Article: Objectified body consciousness and mental health in female adolescents: cross-cultural evidence from Georgian and Swiss national samples.Emily P Kahumoku, Alexander T Vazsonyi, Karaman Pagava, Helen Phagava, Françoise D Alsaker, Pierre-Andre Michaud[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The current study tested both descriptive and explanatory similarities and differences in a latent objectified body consciousness (OBC) construct and its relationship to three mental health indicators among Georgian and Swiss adolescents. Few studies have been conducted on adolescents; similarly, most work has been completed on U.S. college-age women. School-based questionnaire data were collected from a total of 18,239 adolescents in Georgia (n = 9,499) and Switzerland (n = 8,740), following the same protocol. Participants rated three measures of OBC (body shame, body surveillance, and appearance control beliefs) and three mental health indicators (depressive symptoms, somatic complaints, and suicidal ideation). Final study samples included 2,657 (mean age = 16.4 years) and 3,803 female youth (mean age = 17.8 years), respectively. Data analyses included mean level comparisons, confirmatory factor analysis, path analysis, and multigroup invariance tests. Findings provide support for a latent OBC construct across cultures, with partial evidence of cultural differences (one of two manifest indicators). By contrast, multigroup invariance tests provide consistent evidence of no differences in the relationships between the OBC latent construct and three mental health indicators between Georgian and Swiss samples. Despite mean level differences, findings support a latent OBC construct in both cultures, perhaps slightly more so among Swiss youth. The links between OBC and mental health indicators were also invariant across the two cultures, providing greater support for a global or universal (vs. "cultured") framework of adolescent development related to the constructs and relationships studied.Journal of Adolescent Health 08/2011; 49(2):141-7. · 3.33 Impact Factor
S Gebhard, Y Dorogi, V Giusti, D Stagno, M Lanz, D Schmidt, C Monney Chaubert, J Laget, P-A Michaud, F Stiefel[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: As psychiatric disorders attacking the body, anorexia and bulimia may have severe psychological, physical and social consequences, often requiring a long-standing interdisciplinary, coordinated and individualized approach. Recently the canton of Vaud has initiated and developed an interinstitutional structure--between the University Hospital (CHUV) and the hospitals of the Northern region of the canton (eHnv)--for the care of patients suffering from eating disorders. This structure, allowing the above mentioned approach for the treatment of eating disorders, consists of an outpatient facility located in the CHUV and an inpatient unit in the hospital of Saint Loup of the eHnv. Within this structure, the general practitioner plays a crucial role in the prevention of the chronification of these disorders by means of their early detection and management.Revue médicale suisse 02/2011; 7(282):381-4.
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ABSTRACT: This study explores adolescents' perceptions of adverse consequences linked to their illegal psychoactive substance (IPS) use, as they are often thought to minimise them. From a Swiss nationally representative sample of 8740 adolescents aged 16 to 20 pursuing post-mandatory education, 2515 participants reported IPS use in the past month on a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The percentages of participants reporting problems in four areas (individual, school, relationships and sexual) were assessed, depending on the type of IPS consumption over the last 30 days: occasional cannabis users: ≤2 times; regular cannabis users: ≥3 times; and poly-consumers: cannabis plus at least one other substance used. The percentages varied significantly across these three groups with 26.9% of occasional users, 53.8% of regular users, and 73.3% of poly-consumers reporting at least one problem. Compared to occasional cannabis users, poly-consumers were more likely to report problems in all four categories [relative risk ratio (RRR): 3.38 to 5.44], while regular cannabis users often reported only school and relationship problems [RRR: 2.43 to 3.23]. Thus, many adolescents seem to perceive the negative effects of their IPS use, with heavier consumption being associated with increasing problems. Physicians should feel confident questioning adolescents on the adverse consequences of their IPS consumption, as they are likely to be responsive on this issue.Schweizerische medizinische Wochenschrift 01/2011; 141:w13194. · 1.68 Impact Factor
P A Michaud, F NarringRevue médicale suisse 06/2010; 6(253):1227-8.
Article: [Competence of adolescent minors: a qualitative study of representations in the French-speaking area of Switzerland].[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This exploratory qualitative study run using focus groups investigates the representations in the field of adolescent confidentiality and competence. Four groups of 3 to 8 participants (two of respectively younger and older adolescents, one of parents, one of pediatricians) have participated in a hone hour and a half discussion, than transcribed verbatim and analyzed by main themes. The concept of confidentiality is well known and understood, but the legal framework which underpins it is less well identified, both among young people and adults. Also, while the participants of all four groups agree with the idea that 14 year old youngsters are usually competent, they all admit that there are circumstances in which this statement should be revisited. Physicians report that they do not feel skilled in how to evaluate competence in such specific situations.Revue médicale suisse 06/2010; 6(253):1253-4, 1256-7.