDM subjects, after adjusting for BMI, lipids and glucose. Irisin was present in neonatal cord serum (237±8ng/ml) and maternal CSF (32±1.5ng/ml). CSF irisin correlated positively with serum irisin levels from non-obese and obese pregnant women (p<0.01), with CSF irisin significantly raised in GDM subjects (p<0.05). Irisin was present in human hypothalamic sections in the paraventricular neurons, co-localized with neuropeptideY. Conclusions: Irisin was detectable in CSF and in paraventricular neurons. Maternal serum irisin was lower in non-obese pregnant women after adjusting for BMI and a number of metabolic parameters. These studies indicate that irisin may have a central role in metabolism in addition to the known peripheral role. Further studies investigating the central action of irisin in human metabolic disease are required.
    AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 01/2014; · 4.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Configuring high quality care for the rapidly increasing number of people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major challenge worldwide for both providers and commissioners. In the UK, about two thirds of people with T2D are managed entirely in primary care, with wide variation in management strategies and achievement of targets. Pay for performance, introduced in 2004, initially resulted in improvements but disparities exist in ethnic minorities and the improvements are levelling off. Community based, intermediate care clinics for diabetes (ICCDs) were considered one solution and are functioning across the UK. However, there is no randomised trial evidence for the effectiveness of such clinics. This is a cluster-randomised trial, involving 3 primary care trusts, with 49 general practices randomised to usual care (n = 25) or intervention (ICCDs; n = 24). All eligible adult patients with T2D were invited; 1997 were recruited and 1280 followed-up after 18-months intervention. Primary outcome: achievement of all three of the NICE targets [(HbA1c≤7.0%/53 mmol/mol; Blood Pressure <140/80 mmHg; cholesterol <154 mg/dl (4 mmol/l)]. Primary outcome was achieved in 14.3% in the intervention arm vs. 9.3% in the control arm (p = 0.059 after adjustment for covariates). The odds ratio (95% CI) for achieving primary outcome in the intervention group was 1.56 (0.98, 2.49). Primary care and community clinic costs were significantly higher in the intervention group, but there were no significant differences in hospital costs or overall healthcare costs. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of +£7,778 per QALY gained, indicated ICCD was marginally more expensive at producing health gain. Intermediate care clinics can contribute to improving target achievement in patients with diabetes. Further work is needed to investigate the optimal scale and organisational structure of ICCD services and whether, over time, their role may change as skill levels in primary care increase. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00945204; National Research Register (NRR) M0014178167.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(4):e93964. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vaccination is a well accepted strategy for control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in endemic countries. Currently, chemically inactivated virus antigens are used for preparation of FMD vaccine. To develop a non-infectious and safe recombinant vaccine, we expressed structural polypeptide of FMDV (O/IND/R2/75) using baculovirus expression system. We show that inclusion of mutated viral 3C protease in frame with the polypeptide (P1-2A), enhanced the yield of structural proteins. The structural proteins retained antigenicity and assembled into empty virus-like particles (VLPs). Immunization of guinea pigs with purified fractions of the VLPs resulted in humoral and cell mediated immune response by 4weeks. The VLPs elicited comparable humoral immune response and relatively higher cell mediated immune response, when compared to conventional vaccine in guinea pigs. Further, up to 70% of the VLP immunized guinea pigs were protected against challenge with homologous guinea pig adapted virus. Our results highlight the application of recombinant FMDV VLPs in FMD vaccination.
    Research in Veterinary Science 08/2013; · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Central obesity and sub-clinical inflammation increase metabolic risk, this study examined the intracellular inflammatory pathwaysin adipose tissue (AT) that contribute to this risk. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study therefore addressed the influence of NFκB and JNK activation in human abdominal subcutaneous (AbdSc) and omental (Om) AT, the effect of adiposity, T2DM status and the role of TNFαin vitro,using molecular biology techniques. RESULTS: Our data showed NFκB activity is increased in Om AT versus AbdSc AT (P<0.01), which was reversed with respect to depot specific activation of JNK (P<0.01). However, T2DM status appeared to preferentially activate NFκB (P<0.001) over JNK. Furthermore,in vitro studies showed recombinant human (rh) TNFα treated AbdSc adipocytes increased NFκB activity over time (2-48hr, P<0.05) whilst JNK activity reduced (2hr, 4hr, P<0.05); inhibitor studies supported a preferential role for NFκB as a modulator of TNFα secretion. CONCLUSIONS: These studies suggest distinct changes in NFκB and JNK activation, dependent upon AT depot, adiposity and T2DM status, with in vitro use of rhTNFα leading to activation of NFκB. Consequently NFκB appears to play a central role in inflammatory mediated metabolic disease over JNK, highlighting NFκB as a potential key target for therapeutic intervention.
    Obesity 02/2013; · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) control programme, liquid-phase blocking ELISA (LPBE) is widely used to assay vaccine-induced seroconversion. Currently, the assay utilizes inactivated FMD virus antigen for the detection of antibodies in serum samples. To develop a non-infectious substitute for the antigen in LPBE, we expressed the structural polypeptide of FMDV (serotype A) using a baculovirus expression system, and show that inclusion of viral 3C with reduced protease activity resulted in a higher yield of structural proteins. Structural proteins expressed in insect cells assembled into empty virus-like particles (VLPs) and showed antigenicity comparable to chemically inactivated FMDV. Screening of serum samples from FMD-vaccinated cattle showed that the test performance of VLP-LPBE had a correlation of 0.89 with conventional inactivated virus antigen LPBE. The VLP-LPBE developed here demonstrates the diagnostic application of recombinant FMDV VLPs in monitoring seroconversion following FMD vaccination.
    Archives of Virology 12/2012; · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: World-wide healthcare systems are faced with an epidemic of type 2 diabetes. In the United Kingdom, clinical care is primarily provided by general practitioners (GPs) rather than hospital specialists. Intermediate care clinics for diabetes (ICCD) potentially provide a model for supporting GPs in their care of people with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes and in their management of cardiovascular risk factors. This study aims to (1) compare patients with type 2 diabetes registered with practices that have access to an ICCD service with those that have access only to usual hospital care; (2) assess the cost-effectiveness of the intervention; and (3) explore the views and experiences of patients, health professionals and other stakeholders. METHODS: This two-arm cluster randomized controlled trial (with integral economic evaluation and qualitative study) is set in general practices in three UK Primary Care Trusts. Practices are randomized to one of two groups with patients referred to either an ICCD (intervention) or to hospital care (control).Intervention group: GP practices in the intervention arm have the opportunity to refer patients to an ICCD - a multidisciplinary team led by a specialist nurse and a diabetologist. Patients are reviewed and managed in the ICCD for a short period with a goal of improving diabetes and cardiovascular risk factor control and are then referred back to practice.orControl group: Standard GP care, with referral to secondary care as required, but no access to ICCD.Participants are adults aged 18 years or older who have type 2 diabetes that is difficult for their GPs to control. The primary outcome is the proportion of participants reaching three risk factor targets: HbA1c (<=7.0%); blood pressure (<140/80); and cholesterol (<4 mmol/l), at the end of the 18-month intervention period. The main secondary outcomes are the proportion of participants reaching individual risk factor targets and the overall 10-year risks for coronary heart disease(CHD) and stroke assessed by the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) risk engine. Other secondary outcomes include body mass index and waist circumference, use of medication, reported smoking, emotional adjustment, patient satisfaction and views on continuity, costs and health related quality of life. We aimed to randomize 50 practices and recruit 2,555 patients. DISCUSSION: Forty-nine practices have been randomized, 1,997 patients have been recruited to the trial, and 20 patients have been recruited to the qualitative study. Results will be available late 2012.Trial registration[ClinicalTrials.gov: Identifier NCT00945204].
    Trials 09/2012; 13(1):164. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the changes in circulating endotoxin after a high-saturated fat meal to determine whether these effects depend on metabolic disease state. Subjects (n = 54) were given a high-fat meal (75 g fat, 5 g carbohydrate, 6 g protein) after an overnight fast (nonobese control [NOC]: age 39.9 ± 11.8 years [mean ± SD], BMI 24.9 ± 3.2 kg/m(2), n = 9; obese: age 43.8 ± 9.5 years, BMI 33.3 ± 2.5 kg/m(2), n = 15; impaired glucose tolerance [IGT]: age 41.7 ± 11.3 years, BMI 32.0 ± 4.5 kg/m(2), n = 12; type 2 diabetic: age 45.4 ± 10.1 years, BMI 30.3 ± 4.5 kg/m(2), n = 18). Blood was collected before (0 h) and after the meal (1-4 h) for analysis. Baseline endotoxin was significantly higher in the type 2 diabetic and IGT subjects than in NOC subjects, with baseline circulating endotoxin levels 60.6% higher in type 2 diabetic subjects than in NOC subjects (P < 0.05). Ingestion of a high-fat meal led to a significant rise in endotoxin levels in type 2 diabetic, IGT, and obese subjects over the 4-h time period (P < 0.05). These findings also showed that, at 4 h after a meal, type 2 diabetic subjects had higher circulating endotoxin levels (125.4%↑) than NOC subjects (P < 0.05). These studies have highlighted that exposure to a high-fat meal elevates circulating endotoxin irrespective of metabolic state, as early as 1 h after a meal. However, this increase is substantial in IGT and type 2 diabetic subjects, suggesting that metabolic endotoxinemia is exacerbated after high fat intake. In conclusion, our data suggest that, in a compromised metabolic state such as type 2 diabetes, a continual snacking routine will cumulatively promote their condition more rapidly than in other individuals because of the greater exposure to endotoxin.
    Diabetes care 12/2011; 35(2):375-82. · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study describes the serosurveillance of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in sheep and goats that was carried out between 2003 and 2009 using serum samples from animals suspected of PPR that were submitted to the Rinderpest and Allied Disease Laboratory (Division of Virology of the Indian Veterinary Research Institute [IVRI]). A total of 2,197 serum samples from sheep and 2,687 from goats were screened for PPR virus (PPRV) antibody using a monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay developed at IVRI. Screening of the 4,884 serum samples showed that the prevalence of PPRV antibody in sheep and goats was 41.01% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 31.86 to 50.16) and 46.11% (95% CI: 37.18 to 55.04), respectively, with an overall prevalence of 43.56% (95% CI: 36.78 to 50.34) during the period. This indicates increased and widespread infection with the virus in India compared with earlier reports, which is attributed to the variations in sheep and goat husbandry practices in different regions, the agro-climatic conditions, the topography of different states, the socio-economic status of individual farmers and the migration of livestock in India.
    Revue scientifique et technique (International Office of Epizootics) 12/2011; 30(3):889-96. · 0.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hyperglycemia induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in diabetic vascular cells is considered an increasingly important factor for the genesis and development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications. This study investigated firstly, the effect of hyperglycemia in ER stress induction in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) and secondly, the impact of Glucagon like petide-1 (GLP-1) analogue, Liraglutide, in reducing ER stress in HUVECs exposed to high glucose (HG). HUVECs were incubated for 12 hr in 5 mmol/L normal glucose (NG) or in 25 mmol/L (HG) glucose with or without different concentrations of Liraglutide (1 nM, 10 nM or 100 nM) and components of ER stress pathways studied, using western blotting, to assess their expression levels. Our data confirmed that exposure of HUVECs to HG up-regulated both up- (Bip/Grp78, PERK and IRE1α) and downstream (Calnexin, PDI and Ero1-Lα) markers of ER stress compared with control. Furthermore, Liraglutide showed a dose dependent capacity in preventing the onset of ER stress in HUVECs, with a maximum activity at 100 nM. HG also upregulated proapoptotic PUMA protein levels compared to controls. Interestingly, Liraglutide also induced OPA1, a marker of mitochondrial fusion, in a dose dependent manner. Liraglutide prevented the onset of ER stress in human endothelial cells exposed to HG. Our data suggest that Liraglutide may exert its effects by inducing mitochondrial fusion processes, thus preventing HG induced mitochondrial fragmentation and apoptosis in human endothelial cells.
    Regulatory Peptides 11/2011; 174(1-3):46-52. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the prior hypothesis that low blood vitamin B12, partly through hyperhomocysteinemia and partly through direct effects, increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. As background, we also extracted all-cause mortality from the studies that met our criteria. A systematic review of prospective cohort studies identified through searching six electronic databases, screening of reference lists, and citation search. Included studies reported data on the association between vitamin B12 blood levels, or other appropriate surrogate biological markers e.g. holotranscobalamin or serum/urine methylmalonic acid, and fatal or non-fatal incident diabetes and cardiovascular events. Seven studies were included. Studies differed regarding the population studied, length of follow-up, study outcomes, and data analysis--a narrative synthesis approach was performed to examine the results. Most studies met few of the quality assessment criteria which were adapted from the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN). Only one high-quality study reported that low B12 increased the risk of incident cerebral ischaemia (RR = 1.76; 95% CI = 1.16-2.68). After controlling for homocysteine, the association persisted although weakened (RR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.02-2.43), suggesting that the effects of low B12 were only partly mediated by homocysteine. In two studies, higher B12 levels were associated with a greater risk of total mortality (RR = 1.00; 95% CI = 1.00-1.00 and HR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.08-1.22, respectively) and combined fatal and non-fatal coronary events (RR = 1.00; 95% CI = 1.00-1.00). No association between study outcomes and vitamin B12 levels was found in four other studies. Surprisingly, there is only very limited evidence that vitamin B12 deficiency predisposes to the risk of mortality and morbidity from either cardiovascular diseases or diabetes in adults. Current data do not support vitamin B12 supplementation to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases or diabetes.
    European Journal of Nutrition 03/2011; 50(2):97-106. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Self-reported disability in performing daily life activities was assessed in adults with severe obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m(2)) using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ). 262 participants were recruited into three BMI groups: Group I: 35-39.99 kg/m(2); Group II: 40-44.99 kg/m(2); Group III: ≥45.0 kg/m(2). Progressively increasing HAQ scores were documented with higher BMI; Group I HAQ score: 0.125 (median) (range: 0-1.75); Group II HAQ score: 0.375 (0-2.5); Group III HAQ score: 0.75 (0-2.65) (Group III versus II P < 0.001; Group III versus I P < 0.001; Group II versus I P = 0.004). HAQ score strongly correlated with BMI and age. Nearly three-fourths of the study participants reported some degree of disability (HAQ score > 0). The prevalence of this degree of disability increased with increasing BMI and age. It also correlated to type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and clinical depression, but not to gender. Our data suggest that severe obesity is associated with self-reported disability in performing common daily life activities, with increasing degree of disability as BMI increases over 35 kg/m(2). Functional assessment is crucial in obesity management, and establishing the disability profiles of obese patients is integral to both meet the specific healthcare needs of individuals and develop evidence-based public health programs, interventions, and priorities.
    Journal of obesity 01/2011; 2011:918402.
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    ABSTRACT: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious, economically important viral disease of sheep and goats with high morbidity and mortality rates. In order to control the disease effectively, highly sensitive diagnostic tests coupled with potent vaccines are important pre-requisites. At present, there are three live attenuated PPR vaccines available in India including Sungri 96, Arasur 87 and Coimbatore 97. Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI) Mukteswar developed the PPR Sungri 96 (isolate of goat origin) vaccine; while Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (TANUVAS) developed the Arasur 87 (isolate of sheep origin) and Coimbatore 97 (isolate of goat origin). In this study, the potency of these vaccines including a fourth vaccine from Institute of Animal Health and Veterinary Biologicals, Bangalore (IAH&VB) were tested as per the office International des Epizooties (OIE) guidelines by challenge studies in sheep and goats and their efficacies were evaluated using PPR C-ELISA. Potency tests of these vaccines in sheep and goats revealed that three of the vaccines were potent; however, the IAH &VB vaccine was comparatively less potent. The three vaccines could presumably be used for mass vaccination of both sheep and goats while contemplating PPR control program.
    Biologicals 03/2010; 38(4):479-85. · 1.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Psychosocial profiles were examined in 255 morbidly obese patients attending a hospital service offering access to standard weight loss therapies. 129 patients were reassessed after at least 6-month follow-up. At baseline, 51.8% and 32.7% of patients, respectively, had evidence of anxiety and depressive disorders, 24% had severe impairments in self esteem, and 29.7% had an increased risk of eating disorders. At follow-up, weight loss from baseline was significant in all 3 therapies: diet only is 0.74 +/- 1.8 kg; pharmacotherapy is 6.7 +/- 4.2 kg; and surgery is 20.1 +/- 13.6 kg. Anxiety scores improved in all three groups (P < .05). Patients having pharmacotherapy or surgery had significant improvements in physical and work function and public distress compared to those having dietary treatment only (P < .05). Our observational data suggest that weight management services can lead to psychosocial benefit in morbidly obese patients. Well-designed studies are necessary to examine the link between weight loss and emotional health.
    Journal of obesity 01/2010; 2010.
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    Ponnusamy Saravanan, Chitranjan S Yajnik
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    ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence, in humans and other mammals, that periconceptional nutritional status influences health in adulthood. This is called ‘foetal programming’ and is likely to be mediated through DNA methylation. Micronutrients, especially B vitamins such as folic acid and vitamin B12 play crucial roles in providing methyl groups for such reactions. This is called epigenetic regulation and may provide some clues to the epidemic of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Evidence from mandatory folic acid fortification studies suggests that in the presence of adequate folic acid, neural tube defects due to B12 deficiency have tripled. Such ‘imbalance of high folic acid and low vitamin B12’ in the elderly causes cognitive impairment. A longitudinal study of young women in India showed that children born to those with ‘high folic acid and low B12’ had higher adiposity and insulin resistance. In addition to increased levels of folic acid, B12 deficiency is increasing in countries with mandatory folic acid fortification. Studies on the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency during pregnancy and in women of childbearing age, plus the effects of B12 supplementation are therefore urgently needed. This article reviews the role of vitamin B12 during pregnancy on the offspring’s metabolic risk.
    The British Journal of Diabetes & Vascular Disease 01/2010; 10(3):109-114.
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    ABSTRACT: Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule-SLAM (CD150) molecule has been reported as a putative receptor for most morbilliviruses for their respective host species. In this study, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for the morbillivirus receptor-SLAM from the four species, namely, goat (Capra hircus), sheep (Ovis aries), Indian cattle (Bos indicus), and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). The nucleotide (nt) open reading frame sequence of SLAM gene in all the four species studied was 1017 nucleotides in length encoding a polypeptide of 339 amino acids (aa), similar to Bos taurus, but different from canine, human, marmoset, and mouse SLAM, which were 1029, 1008, 1011, and 1032 nts, respectively, in length, and coding for 343, 336, 337, and 344 aa, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed 96.3-98.5% and 92.9-96.8% identities among the four species at the nt and aa level, respectively. Sequence diversity at aa level between various species revealed that the critical functional region of SLAM protein among different species is relatively conserved, thereby facilitating this molecule to act as a receptor for morbillivirus. Phylogenetic relationship based on the aa sequences of SLAM protein revealed that caprine, ovine, cattle, and buffalo fall under a defined cluster but caprine SLAM is more closely related to ovine, followed by bovine.
    Virus Genes 09/2009; 39(3):335-41. · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Animal studies suggest that up to 80% of intracellular T(3) in the brain is derived from circulating T(4) by local deiodination. We hypothesized that in patients on T(4) common variants in the deiodinase genes might influence baseline psychological well-being and any improvement on combined T(4)/T(3) without necessarily affecting serum thyroid hormone levels. We analyzed common variants in the three deiodinase genes vs. baseline psychological morbidity and response to T(4)/T(3) in 552 subjects on T(4) from the Weston Area T(4) T(3) Study (WATTS). Primary outcome was improvement in psychological well-being assessed by the General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12). The rarer CC genotype of the rs225014 polymorphism in the deiodinase 2 gene (DIO2) was present in 16% of the study population and was associated with worse baseline GHQ scores in patients on T(4) (CC vs. TT genotype: 14.1 vs. 12.8, P = 0.03). In addition, this genotype showed greater improvement on T(4)/T(3) therapy compared with T(4) only by 2.3 GHQ points at 3 months and 1.4 at 12 months (P = 0.03 for repeated measures ANOVA). This polymorphism had no impact on circulating thyroid hormone levels. Our results require replication but suggest that commonly inherited variation in the DIO2 gene is associated both with impaired baseline psychological well-being on T(4) and enhanced response to combination T(4)/T(3) therapy, but did not affect serum thyroid hormone levels.
    The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 03/2009; 94(5):1623-9. · 6.50 Impact Factor
  • Veterinaria italiana 01/2009; 45:449-462. · 0.52 Impact Factor
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    A. Bhalerao, S. Anand, P. Saravanan
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    ABSTRACT: We present a fast and robust method to correct contrast variation in retinal fundus imagery. The technique uses a mixture of Gaussians to model the bias of the intensity variation. Typically a three or four component mixture is sufficient to characterize the principal variation due to the spherical geometry of the retina, the high-contrast reflection off the optic nerve and the darker macula. We compare the results with a non-parametric, filtering approach on a standard diabetic retinopathy database of 89 images. Our results indicate that a parametric approach using mixture Gaussian is better at contrast stretching in lesion regions making is an effective pre-processing step for manual and computer aided diagnostic techniques.
    Signals, Systems and Computers, 2008 42nd Asilomar Conference on; 11/2008
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    ABSTRACT: An aqueous preparation from Acacia arabica. var. indica. Benth (Mimosaceae) (locally known as “babul”) leaves (BExt) was assessed for its in vitro. antiviral activity using peste des petits ruminants. virus (PPRV) as a test model in the Vero cell system. Cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition, virus titration, cell ELISA, sandwich-ELISA (s-ELISA), and PCR assays were used to determine the antiviral effects (at maximum noncytotoxic concentrations 150 and 200 μg/mL) against PPRV, and in vitro. cytotoxicity assays established the relative safety concentration of the BExt for the cells. BExt inhibited viral infectivity drastically in terms of decreased virus titer and antigen load in a dose-dependent manner either when added to cell monolayers postinfection or when preincubated with virus before adsorption on the cells. Inhibition of cell-free and cell-associated PPRV during replication in presence of BExt in Vero cells, using a multistep growth curve experiment, were assessed by s-ELISA. BExt (200 μg/mL) completely inhibited PPRV replication in Vero cells that were infected with PPRV at 0.01 multiplicity of infection. Incubation of PPRV with BExt (150 and 200 μg/mL) followed by infection had a virucidal effect on subsequent progeny virus yield by a 3 log10 TCID50 reduction. This indicates that active principle(s) of BExt either inactivated the virus or inhibited the viral release. Real-time PCR data based on nucleoprotein gene showed 196.7-and 770.6-fold reduction in the viral load in the presence of BExt concentrations of 150 and 200 μag/mL, respectively, indicating the efficacy of BExt in inhibiting PPRV multiplication. These data suggest that extracts of A. arabica. could be a potential natural antiviral agent for management of PPR disease and also a possible addition in the traditional phyto-antiviral repertoire for viral disease control.
    10/2008; 46(3):171-179.

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