[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anatomical variability within the autonomic nervous system has long been accepted. This study evaluated the anatomical variability of the cervicothoracic ganglion (CTG) according to its form and, in addition, provided precise measurements between the CTG and the anterior tubercle of the transverse process of the sixth cervical vertebra (C6TP), the first costovertebral articulation, and the vertebral artery. Forty-two adult cadavers were dissected, 22 male and 20 females. Five main forms of CTG were documented; spindle (31.9%), dumbbell (23.2%), truncated (21.7%), perforated (14.5%), and inverted-L (8.7%). The means for length, width, and thickness of the CTG were 18.5 mm, 8.2 mm, and 4.5 mm, respectively. The dimensions were found to be slightly larger in the males than females and on the left sides as compared to the right. The mean shortest distance between the CTGs and the vertebral artery was found to be 2.8 mm, whilst the mean shortest distances to C6TP was 25.7 mm and to the first costovertebral articulation was 1.7 mm. There is great variability in the morphology of the CTG with five common forms consistently seen. The relation to the vertebral artery may influence the form of the ganglion. Two previously undocumented forms are recorded; the truncated which describes the important juxtaposition of the CTG and the vertebral artery and the perforated which describes the piercing of the ganglion itself by the artery. The findings are considered to be of clinical importance to anesthetists, surgeons, neurosurgeons, and anatomists.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the technical feasibility of harvesting a vascularized bone graft from the acromion pedicled on the acromial branch.
Complex fractures of the proximal humerus may result in partial or total avascular necrosis of the head fragment. Treatment of avascular necrosis of the humeral head is dependent upon the stage of disease as well as the dimension and location of necrosis. In general, the outcome is poor and complete restoration of the shoulder function is rarely attained. Contrary to osteonecrosis of carpal bones (where vascularized bone grafts have been routinely carried out for decades), reports of analogous procedures at the humeral head are anecdotal.
Based on selective post-mortem computer-tomographic angiography of 5 and the dissection of 30 embalmed human cadaver shoulders, we describe the anatomy of the acromial branch of the thoracoacromial trunk. The main focus was the constancy of its anatomical course, its dimensions and potential use as a nutrient vessel for a pedicled bone graft from the acromion.
The course of the acromial branch revealed a constant topographic relationship to anatomical landmarks. Its terminal branches reliably supplied the anterior part of the acromion. The vascularized bone graft could be sufficiently mobilized to allow tension-free transfer to the humeral head as well as to the lateral two-thirds of the clavicle.
We demonstrated the feasibility of vascularized bone graft harvesting from the acromion. This technique could be a joint-preserving procedure for osteonecrosis of the humeral head or may assist in the revision of a clavicular pseudoarthrosis.
Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ... [et al.] 07/2011; 21(5):604-11. · 1.93 Impact Factor