Answer added in Tectonics12 Stress at the tip of a coseismic ruptureBy Simon Kuebler · Ludwig-Maximilian-University of MunichNicola Cenni · Università degli Studi di SienaHi, I am not an expert in fault modeling, but some information you can find in the papers of Reilinger about the north anatolian faults, and in the pa... [more]Hi, I am not an expert in fault modeling, but some information you can find in the papers of Reilinger about the north anatolian faults, and in the papers with the Okada faults modeling. Other information you can find in the papers about L'aquila earthquake (D'Agostiono et al. 2012, avallone et al...). Sorry to not have precise information about this question, but now I am not in office.Following
Article: Analyzing Virtual Reference Station for GPS surveying: experiments and applications in a test site of the northern Apennine (Italy).[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The availability of a GPS network of 10-20 km mean size, provides good topographical support for the measurement of ground displacements, even at a local scale such as a landslide. In particular, a series of multitemporal kinematic or rapid-static GPS acquisitions of a landslide allows a good characterization of its displacements if the measurements are referred to a GPS reference network. Nevertheless, a wider network formed by stations located at long distances, for example at several tens of kilometers, characterized by large spacing, can lead to results affected by high noise, degrading the accuracy of final point positions. In order to obtain an adequate GPS reference network, some virtual reference stations (VRSs) can be introduced, even if a network refinement based on VRS cannot reach the same accuracy of a real local network. Some experiments, including measurements on a real landslide, have been performed in order to evaluate the performance of this technique. The results point out that the standard deviation of the obtained solutions is about two or three times larger than those which can be reached using a real local network.Annals of Geophysics. 01/2009;
Article: Digital elevation models for landslide evolution monitoring: application on two areas located in the Reno River Valley (Italy)[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: GPS, digital photogrammetry and laser scanning techniques have been applied and compared in the frame of the studies of two complex landslides located in the Emilia-Romagna Region (Northern Italy). The three approaches, characterized by different accuracies, applicability and costs, have demonstrated to be efficient tools to define Digital Elevation Models computed in the same reference system and able to provide data on the landslide motion. The results described in the paper indicate the present low level of landslide activity in recent years. Reliability, costs and execution times of the applied surveying methods are shown and discussed in this paper.Annals of Geophysics. 01/2009;
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ABSTRACT: We argue that the study of long-range interaction between seismic sources in the peri-Adriatic regions may significantly contribute We argue that the study of long-range interaction between seismic sources in the peri-Adriatic regions may significantly contribute to estimating seismic hazard in Italy. This hypothesis is supported by the reconstruction of the geodynamic and tectonic settings to estimating seismic hazard in Italy. This hypothesis is supported by the reconstruction of the geodynamic and tectonic settings in the Central Mediterranean region, the space–time distribution of major past earthquakes, and the quantification of post-seismic in the Central Mediterranean region, the space–time distribution of major past earthquakes, and the quantification of post-seismic relaxation. The most significant evidence of long-distance interaction is recognized for the Southern Apennines, whose major relaxation. The most significant evidence of long-distance interaction is recognized for the Southern Apennines, whose major earthquakes have almost regularly followed within a few years the largest events in the Montenegro-Albania zone since 1850. earthquakes have almost regularly followed within a few years the largest events in the Montenegro-Albania zone since 1850. Statistical analyses of the post-1850 earthquake catalogues give a probability of about 10% that a major event in the Southern Statistical analyses of the post-1850 earthquake catalogues give a probability of about 10% that a major event in the Southern Apennines is not preceded by the occurrence of a strong event in the Southern Dinarides–Albanides within 3–5years. Conversely,ersely, the probability of false alarms is relevant (50% within 3years, 33% within 5years). Northward, the tectonic setting and the probability of false alarms is relevant (50% within 3years, 33% within 5years). Northward, the tectonic setting and some patterns of regularity seen in major events suggest that the seismic activation of the main transtensional decoupling some patterns of regularity seen in major events suggest that the seismic activation of the main transtensional decoupling shear zones in the Central Apennines should influence the probability of major earthquakes in the Northern Apennines. shear zones in the Central Apennines should influence the probability of major earthquakes in the Northern Apennines.Journal of Seismology 04/2012; 14(1):53-65. · 1.33 Impact Factor
Article: Role of kinematically induced horizontal forces in Mediterranean tectonics: insights from numerical modeling[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Finite element modeling of the central–eastern Mediterranean region has been carried out to show that the recent/present deformation pattern of this zone, inferred from neotectonic observations and seismic strain rates, may be satisfactorily reproduced as effect of the relative motion of Africa and eastern Anatolia with respect to Eurasia. Numerical modeling involved 2D elastic elements in a plane-stress approximation. The model is constituted by a mosaic of poorly deformable blocks separated by much more deformable decoupling zones, representing consuming boundaries, extensional zones and transcurrent discontinuities, whose location and geometry have been deduced by neotectonic, morphological and seismological information. The calculated displacement field obtained with the modeling parametrization which allows to match the observed strain regimes is compatible with geodetic observations in the study area, but for the Hellenic Arc, where geodetic velocities are higher than those predicted by modeling. This discrepancy could be considerably reduced by adopting a higher deformability of the model in the Hellenic trench, but this condition would contrast with the Plio-Quaternary deformation pattern of the southern Aegean zone, which suggest a considerable slowdown of western Crete since the late Pliocene. Furthermore, geodetic velocities are considerably higher than the motion rates derived by moment tensor analysis in the Hellenic trench and in the internal Aegean area and cannot easily account for the low Quaternary deformation observed in the southern Aegean zone. The above discrepancy could be due to a difference between the “instantaneous” kinematic behavior of the Aegean zone, indicated by geodetic measurements, and the average behavior over longer time intervals, inferred from geological and seismological strain indicators.Journal of Geodynamics.
Article: Numerical simulation of the observed strain field in the central-eastern Mediterranean region[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The highly heterogeneous strain field indicated by neotectonic and seismological data in the central-eastern Mediterranean region has been reproduced, at a first approximation, by finite element modelling, of a 2D elastic thin plate. The zone considered is modelled as a mosaic of poorly deformable zones decoupled by highly deformable belts, simulating the major tectonic structures indicated by geological and geophysical evidence. The deformation of the model is obtained by imposing kinematic boundary conditions, representative of the motion of Africa and eastern Anatolia relative to Eurasia. Experiments carried out with different boundary conditions and model parameterisations have provided information on the sensitivity of the model and some insights into the geodynamic behavior of the study area. The deformation pattern of the central Mediterranean area is strongly conditioned by the mechanical properties assumed in the border zones between the Aegean and Adriatic systems. The match of the complex strain pattern observed in the western Anatolian–Aegean–Balkan zones is significantly favoured if high rigidity is assigned to the inner part of this structural system. A motion of Africa with respect to Eurasia compatible with an Eulerian pole located offshore Portugal best accounts for the observed strains in the central Mediterranean region. The match of the strongly heterogeneous strain field observed in the study area can hardly be achieved by simplified models not including major tectonic features and lateral heterogeneity of mechanical properties. The kinematic field resulting from the model configuration which best simulates the observed strain field presents some differences with respect to geodetic measurements in the Aegean–Western Anatolian area, where the computed velocities are systematically lower than the geodetic ones. It is suggested that the most plausible explanation of such differences is related to the fact that the present deformation pattern, inferred from geodetic data, may be different from the middle–long term one, inferred from seismological and geological data.Journal of Geodynamics.