Su Zhang, Lingtao Luo, Yongzhi Wang, Milladur Rahman, Mattias Lepsenyi, Ingvar Syk, Bengt Jeppsson, Henrik Thorlacius[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Sepsis-triggered immune paralysis including T-cell dysfunction increases susceptibility to infections. Statins exert beneficial effects in patients with sepsis, although the mechanisms remain elusive. Herein, we hypothesized that simvastatin may attenuate T-cell dysfunction in abdominal sepsis. Male C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with simvastatin (10 mg/kg) before cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Spleen CD4 T-cell apoptosis, proliferation, and regulatory T cells (CD4CD25Foxp3) were quantified by use of flow cytometry. Formation of interferon γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin 4 (IL-4) in the spleen and plasma levels of high-mobility box group 1 (HMBG1) and IL-6 were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cecal ligation and puncture caused a clear-cut increase in apoptosis and decrease in proliferation in splenic CD4 T cells. It was found that simvastatin markedly reduced apoptosis and improved proliferation in CD4 T cells in septic mice. Moreover, CLP-induced formation of regulatory T cells in the spleen was abolished in simvastatin-treated animals. Cecal ligation and puncture greatly decreased the levels of IFN-γ and IL-4 in the spleen. Simvastatin completely reversed this sepsis-mediated inhibition of IFN-γ and IL-4 formation in the spleen. We observed that CLP increased plasma levels of HMBG1 by 25-fold and IL-6 by 99,595-fold. Notably, treatment with simvastatin abolished this CLP-evoked increase in HMBG1 and IL-6 levels in the plasma, suggesting that simvastatin is a potent inhibitor of systemic inflammation in sepsis. Lastly, it was found that simvastatin reduced CLP-induced bacteremia. In conclusion, these novel findings suggest that simvastatin is a powerful regulator of T-cell immune dysfunction in abdominal sepsis. Thus, these protective effects of simvastatin on T-cell functions help to explain the protective effect of statins in patients with sepsis.Shock (Augusta, Ga.) 10/2012; 38(5):524-31. · 2.87 Impact Factor
Mattias Lepsenyi, Stefan Santen, Ingvar Syk, Jörgen Nielsen, Artur Nemeth, Ervin Toth, Henrik Thorlacius[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: : Acute surgery in the management of malignant colonic obstruction is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The use of self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) is an alternative method of decompressing colonic obstruction. SEMS may allow time to optimize the patient and to perform preoperative staging, converting acute surgery into elective. SEMS is also proposed as palliative treatment in patients with contraindications to open surgery. Aim: To review our experience of SEMS focusing on clinical outcome and complications. The method used was a review of 75 consecutive trials at SEMS on 71 patients based on stent-protocols and patient charts. SEMS was used for palliation in 64 (85%) cases and as a bridge to surgery in 11 (15%) cases. The majority of obstructions, 53 (71%) cases, were located in the recto-sigmoid. Technical success was achieved in 65 (87%) cases and clinical decompression was achieved in 60 (80%) cases. Reasons for technical failure were inability to cannulate the stricture in 5 (7%) cases and suboptimal SEMS placement in 3 (4%) cases. Complications included 4 (5%) procedure-related bowel perforations of which 2 (3%) patients died in junction to post operative complications. Three cases of bleeding after SEMS occurred, none of which needed invasive treatment. Five of the SEMS occluded. Two cases of stent erosion were diagnosed at the time of surgery. Average survival after palliative SEMS treatment was 6 months. Our results correspond well to previously published data and we conclude that SEMS is a relatively safe and effective method of treating malignant colonic obstruction although the risk of SEMS-related perforations has to be taken into account.BMC Research Notes 07/2011; 4:274.