Publications

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    ABSTRACT: The present study examined the associations of the Five-Factor Model personality dimensions with Degree (number of friends) and Transitivity (the likelihood that two of a person’s friends are friends with each other) of a person’s network on the social networking site Facebook. A Facebook application administered a personality questionnaire and objectively recorded properties of the participants’ (N = 5031; 65% female, mean age 33 years) social networks. As expected, Extraversion predicted Degree, whereas Openness to Experience and, among men, Agreeableness predicted more cross-sex friendships. Also as expected, Extraversion and, among men, Openness to Experience predicted lower Transitivity, but the former association was rendered insignificant when Degree was controlled for.
    Journal of Research in Personality 06/2014; · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using data from 28 countries in four continents, the present research addresses the question of how basic values may account for political activism. Study 1 (N = 35,116) analyses data from representative samples in 20 countries that responded to the 21-item version of the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ-21) in the European Social Survey. Study 2 (N = 7,773) analyses data from adult samples in six of the same countries (Finland, Germany, Greece, Israel, Poland, and United Kingdom) and eight other countries (Australia, Brazil, Chile, Italy, Slovakia, Turkey, Ukraine, and United States) that completed the full 40-item PVQ. Across both studies, political activism relates positively to self-transcendence and openness to change values, especially to universalism and autonomy of thought, a subtype of self-direction. Political activism relates negatively to conservation values, especially to conformity and personal security. National differences in the strength of the associations between individual values and political activism are linked to level of democratization.
    British Journal of Psychology 03/2014; · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined Finns' and bilingual Swedish-Finns' stereotypes regarding personality differences between Finns and Swedish-Finns and compared them with their respective self-ratings. Stereotype ratings by both groups converged on depicting Swedish-Finns as having a more desirable personality. In-group bias also influenced stereotypes. Contrary to predictions based on the Stereotype Content Model, out-group stereotypes were not compensatory. Consistent with the kernel of truth hypothesis of national stereotypes, Swedish-Finns' aggregate self-ratings resembled their stereotype of personality differences between the two groups, and their personality self-ratings were more desirable than Finns' self-ratings. Tentatively suggesting the occurrence of cultural frame shifting, the resemblance between Swedish-Finns' self-ratings and their stereotype of Swedish-Finns was, although only marginally statistically significantly, somewhat stronger when the self-ratings were provided in Swedish.
    The Journal of Social Psychology 01/2014; 154(1):40-58. · 0.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Returning to a sample of Ingrian Finnish migrants (N = 136) in which postmigration change in personal values has previously been documented, we investigated the permanency of such value change. Personal values, measured within the framework provided by Schwartz’s (1992) values theory, were previously measured prior to migration and 1 year after migration. We now add a second follow-up, conducted 2 years after migration. At this time, the changes observed at the first follow-up were dissipating. Specifically, Universalism and Security values were now on the decline after having been elevated at the first follow-up (an inverted U-shape), and Achievement values were increasing in importance after having previously diminished (a U-shape). Personal values appear to react to changing social circumstances but then return close to their baseline levels. The results of the present research constitute the first longitudinal evidence for a rebound effect in personal values.
    Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 10/2013; 44(7):1122-1126. · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Do the political values of the general public form a coherent system? What might be the source of coherence? We view political values as expressions, in the political domain, of more basic personal values. Basic personal values (e.g., security, achievement, benevolence, hedonism) are organized on a circular continuum that reflects their conflicting and compatible motivations. We theorize that this circular motivational structure also gives coherence to political values. We assess this theorizing with data from 15 countries, using eight core political values (e.g., free enterprise, law and order) and ten basic personal values. We specify the underlying basic values expected to promote or oppose each political value. We offer different hypotheses for the 12 non-communist and three post-communist countries studied, where the political context suggests different meanings of a basic or political value. Correlation and regression analyses support almost all hypotheses. Moreover, basic values account for substantially more variance in political values than age, gender, education, and income. Multidimensional scaling analyses demonstrate graphically how the circular motivational continuum of basic personal values structures relations among core political values. This study strengthens the assumption that individual differences in basic personal values play a critical role in political thought.
    Political Behavior 09/2013; · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a 4-year longitudinal study, we investigated stereotype change in the context of increased intergroup contact. Specifically, using one pre- and two postmigration measurement points, we followed some 200 Ingrian Finns and their families migrating from Russia to Finland. Stereotypes of a typical Finn were conceptualized within the framework provided by Schwartz’s values theory. At the group level, migrants’ stereotype profiles were consensual, similar to Finns’s autostereotypes, somewhat accurate, and highly stable. However, mean-level changes indicated a process of disillusionment: Finns were increasingly perceived as less benevolent and more hedonistic. We argue that personal contact changes aspects of stereotypes related to communal characteristics, whereas contact with cultural institutions influences perceptions of conservativeness. Probably due to political climate, Finns were increasingly perceived as adhering to tradition and security values over stimulation. Although individual-level stereotypes were only moderately stable and stereotype change was heterogeneous, we could not predict individual-level changes.
    Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 07/2013; 44(5):765-785. · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using the Schwartz Value Model as a basis, the meaning of the value item, honor (sense of honor) was explored in eight samples in Finland (N = 1877) and in five comparable samples of 15- to 17-year-old adolescents in Estonia, Finland, Italy, Russia, and Switzerland (N = 1788). In Finland, honor was a self-enhancement value in all age and occupational groups, although its importance varied widely. An identical pattern was found for Estonian adolescents, but for Swiss adolescents honor was both a self-enhancement and a conservation value and for Italian and Russian adolescents, a pure conservation value. Male adolescents had higher regard for honor than female adolescents in Finland, Russia, and Switzerland, but no sex differences were found in Estonia, Italy or in the Finnish adult samples. In all adolescent samples, honor was associated with work-related values (e.g., hard work, conscientiousness).
    Group Processes & Intergroup Relations 05/2013; 16(3):279-297. · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: How do people trade off efficiency against equality concerns? To study this question, we conducted a modified mini ultimatum game (N=120) in which proposers were asked to choose between offering 8:2 and y:y, y∈{5, 4.5, 4,.., 0.5}; all offers in Euro. According to the data, 58 of 60 proposers have a unique switching point towards the unequal split and the majority of switching occurs between 3.5:3.5 and 2:2. Regarding the variance of the switching, we find that subjects with a comparably high interest in control over resources (higher Power values) tend to switch earlier. Moreover, after reversing roles, subjects who have previously been responders show a far stronger inclination to stick to the equal split indicating that knowing how it is to be in the other's shoes increases other-regarding behaviour.
    03/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The present study examined how Big Five personality ratings of the same target individuals differ as a function of the power relation between the target and the judge. Our targets were 37 employees with leadership duties from two large organizations. The targets' subordinates (N = 352), peers (N = 186), and superiors (N = 62) constituted our groups of judges. The targets and judges also provided self-reports of personality. Subordinate judges showed higher consensus but not higher self-other agreement than peer or superior judges. Furthermore, the targets were judged as more extraverted, more emotionally stable, less agreeable, and less open to experience by their subordinates than by their superiors. The results suggest that (i) observer consensus, but not self-other agreement or assumed similarity varies as a function of real-life power; (ii) the effects of power on mean trait scores are mostly congruent with the previously observed effects of power on behaviour and on stereotypes. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    European Journal of Personality 03/2013; 27(2). · 2.44 Impact Factor
  • Sointu Leikas, Markku Verkasalo, Jan-Erik Lönnqvist
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    ABSTRACT: Person perception research has focused on the accuracy of observers receiving truthful target information; however, in real life people may often wish to manage the impression that they convey. We investigated whether people can “pose personality” in photographs. Sixty target participants posed each in 10 photographs in which they sought to express the high and low poles of the Big Five traits by means of physical appearances. Observers (N = 401) rated targets’ personality and likability from each photograph. The results showed that targets successfully posed as Extravert and, to lesser extent, as Introvert, Neurotic, Non-Conscientious, and Open, and that targets could not convey impressions of high and low Agreeableness.
    Journal of Research in Personality 02/2013; 47(1):15–21. · 2.00 Impact Factor
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  • Aspelund, Lindeman, Verkasalo
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between political conservatism and left—right orientation was examined in 15 Western European and 13 former communist Central and Eastern European countries using the data from European Social Survey Round 3 (N = 46,103) and Round 4 (N = 50,601). Cross-culturally validated values were used to measure the two potential aspects of conservatism: resistance to change and acceptance of inequality. Both of these aspects were positively related to right-wing orientation in Western countries. In the former communist countries, the relationships were positive, negative, and nonexistent; they differed between the countries and varied between 2006 and 2008. The results indicate that conservatism can be related to left-wing or right-wing orientation depending on the cultural, political, and economic situation of the society in question. The results also show that despite the shared communist past, former communist Central and Eastern Europe is a diverse region that should be treated as such also in research.
    Political Psychology 01/2013; · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Relying on the framework provided by Schwartz's theory of personal values, we investigated whether values can help explain prosocial behaviour. We first distinguished value‐expressive behaviours from value‐ambivalent behaviours. The former are compatible with primarily one value or with congruent values, the latter with mutually conflicting values. In Study 1, an analysis over all 41 (39 unpublished) samples in which we measured personal values and prosocial behaviour in monetarily incentivized strategic interactions (N = 1289; data collected between 2007 and 2010 in China, Finland, Germany, Israel, and the West Bank) supported our idea that personal values, universalism in particular, predict value‐expressive (prisoner's dilemma cooperation and trust game back‐transfers) but not value‐ambivalent behaviours (trust game transfers and ultimatum game proposals and responses). Study 2 (N = 56) focused on dictator game behaviours, which we expected and found to be strongly value‐expressive. The findings contribute to the ongoing discussion on whether and under which circumstances values shape behaviour. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    European Journal of Social Psychology 01/2013; 43(6). · 1.78 Impact Factor
  • Sointu Leikas, Jan-Erik Lönnqvist, Markku Verkasalo
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding how persons, situations, and behaviors contribute to behavioral consistency is a central goal for the science of behavior. The present study focused on dyadic social situations that were created by professional actors who enacted 4 social roles derived from interpersonal theory: dominant, submissive, agreeable, and quarrelsome. A total of 128 behavioral episodes from 32 target participants who each interacted for 5 min with 4 same-sex actors were videotaped. Several behaviors were coded from the videos, and stranger-ratings of targets' personality and behavior in the four different situations were also obtained based on those videos. The results provided novel evidence regarding the cross-situational consistency of different behaviors and allowed the following conclusions: (a) on average, targets were both rank-order and intraindividually consistent; (b) molar behaviors were more rank-order consistent than were micro-level behaviors; (c) interpersonal behavioral tendencies were evident in directly observed behavior, and (d) high Conscientiousness may facilitate interaction with quarrelsome partners. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 10/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We linked seven-year-old children's personality (n = 406), as rated by both teachers and parents, to a wide array of cognitive ability measures. Besides (i) providing descriptive data on the associations between childhood personality and cognitive ability, we (ii) investigated the benefits of having multiple informants provide personality ratings and (iii) examined the recent proposition that the general factor of intelligence be partialled out of associations between personality and narrower domains of intelligence. In a regression model, the shared variance of teacher and parent ratings of personality explained 14% of the variance of cognitive ability. Both teacher and parent ratings of Openness to Experience (O) were positively associated with cognitive ability, and both explained unique variance in cognitive ability. Moreover, the associations were stronger the stronger the inter-rater agreement on O. When the unique variances of each perspective and the moderating effect of inter-rater agreement were added to the aforementioned regression model, personality explained 18% of the variance of cognitive ability. Controlling for the general factor of intelligence caused the correlations between personality and performance on the specific cognitive ability measures to diminish to near zero. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    European Journal of Personality 09/2012; 26(5). · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We propose a refined theory of basic individual values intended to provide greater heuristic and explanatory power than the original theory of 10 values (Schwartz, 1992). The refined theory more accurately expresses the central assumption of the original theory that research has largely ignored: Values form a circular motivational continuum. The theory defines and orders 19 values on the continuum based on their compatible and conflicting motivations, expression of self-protection versus growth, and personal versus social focus. We assess the theory with a new instrument in 15 samples from 10 countries (N = 6,059). Confirmatory factor and multidimensional scaling analyses support discrimination of the 19 values, confirming the refined theory. Multidimensional scaling analyses largely support the predicted motivational order of the values. Analyses of predictive validity demonstrate that the refined values theory provides greater and more precise insight into the value underpinnings of beliefs. Each value correlates uniquely with external variables. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 07/2012; 103(4):663-88. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: How do people perceive a social dilemma such as the Prisoner’s Dilemma if the problem is framed focusing entirely on monetary incentives – as commonly done in laboratory experiments? Focusing on the involved conflict between strategic and moral incentives, we designed a two-stage experiment to analyse both the subjects’ judgement (Part 1) and their behaviour (Part 2) in such a setting. In Part 1, we elicited the subjects’ preferences over the different outcomes in the Prisoner’s Dilemma from three different perspectives (moral, strategic, overall). In Part 2, conducted some months later, we let them decide on actions in the respective context. The data show that: (a) subjects can differentiate between moral and strategic incentives; (b) overall preferences are often a combination of moral and strategic preferences; (c) the subjects’ expressed preferences over outcomes are closely aligned with specific personal values; (d) actual behaviour in the lab is primarily determined by the subjects’ (pessimistic) first order beliefs. Moreover, the analysis suggests that while subjects have a more complex and, indeed, socially minded view on the incentive structure of the Prisoner’s Dilemma, the common focus on monetary incentives and anonymity in economic lab experiments directs judgements and behaviour into a special and not necessarily realistic direction.
    07/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: The authors examined the proposal that personality disorder categories may denote particular detrimental combinations of personality dimensions. A multiround economic exchange game (ten round trust game), conducted with university students pre-selected on basis of their personalities (N = 164), provided a framework within which to investigate inability to repair ruptured cooperation. This behavior, thought to be characteristic of patients diagnosed with DSM-IV borderline personality disorder, was predicted only by the combination of high Neuroticism and low Agreeableness. Our results highlight an advantage of the categorical approach, category labels being a much more economic means of description than the delineation of interactions between dimensions.
    Journal of personality disorders 04/2012; 26(2):298-304. · 3.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: National Finns (N=286), as well as potential, Ingrian Finnish (N=229) and Russian (N=78) migrants from Russia to Finland rated their own personal values and the values of a typical Finn and Russian. Virtually all participants in our migrant samples, although still living in Russia, had been in frequent contact with Finns and Finland, suggesting that they could be considered expert judges regarding the values of Russians and Finns. Indeed, both samples were highly accurate in their descriptions of the typical Finn. However, Ingrian Finns’ ratings of the typical Russian were, perhaps due to past conflict-ridden intergroup relations, distorted by contrast effects. Specifically, the typical Russian was portrayed as opposite to how Ingrian Finns saw themselves and also to how they saw the typical Finn. Surprisingly, the Russian migrants, although they did not show any contrast effects, were also inaccurate in their ratings of the typical Russian. The sample of national Finns generally showed no accuracy in their ratings of the typical Finns or Russian, but did show a contrast effect between self-ratings and the ratings of a typical Russian. Contrary to previous research that has found even expert ratings of national stereotypes to be inaccurate, the current results suggest that bi-cultural individuals (the Ingrian Finns) and other experts (the Russian spouses of the Ingrian Finns) can provide accurate national stereotypes. However, individuals embedded within the one culture only may lack a reference point for rating their compatriots. One key difference to previous research is the use of personal values rather than personality traits to measure the accuracy of national stereotypes.
    International Journal of Intercultural Relations - INT J INTERCULT RELAT. 03/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the process of value change in a migration context. Specifically, in a longitudinal panel design with around 19 months between measurement points, 145 Ingrian–Finnish migrants from Russia to Finland completed the same measures of personal values both before and after migration. As expected, the importance of both Universalism and Security values increased after migration, whereas the importance of Power and Achievement values decreased. Although this pattern of value change was reliable at the level of the group, any two migrant’s value change profiles shared only 2% of their variance, suggesting divergent patterns of value change across migrants. At the level of the individual, the structure of value change was similar to the typical between-subjects structure of values.
    Social Psychological and Personality Science. 11/2011; 2(6):584-591.

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