Publications

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    ABSTRACT: Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous. Animal studies found that BPA contributes to development of prostate cancer, but human data are scarce. Our study examined the association between urinary BPA levels and Prostate cancer and assessed the effects of BPA on induction of centrosome abnormalities as an underlying mechanism promoting prostate carcinogenesis. The study, involving 60 urology patients, found higher levels of urinary BPA (creatinine-adjusted) in Prostate cancer patients (5.74 µg/g [95% CI; 2.63, 12.51]) than in non-Prostate cancer patients (1.43 µg/g [95% CI; 0.70, 2.88]) (p = 0.012). The difference was even more significant in patients <65 years old. A trend toward a negative association between urinary BPA and serum PSA was observed in Prostate cancer patients but not in non-Prostate cancer patients. In vitro studies examined centrosomal abnormalities, microtubule nucleation, and anchorage-independent growth in four Prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, C4-2, 22Rv1, PC-3) and two immortalized normal prostate epithelial cell lines (NPrEC and RWPE-1). Exposure to low doses (0.01-100 nM) of BPA increased the percentage of cells with centrosome amplification two- to eight-fold. Dose responses either peaked or reached the plateaus with 0.1 nM BPA exposure. This low dose also promoted microtubule nucleation and regrowth at centrosomes in RWPE-1 and enhanced anchorage-independent growth in C4-2. These findings suggest that urinary BPA level is an independent prognostic marker in Prostate cancer and that BPA exposure may lower serum PSA levels in Prostate cancer patients. Moreover, disruption of the centrosome duplication cycle by low-dose BPA may contribute to neoplastic transformation of the prostate.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e90332. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alternative splicing of estrogen receptor β (ERβ) yields five isoforms, but their functions remain elusive. ERβ isoform 5 (ERβ5) has been positively correlated with better prognosis and longer survival of patients with breast cancer (BCa) in various clinical studies. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory role of ERβ5 in BCa cells. Although ERβ5 does not reduce proliferation of BCa cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, its ectopic expression significantly decreases their survival by sensitizing them to doxorubicin- or cisplatin-induced apoptosis through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Moreover, we discovered Bcl2L12, which belongs to the Bcl-2 family regulating apoptosis, to be a specific interacting partner of ERβ5, but not ERβ1 or ERα, in an estradiol-independent manner. Knockdown of Bcl2L12 enhanced doxorubicin- or cisplatin-induced apoptosis, and this process was further promoted by ectopic expression of ERβ5. Whereas Bcl2L12 was previously shown to inhibit apoptosis through binding to caspase 7, such interaction is reduced in the presence of ERβ5, suggesting a mechanism by which ERβ5 sensitizes cells to apoptosis. In conclusion, ERβ5 interacts with Bcl2L12 and functions in a novel estrogen-independent molecular pathway that promotes chemotherapeutic Agent-Induced in vitro apoptosis of BCa cell lines.
    Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 11/2013; 15(11):1262-71. · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ERβ1 and ERα have overlapping and distinct functions despite their common use of estradiol (E2) as the physiological ligand. These attributes are explained in part by their differential utilization of coregulators and ligands. Although Tip60 has been shown to interact with both receptors, its regulatory role in ERβ1 transactivation has not been defined. In this study, we found that Tip60 enhances transactivation of ERβ1 at the AP-1 site but suppresses its transcriptional activity at the estrogen response element (ERE) site in an E2-independent manner. However, different estrogenic compounds can modify the Tip60 action. The corepressor activity of Tip60 at the ERE site is abolished by diarylpropionitrile, genistein, equol, and bisphenol A, whereas its coactivation at the AP-1 site is augmented by fulvestrant (ICI 182,780). GRIP1 is an important tethering mediator for ERs at the AP-1 site. We found that coexpression of GRIP1 synergizes the action of Tip60. Although Tip60 is a known acetyltransferase, it is unable to acetylate ERβ1 and its coregulatory functions are independent of its acetylation activity. In addition, we showed the co-occupancy of ERβ1 and Tip60 at ERE and AP-1 sites of ERβ1-target genes. Tip60 differentially regulates the endogenous expression of the target genes by modulating the binding of ERβ1 to the cis-regulatory regions. Thus, we have identified Tip60 as the first dual-function coregulator of ERβ1.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Highly toxic bacterial ionophores are commonly used in veterinary medicine, but their therapeutic index is too narrow for human usage. With the goal of developing ionophores with a broader therapeutic index, we constructed highly derivatized synthetic ionophores. The toxicities of crown ether host-rotaxanes (CEHR's) against the SKOV-3 cell line were measured. The effect of Mg(2+) or Ca(2+) on toxicity was explored because changes in the intracellular concentration of these cations can cause cell death through apoptosis. We found Boc-CEHR is highly toxic and Arg-CEHR is slightly less toxic with IC50 values of 0.5 μM and 6 μM, respectively, in standard growth medium. Increasing the concentration of Ca(2+) resulted in greater toxicity of the CEHRs, whereas increasing the concentration of Mg(2+) was less effective on reducing IC50. Cell death occurs mainly through apoptosis. Although preliminary, these results suggest that the CEHRs deliver Ca(2+) and perhaps Mg(2+) into cells inducing apoptosis.
    ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters 01/2013; 4(1):27-31. · 3.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This review focuses on how environmental factors through epigenetics modify disease risk and health outcomes. Major epigenetic events, such as histone modifications, DNA methylation, and microRNA expression, are described. The function of dose, duration, composition, and window of exposure in remodeling the individual's epigenetic terrain and disease susceptibility are addressed. The ideas of lifelong editing of early-life epigenetic memories, transgenerational effects through germline transmission, and the potential role of hydroxylmethylation of cytosine in developmental reprogramming are discussed. Finally, the epigenetic effects of several major classes of environmental factors are reviewed in the context of pathogenesis of disease. These include endocrine disruptors, tobacco smoke, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, infectious pathogens, particulate matter, diesel exhaust particles, dust mites, fungi, heavy metals, and other indoor and outdoor pollutants. We conclude that the summation of epigenetic modifications induced by multiple environmental exposures, accumulated over time, represented as broad or narrow, acute or chronic, developmental or lifelong, may provide a more precise assessment of risk and consequences. Future investigations may focus on their use as readouts or biomarkers of the totality of past exposure for the prediction of future disease risk and the prescription of effective countermeasures.
    ILAR journal / National Research Council, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources 12/2012; 53(3-4):289-305. · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The increased mortality in prostate cancer is usually the result of metastatic progression of the disease from the organ-confined location. Among the major events in this progression cascade are enhanced cell migration and loss of adhesion. Moreover, elevated levels of nitric oxide (NO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) found within the tumor microenvironment are hallmarks of progression of this cancer. To understand the role of nitrosative stress in prostate cancer progression, we investigated the effects of NO and iNOS on prostate cancer cell migration and adhesion. Our results indicate that ectopic expression of iNOS in prostate cancer cells increased the extent of cell migration, which could be blocked by selective ITGα6 blocking antibody or iNOS inhibitors. Furthermore, iNOS was found to cause S-nitrosylation of ITGα6 at Cys86 in prostate cancer cells. By comparing the activities of wild-type ITGα6 and a Cys86 mutant, we showed that treatment of prostate cancer cells with NO increased the level of ITGα6 heterodimerization with ITGβ1 but not with ITGβ4. Finally, S-nitrosylation of ITGα6 weakened its binding to laminin-β1 and weakened the adhesion of prostate cancer cells to laminin-1. In conclusion, S-nitrosylation of ITGα6 increased the extent of prostate cancer cell migration, which could be a potential mechanism of NO- and iNOS-induced enhancement of prostate cancer metastasis.
    Biochemistry 11/2012; 51(48):9689–9697. · 3.38 Impact Factor
  • Pheruza Tarapore, Kazuhiko Hanashiro, Kenji Fukasawa
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    ABSTRACT: BRCA1, a product of a familial breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene, localizes to centrosomes and physically interacts with γ-tubulin, a key centrosomal protein for microtubule nucleation and anchoring at centrosomes. Here, we performed a rigorous analysis of centrosome localization of BRCA1, and found that BRCA1 is specifically associated with mother centrioles in unduplicated centrosomes, and daughter centrioles acquire BRCA1 prior to initiation of duplication, and thus duplicated centrosomes are both bound by BRCA1. We further found that BRCA1 suppresses centrosomal aster formation. In addition, we identified a new domain of BRCA1 critical for γ-tubulin binding, which confers not only its localization to centrosomes, but also its activity to suppress centrosomal aster formation.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 08/2012; 11(15):2931-46. · 5.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Estrogen receptor (ER) β was discovered over a decade ago. The design of most studies on this receptor was based on knowledge of its predecessor, ERα. Although breast cancer (BCa) has been a main focus of ERβ research, its precise roles in breast carcinogenesis remain elusive. Data from in vitro models have not always matched those from observational or clinical studies. Several inherent factors may contribute to these discrepancies: (a) several ERβ spliced variants are expressed at the protein level, and isoform-specific antibodies are unavailable for some variants; (b) post-translational modifications of the receptor regulate receptor functions; (c) the role of the receptor differs significantly depending on the type of ligands, cis-elements, and co-regulators that interact with the receptor; and (d) the diversity of distribution of the receptor among intracellular organelles of BCa cells. This review addresses the gaps in knowledge in ERβ research as it pertains to BCa regarding the following questions: (1) is ERβ a tumor suppressor in BCa?; (2) do ERβ isoforms play differential roles in breast carcinogenesis?; (3) do nuclear signaling and extranuclear ERβ signaling differ in BCa?; (4) what are the consequences of post-translational modifications of ERβ in BCa?; (5) how do co-regulators and interacting proteins increase functional diversity of ERβ?; and (6) how do the types of ligand and regulatory cis-elements affect the action of ERβ in BCa?. Insights gained from these key questions in ERβ research should help in prevention, diagnosis/prognosis, and treatment of BCa.
    Steroids 03/2012; 77(7):727-37. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    Pheruza Tarapore, Yi Shu, Peixuan Guo, Shuk-Mei Ho
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    ABSTRACT: Ovarian cancer is a highly metastatic and lethal disease, making it imperative to find treatments that target late-stage malignant tumors. The packaging RNA (pRNA) of bacteriophage phi29 DNA-packaging motor has been reported to function as a highly versatile vehicle to carry small interference RNA (siRNA) for silencing of survivin. In this article, we explore the potential of pRNA as a vehicle to carry siRNA specifically targeted to metallothionein-IIa (MT-IIA) messenger RNA (mRNA), and compare it to survivin targeting pRNA. These two anti-apoptotic cell survival factors promote tumor cell viability, and are overexpressed in recurrent tumors. We find that pRNA chimeras targeting MT-IIA are processed into double-stranded siRNA by dicer, are localized within the GW/P-bodies, and are more potent than siRNA alone in silencing MT-IIA expression. Moreover, knockdown of both survivin and MT-IIA expression simultaneously results in more potent effects on cell proliferation in the aggressive ovarian tumor cell lines than either alone, suggesting that therapeutic approaches that target multiple genes are essential for molecular therapy. The folate receptor-targeted delivery of siRNA by the folate-pRNA dimer emphasizes the cancer cell-specific aspect of this system. The pRNA system, which has the capability to assemble into multivalent nanoparticles, has immense promise as a highly potent therapeutic agent.
    Molecular Therapy 11/2010; 19(2):386-94. · 7.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abnormal amplification of centrosomes is the major cause of mitotic defects and chromosome instability in cancer cells. Centrosomes duplicate once in each cell cycle, and abrogation of the regulatory mechanism underlying centrosome duplication leads to centrosome amplification. p53 tumor suppressor protein is involved in the regulation of centrosome duplication: loss of p53 as well as expression of certain p53 mutants result in deregulated centrosome duplication and centrosome amplification. p53 at least in part depends on its transactivation function to control centrosome duplication, primarily via upregulation of p21 cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, which prevents untimely activation of CDK2/cyclin E, a key initiator of centrosome duplication. However, numerous studies have shown the presence of p53 at centrosomes, yet the role of the centrosomally localized p53 in the regulation of centrosome duplication had been enigmatic. Here, we comparatively examined wild-type p53 and p53 mutants that are transactivation(+)/centrosome-binding(-), transactivation(-)/centrosome-binding(+) and transactivation(-)/centrosome-binding(-) for their abilities to control centrosome duplication. We found that the transactivation(+)/centrosome-binding(-) and transactivation(-)/centrosome-binding(+) mutants suppress centrosome duplication only partially compared with wild-type p53. Moreover, the transactivation(-)/centrosome-binding(-) mutant almost completely lost the ability to suppress centrosome duplication. These observations provide direct evidence for the centrosomally localized p53 to participate in the regulation of centrosome duplication in a manner independent of its transactivation function in addition to its transactivation-dependent regulation of centrosome duplication.
    Oncogene 06/2007; 26(20):2939-44. · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nucleophosmin (NPM) is a multifunctional phosphoprotein, being involved in ribosome assembly, pre-ribosomal RNA processing, DNA duplication, nucleocytoplasmic protein trafficking, and centrosome duplication. NPM is phosphorylated by several kinases, including nuclear kinase II, casein kinase 2, Polo-like kinase 1 and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK1 and 2), and these phosphorylations modulate the activity and function of NPM. We have previously identified Thr(199) as the major phosphorylation site of NPM mediated by CDK2/cyclin E (and A), and this phosphorylation is involved in the regulation of centrosome duplication. In this study, we further examined the effect of CDK2-mediated phosphorylation of NPM by using the antibody that specifically recognizes NPM phosphorylated on Thr(199). We found that the phospho-Thr(199) NPM localized to dynamic sub-nuclear structures known as nuclear speckles, which are believed to be the sites of storage and/or assembly of pre-mRNA splicing factors. Phosphorylation on Thr(199) by CDK2/cyclin E (and A) targets NPM to nuclear speckles, and enhances the RNA-binding activity of NPM. Moreover, phospho-Thr(199) NPM, but not unphosphorylated NPM, effectively represses pre-mRNA splicing. These findings indicate the involvement of NPM in the regulation of pre-mRNA processing, and its activity is controlled by CDK2-mediated phosphorylation on Thr(199).
    FEBS Letters 02/2006; 580(2):399-409. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nucleophosmin (NPM)/B23 is a multifunctional protein, involving in a wide variety of basic cellular processes, including ribosome assembly, DNA duplication, nucleocytoplasmic trafficking, and centrosome duplication. It has previously been shown that NPM/B23 localizes to centrosomes, and dissociate from centrosomes upon phosphorylation by Cdk2/cyclin E. However, detail characterization of centrosomal association of NPM/B23 has been hampered by the lack of appropriate antibodies that efficiently detects centrosomally localized NPM/B23, as well as by apparent loss of natural behavior of NPM/B23 when tagged with fluorescent proteins. Here, by the use of newly generated anti-NPM/B23 antibody, we conducted a careful analysis of centrosomal localization of NPM/B23. We found that NPM/B23 localizes between the paired centrioles of unduplicated centrosomes, suggesting the role of NPM/B23 in the centriole pairing. Upon initiation of centrosome duplication, some NPM/B23 proteins remain at mother centrioles of the parental centriole pairs. We further found that inhibition of Crm1 nuclear export receptor results in both accumulation of cyclin E at centrosomes and efficient dissociation of NPM/B23 from centrosomes.
    FEBS Letters 01/2006; 579(29):6621-34. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The liver exhibits an exquisitely controlled cell cycle, wherein hepatocytes are maintained in quiescence until stimulated to proliferate. The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor, pRB, plays a central role in proliferative control by inhibiting inappropriate cell cycle entry. In many cases, liver cancer arises due to aberrant cycles of proliferation, and correspondingly, pRB is functionally inactivated in the majority of hepatocellular carcinomas. Therefore, to determine how pRB loss may provide conditions permissive for deregulated hepatocyte proliferation, we investigated the consequence of somatic pRB inactivation in murine liver. We show that liver-specific pRB loss results in E2F target gene deregulation and elevated cell cycle progression during post-natal growth. However, in adult livers, E2F targets are repressed and hepatocytes become quiescent independent of pRB, suggesting that other factors may compensate for pRB loss. Therefore, to probe the consequences of acute pRB inactivation in livers of adult mice, we gave adenoviral-Cre by i.v. injection. We show that acute pRB loss is sufficient to elicit E2F target gene expression and cell cycle entry in adult liver, demonstrating a critical role for pRB in maintaining hepatocyte quiescence. Finally, we show that liver-specific pRB loss results in the development of nuclear pleomorphism associated with elevated ploidy that is evident in adult mice harboring both acute and chronic pRB loss. Together, these results show the crucial role played by pRB in maintaining hepatocyte quiescence and ploidy in adult liver in vivo and underscore the critical importance of delineating the consequences of acute pRB loss in adult animals.
    Cancer Research 07/2005; 65(11):4568-77. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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    Pheruza Tarapore, Kenji Fukasawa
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    ABSTRACT: Loss or mutational inactivation of p53 has been shown to lead to abnormal amplification of centrosomes through deregulation of the centrosome duplication cycle and failure to undergo cytokinesis. In mouse cells, most cases of centrosome hyperamplification are attributed to deregulation of centrosome duplication. The presence of excess copies of centrosomes increases the frequency of mitotic defects, leading to unbalanced chromosome transmission to daughter cells. p53 controls centrosome duplication via transactivation-dependent and transactivation-independent mechanisms. In its transactivation-dependent control, p21(Waf1/Cip1) acts as a major effector, likely guarding against untimely activation of CDK2/cyclin E kinase, hence ensuring the coordinated initiation of centrosome and DNA duplication. p53 appears to exert its transactivation-independent control through direct physical binding to the centrosomes.
    Oncogene 10/2002; 21(40):6234-40. · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    Pheruza Tarapore, Masaru Okuda, Kenji Fukasawa
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    ABSTRACT: Centrosome duplication in mammalian cells is a highly regulated process, occurs in coordination of other cell cycle events. However, molecular exploration of this important cellular process had been difficult due to unavailability of a simple assay system. Here, using centrosomes loosely associated with nuclei isolated from cultured cells, we developed a cell-free centriole (duplication unit of the centrosome) duplication system: unduplicated centrosomes bound to the nuclei are able to undergo duplication in the presence of G1/S extracts. We show that the ability of G1/S extracts to induce centriole duplication in vitro depends on the presence of active CDK2/cyclin E. It has been shown that dissociation of centro-somal nucleophosmin (NPM)/B23 triggered by CDK2/cyclin E-mediated phosphorylation is required for initiation of centrosome duplication. We show that centriole duplication is blocked when nuclei were preincubated with the anti-NPM/B23 antibody that prevents phosphorylation of NPM/B23 by CDK2/cyclin E. These studies provide not only direct evidence for the requirement of CDK2/cyclin E and phosphorylation of NPM/B23 for centrosomes to initiate duplication, but a valuable experimental system for further exploration of the molecular regulation of centrosome duplication in somatic cells of higher animals.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 02/2002; 1(1):75-81. · 5.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The p53 tumor suppressor protein regulates centrosome duplication through multiple pathways, and p21(Waf1/Cip1) (Waf1), a major target of p53's transactivation function, has been shown to be one of the effectors. However, it had been unclear whether the p53's Waf1-independent centrosome duplication regulatory pathways require its transactivation function. In human cancers, specific residues of p53 are mutated at a high frequency. These 'hot spot' mutations abrogate p53's transactivation function. If p53 regulates centrosome duplication in a transactivation-independent manner, different 'hot spot' mutants may regulate centrosome duplication differently. To test this, we examined the effect of two 'hot spot' mutants (R175H and R249S) for their centrosome duplication regulatory activities. We found that R175H lost the ability to regulate centrosome duplication, while R249S partially retained it. Moreover, R249S associates with both unduplicated and duplicated centrosomes similar to wild-type p53, while R175H only associates with duplicated, but not unduplicated centrosomes. Since cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) triggers initiation of centrosome duplication, and p53 is phosphorylated on Ser 315 by CDK2, we examined the p53 mutants with a replacement of Ser 315 to Ala (A) and Asp (D), both of which retain the transactivation function. We found that S315D retained a complete centrosome duplication activity, while S315A only partially retained it. Moreover, S315D associates with both unduplicated and duplicated centrosomes, while S315A associates with only duplicated, but not unduplicated centrosomes. Thus, p53 controls the centrosome duplication cycle both in transactivation-dependent and transactivation-independent manners, and the ability to bind to unduplicated centrosomes, which is controlled by phosphorylation on Ser 315, may be important for the overall p53-mediated regulation of centrosome duplication.
    Oncogene 11/2001; 20(47):6851-63. · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The function of the centrosomes to direct mitotic spindles is critical for accurate chromosome transmission to daughter cells. Since each daughter cell inherits one centrosome, each centrosome must duplicate prior to the next mitosis, and do so only once. Thus, there are control mechanism(s) that ensure the coordinated progression of centrosome duplication and other cell cycle events (i.e. DNA synthesis), and limit centrosome duplication to once per cell cycle. Deregulation of the centrosome duplication cycle results in abnormal amplification of centrosomes, leading to aberrant mitoses and increased chromosome transmission errors. This has been found to be the case for cells lacking functional p53 tumor suppressor protein. However, it had remained to be determined whether the deregulation of the centrosome duplication cycle is the direct or indirect effect of loss/mutational inactivation of p53. Here, we found that the normal centrosome duplication cycle is almost completely restored in p53(-/-) cells by re-introduction of wild-type p53 at a physiologically relevant level, demonstrating that p53 is directly involved in the regulation of centrosome duplication. Since cyclin dependent kinase 2 (CDK2)/cyclin E triggers DNA synthesis as well as centrosome duplication, we tested whether Waf1, a CDK inhibitor and a major target of p53's transactivation function, is an effector of p53-mediated regulation of centrosome duplication. We found that induced expression of Waf1 in p53(-/-) cells only partially restored the centrosome duplication control, suggesting that Waf1 comprises one of the multiple effector pathways of the p53-mediated regulation of the centrosome duplication cycle.
    Oncogene 06/2001; 20(25):3173-84. · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The kinase activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2)-cyclin E is required for centrosomes to initiate duplication. We have recently found that nucleophosmin (NPM/B23), a phosphoprotein primarily found in nucleolus, associates with unduplicated centrosomes and is a direct substrate of CDK2-cyclin E in centrosome duplication. Upon phosphorylation by CDK2-cyclin E, NPM/B23 dissociates from centrosomes, which is a prerequisite step for centrosomes to initiate duplication. Here, we identified that threonine 199 (Thr(199)) of NPM/B23 is the major phosphorylation target site of CDK2-cyclin E in vitro, and the same site is phosphorylated in vivo. NPM/T199A, a nonphosphorylatable NPM/B23 substitution mutant (Thr(199) --> Ala) acts as dominant negative when expressed in cells, resulting in specific inhibition of centrosome duplication. As expected, NPM/T199A remains associated with the centrosomes. These observations provide direct evidence that the CDK2-cyclin E-mediated phosphorylation on Thr(199) determines association and dissociation of NPM/B23 to the centrosomes, which is a critical control for the centrosome to initiate duplication.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2001; 276(24):21529-37. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In animal cells, duplication of centrosomes and DNA is coordinated. Since CDK2/cyclin E triggers initiation of both events, activation of CDK2/cyclin E is thought to link these two events. We identified nucleophosmin (NPM/B23) as a substrate of CDK2/cyclin E in centrosome duplication. NPM/B23 associates specifically with unduplicated centrosomes, and NPM/B23 dissociates from centrosomes by CDK2/cyclin E-mediated phosphorylation. An anti-NPM/B23 antibody, which blocks this phosphorylation, suppresses the initiation of centrosome duplication in vivo. Moreover, expression of a nonphosphorylatable mutant NPM/ B23 in cells effectively blocks centrosome duplication. Thus, NPM/B23 is a target of CDK2/cyclin E in the initiation of centrosome duplication.
    Cell 10/2000; 103(1):127-40. · 31.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Centrosome hyperamplification and the consequential mitotic defects contribute to chromosome instability in cancers. Loss or mutational inactivation of p53 has been shown to induce chromosome instability through centrosome hyperamplification. It has recently been found that Cdk2-cyclin E is involved in the initiation of centrosome duplication, and that constitutive activation of Cdk2-cyclin E results in the uncoupling of the centrosome duplication cycle and the DNA replication cycle. Cyclin E overexpression and p53 mutations occur frequently in tumors. Here, we show that cyclin E overexpression and loss of p53 synergistically increase the frequency of centrosome hyperamplification in cultured cells as well as in tumors developed in p53-null, heterozygous, and wildtype mice. Through examination of cells derived from Waf1-null mice, we further found that Waf1, a potent inhibitor of Cdk2-cyclin E and a major target of p53's transactivation function, is involved in coordinating the initiation of centrosome duplication and DNA replication, suggesting that Waf1 may act as a molecular link between p53 and Cdk2-cyclin E in the control of the centrosome duplication cycle.
    Oncogene 04/2000; 19(13):1635-46. · 8.56 Impact Factor

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