Otto Adang

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Chair, public order management

Publications

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    ABSTRACT: This paper introduces a relational perspective to the analysis of the interaction process from confrontation to cooperation between police and civilians. By exploring a single case study on riots between Dutch youths of Moluccan descent and the police during New Year's Eve 2007, followed by a peaceful celebration a year later in 2008, the process of reconciliation between the two groups is reconstructed and analysed. By means of a comparison of the relationship nature before and after the confrontation and an in-depth analysis of post-conflict interaction, it is shown how institutional, group and individual interactions affected the change from confrontation to cooperation.
    Policing and Society 01/2014; 24(4). · 0.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of computer simulations in crowd research is a powerful tool to describe and analyse complex social systems. This paper presents CROSS, a generic framework to model crowd simulations as a social scientific tool for understanding crowd behaviour. In CROSS, individuals are represented by social-cognitive agents that are affected by their social and physical surroundings and produce cognition-based behaviour and behaviour patterns. Understanding is sought by relating intra- and inter-individual levels of behaviour generation with behaviour pattern emergence at group level. By specifying the CROSS framework for a festival context we demonstrate how CROSS meets the need for a theory that reflects the dynamic interplay between individuals and their environment as well as the need for a method that allows for testing.
    Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, The 10/2013; 16 (4)(1). · 1.16 Impact Factor
  • Otto M.J. Adang
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    ABSTRACT: Following disturbances during the EU summit in Gothenburg in 2001, the Swedish police adopted a new concept, called special police tactics, for the policing of public order. In 2006, the Swedish National Police Board decided to start a 3-year project to develop a long term strategy for knowledge development with regard to these tactics, integrating research, training, and practice. This article reports on the set up and results of this reform project. Changes in the planning, carrying out and evaluation of police operations at major events were observed. The project provided a theoretical foundation for the special police tactics and a practical evaluation method for continuous knowledge development. The project methodology contributed to a developmental climate in the special police tactics organization. The project work also reinforced the basis for public order policing of crowds, to contribute to upholding consitutional rights of assembly and freedom of speech.
    Policing 10/2012;
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    Otto M.J Adang
    Cuadernos de Seguridad, (Instituto Nacional de Estudios Estratégicos de la Seguridad Ministerio de Seguridad – República Argentina). 08/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a case study of the riots in the Dutch neighbourhood of Ondiep (Utrecht) that took place after a police officer shot a local resident with fatal consequences on 11 March 2007. It is based on a study carried out by the Police Academy of The Netherlands and the Tilburg School of Politics and Public Administration (University of Tilburg) and its resulting publication: ‘Riots in Ondiep: the onset and engagement of large-scale public disturbances in a disadvantaged neighbourhood of Utrecht’. The research group aimed to establish a reconstruction of the events and circumstances of those riots as experienced by the different parties to the events. This paper gives a brief overview of the events as they occurred with a particular focus on the actions of the Utrecht police department and their safety partners. It is argued that a combination of repressive measures and an emphasis on police–community relations prevented the riots from spreading to the general population of Ondiep, by looking at some of the short and long-term actions, tactics and strategies of the Utrecht police.
    Policing and Society 09/2011; 21(3):304-326. · 0.69 Impact Factor
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    Otto M.J. Adang
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    ABSTRACT: Police forces differ in the methods of intervention used to maintain law and order in major events that endanger public order, like high risk soccer matches and certain public demonstrations. Traditionally, the emphasis on police performance and training is put on riot control tactics and use of nonlethal weapons, from batons and chemicals to water cannons and rubber bullets. Most studies generally fail to consider the perspective of the police and ignore the fact that the events of public order are intergroup processes and a consequence of interactions in development. In this paper, we present the results of some empirical research on the role of police in maintaining public order, which put into question the traditional perspectives of behavior of the masses.
    Caderno CRH 12/2010; 23(60):475-486.
  • OTTO M. J. ADANG
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    ABSTRACT: Long-term data on the occurrence of “teasing” in young chimpanzees living in the Arnhem Zoo chimpanzee colony are presented. They strengthen the hypotheses—presented in earlier papers—concerning the existence of two functional forms of this so-called quasi-aggressive behaviour and provide insight into the way in which they develop. Developmental changes are visible both in the performance of quasi-aggressive behaviour and in the effects evoked by the behaviour. The purpose of the reducing uncertainty type of quasi-aggressive behaviour, performed by male and female youngsters towards adult females, is to obtain more predictable responses. As youngsters grow older, they engage in this behaviour also to gain control over the responses of the target animals. Eventually, the quasi-aggressive behaviour of male youngsters develops into adult-like bluff and attack behaviour the purpose of which is to establish dominance relationships. The investigating authority type of quasi-aggressive behaviour, directed towards adult males, is associated increasingly with the exercise of power by the target males. The youngsters increasingly behave submissively towards the males and direct quasi-aggressive behaviour especially towards the alpha-male at moments when he is bluffing or involved in other conspicuous social interactions. These and other changes in the relationship between adult males and male youngsters are already visible well before the onset of puberty in the youngsters.It is discussed in how far the development of these exploratory aggression types involves social learning processes and how this fits in with current concepts concerning the development of aggressive behaviour.
    Ethology 04/2010; 73(2):136 - 160. · 1.95 Impact Factor
  • Martina Schreiber, Otto Adang
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    ABSTRACT: This study examines how Dortmund police dealt with the dilemma of providing for both a ‘time to make friends’ and security at the high-risk game between Germany and Poland during the World Cup 2006. It was expected that the application of a friendly but firm low profile approach would establish positive group relations and marginalize disorderly behaviour. Data collection was carried out in real time on policing strategy and tactics and fan psychology, using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Specifically, the study compares two incidents that occurred in the city centre on match day, resulting in more than 400 arrests. Findings suggest that a successful event is not only related to the absence of disorder but a matter of facilitating legitimate behaviour, while a concentration on risk fans bears the danger of creating a self-fulfilling prophecy. The role of preventive arrests and media reports are also discussed.
    Sport in Society. 04/2010; 13(3):470-488.
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    Otto Adang
    Revista Catalana de Seguretat Pública; Núm.: 21 noviembre edición en castellano. 01/2010;
  • Martina Schreiber, Otto Adang
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    ABSTRACT: The FIFA World Championships 2006 in Germany have been praised for their positive atmosphere and described as a ‘fairy tale’. Yet, more than 9000 persons were arrested. This paper presents an analysis of police tactics and deployments and their relation to the frequency of incidents and the group relations between fans and between fans and police. Data collection was carried out within three host cities in North Rhine-Westphalia in relation to 10 games of the tournament, drawing on a combination of structured and qualitative observational methods. The outcomes are mixed. Group relations were mostly positive, indicated by positive interaction between fan groups; however, frequency of incidents and arrests suggest that the tournament was not as peaceful as the media coverage may have implied. Deeper analyses suggest that legitimate group relations and positive fan behaviour were associated with differentiated policing, carried out in relation to the situational context and the actual risk present.
    Policing and Society 01/2010; 20(2):237-255. · 0.69 Impact Factor
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    Otto Adang
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    ABSTRACT: En general, l’avaluació sobre operatius policials de gran envergadura es limita a casos de desordre sever i es dificulta per la tensió emergent per la recerca de culpes i l’aprenentatge per al futur. L’avaluació, però, hauria de ser un mitjà per identificar les pràctiques recomanables i millorar la professionalitat, en lloc de ser un instrument per sancionar o justificar. Per a un cos policial que està interessat en l’aprenentatge organitzatiu no és rellevant si va haver-hi o no desordre greu. El Grup de Treball de Cooperació Policial de la Unió Europea va acordar formar uns equips d’avaluació policial amb integrants de diferents països per dur a terme, de manera voluntària, avaluacions sobre la gestió de l’ordre públic en el context de partits de futbol internacionals. La iniciativa té l’objectiu de contribuir significativament a l’aprenentatge organitzatiu facilitant la identificació de pràctiques recomanables, l’intercanvi d’experiències i el desenvolupament continu de normes professionals.
    Revista Catalana de Seguretat Pública. 11/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: This article provides the background to an international project on use of force by the police that was carried out in seven countries. Force is often considered to be the defining characteristic of policing and much research has been conducted on the determinants, prevalence and control of the use of force, particularly in the United States. However, little work has looked at police officers' own views on the use of force, in particular the way in which they justify it. Using a hypothetical encounter developed for this project, researchers in each country conducted focus groups with police officers in which they were encouraged to talk about the use of force. The results show interesting similarities and differences across countries and demonstrate the value of using this kind of research focus and methodology. Yes Yes
    Crime Law and Social Change 01/2009; · 0.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This article focuses on a research project conducted in six jurisdictions: England, The Netherlands, Germany, Australia, Venezuela, and Brazil. These societies are very different ethnically, socially, politically, economically, historically and have wildly different levels of crime. Their policing arrangements also differ significantly: how they are organised; how their officers are equipped and trained; what routine operating procedures they employ; whether they are armed; and much else besides. Most relevant for this research, they represent policing systems with wildly different levels of police shootings, Police in the two Latin American countries represented here have a justified reputation for the frequency with which they shoot people, whereas at the other extreme the police in England do not routinely carry firearms and rarely shoot anyone. To probe whether these differences are reflected in the way that officers talk about the use of force, police officers in these different jurisdictions were invited to discuss in focus groups a scenario in which police are thwarted in their attempt to arrest two youths (one of whom is a known local criminal) by the youths driving off with the police in pursuit, and concludes with the youths crashing their car and escaping in apparent possession of a gun, It might be expected that focus groups would prove starkly different, and indeed they were, but not in the way that might be expected. There was little difference in affirmation of normative and legal standards regarding the use of force. It was in how officers in different jurisdictions envisaged the circumstances in which the scenario took place that led Latin American officers to anticipate that they would shoot the suspects, whereas officers in the other jurisdictions had little expectation that they would open fire in the conditions as they imagined them to be.
    Crime Law and Social Change 01/2009; · 0.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper contributes to the science of crowd dynamics and psychology by examining the social psychological processes related to the relative absence of "hooliganism" at the Finals of the 2004 Union Européenne de Football Association (UEFA) Football (Soccer) Championships in Portugal. Quantitative data from a structured observational study is integrated with data from a questionnaire survey of a group associated ubiquitously with 'hooliganism'--namely England fans. This analysis provides support for the contention that the absence of 'disorder' can be attributed in large part to the non-paramilitary policing style adopted in cities hosting tournament matches. Evidence is presented which suggests that this style of policing supported forms of non-violent collective psychology that, in turn, served to psychologically marginalise violent groups from the wider community of fans. The study highlights the mutually constructive relationships that can be created between psychological theory, research, policing policy and practice, particularly in relation to the successful management of 'public order'. The paper concludes by exploring some of the wider implications of this research for theory, policy, the management of crowds, social conflict, and human rights more generally. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychology Public Policy and Law 04/2008; 14(2):115-141. · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Much public order policing is still based on the assumption that crowds are inherently irrational and dangerous. We argue that this approach is both misinformed and counter-productive because it can lead to policing interventions that increase the influence of those advocating violence in the crowd. We challenge traditional assumptions about crowd psychology and demonstrate how widespread conflict derives from the interactions between police and crowds. From this, we develop general guidelines as to how policing can reduce crowd violence and lead crowd members themselves to self-police violent groupings in their midst. We then use examples from anti-globalisation protests and the Euro 2004 football championships to show how these guidelines can be applied in practice and how effective they can be. We conclude by arguing that such knowledge-based crowd policing can turn crowd events into opportunities to overcome seemingly intractable conflicts between the police and groups within our society.
    01/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents an analysis of collective behaviour among England football fans attending the European football championships in Portugal (Euro2004). Given this category's violent reputation, a key goal was to explore the processes underlying their apparent shift away from conflict in match cities. Drawing from the elaborated social identity model of crowd behaviour (ESIM) data were obtained using semi-structured observations and interviews before, during and after the tournament. Qualitative analysis centres first on three key incidents in match cities where the potential for violence was undermined either by ‘self-policing’ among England fans, or by appropriately targeted police intervention. These are contrasted with two ‘riots’ involving England fans that occurred in Algarve during the tournament. A phenomenological analysis of England fans' accounts suggests that the contexts created by different forms of policing helped bring to the fore different understandings of what constituted proper and possible behaviour among England fans, and that these changes in identity content underpinned shifts toward and away from collective conflict. The implications of this analysis for the ESIM, understanding public order policing, social change and social conflict are discussed. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    European Journal of Social Psychology 12/2006; 37(1):75 - 100. · 1.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose – This paper examines potential correlates of the effectiveness of oleoresin capsicum (OC) or pepper spray and police officer satisfaction with its performance during use-of-force encounters. Design/methodology/approach – Based on surveys completed by police officers, superior officers, and substitute prosecutors, data on nearly 800 uses of OC by Dutch police forces occurring between June 1, 2001 and December 31, 2002 were obtained. Ordered and generalized ordered logistic regressions are used for the analysis. Findings – The paper shows that although OC was generally effective, it was less effective on suspects under the influence of drugs, violent suspects, minority suspects, and suspects who were warned before being exposed to OC. Officers with more job experience reported OC as being more effective than officers with less experience. OC reduced aggressiveness among suspects already aggressive, but it induced aggression among initially non-aggressive subjects. The vast majority of officers were satisfied with OC's performance during the study period, although ratings were affected by its ability to ease arrests, incapacitate suspects, and reduce suspect aggressiveness. Research limitations/implications – The OC incidents on which the analysis is based are a subset of all actual uses, and thus may not be representative. Several of the regressors are based on officer perception, and may be subject to measurement error. Practical implications – The findings in this paper have implications for police policy, practice, and training, and officer and suspect safety. Originality/value – This is one of very few studies to use multiple-regression to examine correlates of OC effectiveness and officer satisfaction, and it expands upon the prior literature by including additional measures of OC performance. The results should be of value to law enforcement agencies and officers using OC, and those considering its adoption.
    Policing An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management 03/2006; 29(2):282-305. · 0.55 Impact Factor
  • Otto M.J. Adang, Jos Mensink
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    ABSTRACT: The paper presents data on street trials held with pepper spray in four police forces in The Netherlands and compares these with other research findings, specifically with regard to the safety and effectiveness of pepper spray and the position of pepper spray in the use-of-force continuum. There is little doubt that the use of Oleoresin Capsicum can be a real bonus in situations where suspects have some sort of impact weapon or are violent. However, designating pepper spray as the preferred option in situations where suspects are verbally resistive seems unreasonable and could even be seen as a form of abuse. The solution to safe and responsible police interventions in potentially dangerous situations should not be sought one-sidedly in technology, but also in improving tactical and technical skills of police officers.
    Policing An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management 05/2004; 27(2):206-219. · 0.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper uses recent developments in crowd psychology as the basis for developing new guidelines for public order policing. Argues that the classical view of all crowd members as being inherently irrational and suggestible, and therefore potentially violent, is both wrong and potentially dangerous. It can lead to policing strategies that respond to the violence of some in the crowd by clamping down on all members, and therefore lead all members to perceive the police as hostile and illegitimate. In such conditions, even those who were initially opposed to violence may come to side with more conflictual crowd members and hence contribute to an escalation in the level and scope of collective conflict. This paper argues that police officers need to concentrate on understanding the collective identities, priorities and intentions of different groups in the crowd and give the same priority to facilitating the lawful intentions of some groups as to controlling the unlawful intentions of others.
    Policing An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management 01/2004; 27(4):558-572. · 0.55 Impact Factor
  • Otto M. J. Adang
    Aggressive Behavior 01/1993; 19(6):465-466. · 2.25 Impact Factor

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