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    ABSTRACT: Game-based learning has been used to teach topics in diverse domains, but it is still hard to determine when such approaches are an efficient learning technique. In this paper we focus on one open challenge – the limited understanding in the community of the types of knowledge these games help to develop. Using a taxonomy that distinguishes between declarative, procedural and conditional knowledge, we evaluate a game-based toolkit to analyse and solve an information security problem within a holistic crime prevention framework. Twenty-eight participants used the toolkit. We designed a portfolio of learning assessment measures to capture learning of different types of knowledge. The measures included two theoretical open-answer questions to explore participants' understanding, three problem-specific open-answer questions to test their ability to apply the framework, and 9 multiple-choice questions to test their ability to transfer what was learned to other contexts. The assessment measures were administered before and after use of the toolkit. The application questions were analysed by classifying suggested ideas. The theoretical questions were qualitatively analysed using a set of analytical techniques. The transferability questions were statistically analysed using t-tests. Our results show that participants' answers to the application questions improved in quality after the use of the toolkit. In their answers to the theoretical questions most participants could explain the key features of the toolkit. Statistical analysis of the multiple-choice questions testing transferability however failed to demonstrate significant improvement. Whilist our participants understood the CCO framework and learned how to use the toolkit, participants didn't demonstrate transfer of knowledge to other situations in information security. We discuss our results, limitations of the study design and possible lessons to be learned from these.
    7th European Conference on Games Based Learning; 10/2013
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    ABSTRACT: This paper reports on a case study of using rapid prototyping to develop a serious game about crime prevention. Five small-scale formative evaluations (with a total of 17 participants) were used to guide the collect user requirements and formative feedback. Early formative results are positive and provided early signals on what needs to be changed in the game design and what could be kept. Evaluations also provided valuable feedback for the underlying subject matter theory. The process used in this research could possibly be transferred and adopted in other serious game development projects, resulting in low-cost development and early feedback on game design ideas.
    01/2013; 8(1).
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we propose the fundaments of a design of an exploratory simulation of security management in a corporate environment. The model brings together theory and research findings on causes of information security risks in order to analyse diverse roles interacting through scripts. The framework is an adaptation of theoretical and empirical research in general crime prevention for the purposes of cybercrime. Its aim is to provide insights into the prerequisites for a more functional model.
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    Jason Roach, Paul Ekblom, Richard Flynn
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    ABSTRACT: This paper outlines a framework which draws together the currently fragmented understandings of, and actions against, terrorism. The 'conjunction of terrorist opportunity' (CTO) stems from a widely known equivalent in crime prevention. Detailed distinctions emerge which clarify the relationship between crime and terrorism. There is special emphasis on historical and higher-level emergent causes, including terrorists' pursuit of strategic objectives and the career of the terrorist organisation itself, as it co-evolves with the society trying to frustrate and destroy it. But the framework seeks to anchor these understandings by reference to terrorist events and their immediate causes. On the basis of this analysis a suite of interventions can then be chosen to match terrorist problem and context and to reflect tactical and strategic priorities. Although the framework is only sketched here, it appears sufficiently promising to test out on a range of case studies by diagnosing causes and describing or suggesting interventions.
    Security Journal 05/2005; 18(3):7-25. DOI:10.1057/ · 0.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been debated for some time whether lower rates of personal victimisation among the elderly are due to the fact that - because of fear or other reasons - they shield themselves from situations in which they might be victimised. This ‘differential exposure’ explanation is examined using data from the 1982 British Crime Survey which provides risks for different age/ sex groups and detailed information about respondents' ‘lifestyles’. Looking at evening ‘street’ offences, differences in risks between the age groups change very little when account is taken of different patterns of going out: irrespective of frequency, means of travel, destination and activity, the elderly are still less frequently victimised. Some theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
    The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice 01/1985; 24(1):1 - 9. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-2311.1985.tb00509.x

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