Article: Comparing policies to enhance prescribing efficiency in Europe through increasing generic utilization: changes seen and global implications.Brian Godman, William Shrank, Morten Andersen, Christian Berg, Iain Bishop, Thomas Burkhardt, Kristina Garuoliene, Harald Herholz, Roberta Joppi, Marija Kalaba, [......], Catherine Sermet, Ulrich Schwabe, Inês Teixeira, Lesley Tilson, F Cankat Tulunay, Vera Vlahović-Palčevski, Kamila Wendykowska, Björn Wettermark, Corinne Zara, Lars L Gustafsson[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this article was to evaluate the influence of different demand-side measures to enhance the prescribing of generics in ambulatory care based on cross-national comparisons. An observational retrospective study was conducted using administrative databases from across Europe, documenting changes in reimbursed utilization and expenditure of different proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and statins between 2001 and 2007, alongside different reforms to enhance prescribing efficiency. Utilization was converted to defined daily doses (DDDs) and expenditures were converted to euros. Demand-side measures were collated under the '4 Es'--education, engineering, economics and enforcement--to enable comparisons on the nature and intensity of reforms between countries. There were considerable differences in the utilization of generics and patent-protected PPIs and statins among Western European countries. Decreased utilization of omeprazole and simvastatin, alongside increased utilization of esomeprazole, atorvastatin and rosuvastatin, was seen in countries with limited demand-side measures to counteract commercial pressures. Prescribing restrictions, or a combination of education, prescribing targets and financial incentives, had the greatest influence on enhancing the utilization of omeprazole and simvastatin. For example, there was a threefold reduction in the utilization of atorvastatin in Austria following prescribing restrictions. Multiple demand-side interventions generally had a greater influence than single interventions, with the impact appearing additive. Multiple interventions coupled with initiatives to lower prices of generics considerably enhanced prescribing efficiency. This cross-national study has demonstrated considerable variation in the utilization and expenditure of PPIs and statins across Europe, providing opportunities to further improve prescribing efficiency. The '4 Es' do provide an understandable methodology to document and compare the influence of different demand-side measures, with the influence varying by their extent and intensity. Further reforms are essential given current financial pressures. Consequently, further research will concentrate on the potential to develop a scoring system to help predict the possible impact of different demand-side measures on future utilization patterns.Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research 12/2010; 10(6):707-22.
Article: Risk sharing arrangements for pharmaceuticals: potential considerations and recommendations for European payersJakub Adamski, Brian Godman, Gabriella Ofierska-Sujkowska, Bogusława Osińska, Harald Herholz, Kamila Wendykowska, Ott Laius, Saira Jan, Catherine Sermet, Corrine Zara, Marija Kalaba, Roland Gustafsson, Kristina Garuolienè, Alan Haycox, Silvio Garattini, Lars L Gustafsson[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background There has been an increase in 'risk sharing' schemes for pharmaceuticals between healthcare institutions and pharmaceutical companies in Europe in recent years as an additional approach to provide continued comprehensive and equitable healthcare. There is though confusion surrounding the terminology as well as concerns with existing schemes. Methods Aliterature review was undertaken to identify existing schemes supplemented with additional internal documents or web-based references known to the authors. This was combined with the extensive knowledge of health authority personnel from 14 different countries and locations involved with these schemes. Results and discussion A large number of 'risk sharing' schemes with pharmaceuticals are in existence incorporating both financial-based models and performance-based/outcomes-based models. In view of this, a new logical definition is proposed. This is "risk sharing' schemes should be considered as agreements concluded by payers and pharmaceutical companies to diminish the impact on payers' budgets for new and existing schemes brought about by uncertainty and/or the need to work within finite budgets". There are a number of concerns with existing schemes. These include potentially high administration costs, lack of transparency, conflicts of interest, and whether health authorities will end up funding an appreciable proportion of a new drug's development costs. In addition, there is a paucity of published evaluations of existing schemes with pharmaceuticals. Conclusion We believe there are only a limited number of situations where 'risk sharing' schemes should be considered as well as factors that should be considered by payers in advance of implementation. This includes their objective, appropriateness, the availability of competent staff to fully evaluate proposed schemes as well as access to IT support. This also includes whether systematic evaluations have been built into proposed schemes.BMC Health Services Research 01/2010; 10:153. · 1.66 Impact Factor
Brian Godman, William Shrank, Morten Andersen, Christian Berg, Iain Bishop, Thomas Burkhardt, Kristina Garuoliene, Harald Herholz, Roberta Joppi, Marija Kalaba, [......], Catherine Sermet, Ulrich Schwabe, Inês Teixeira, Lesley Tilson, F Cankat Tulunay, Vera Vlahović-Palčevski, Kamila Wendykowska, Bjorn Wettermark, Corinne Zara, Lars L Gustafsson[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Introduction: European countries need to learn from each other to address unsustainable increases in pharmaceutical expenditures. Objective: To assess the influence of the many supply and demand-side initiatives introduced across Europe to enhance prescribing efficiency in ambulatory care. As a result provide future guidance to countries. Methods: Cross national retrospective observational study of utilization (DDDs - defined daily doses) and expenditure (Euros and local currency) of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and statins among 19 European countries and regions principally from 2001 to 2007. Demand-side measures categorized under the "4Es" - education engineering, economics, and enforcement. Results: Instigating supply side initiatives to lower the price of generics combined with demand-side measures to enhance their prescribing is important to maximize prescribing efficiency. Just addressing one component will limit potential efficiency gains. The influence of demand-side reforms appears additive, with multiple initiatives typically having a greater influence on increasing prescribing efficiency than single measures apart from potentially "enforcement." There are also appreciable differences in expenditure (€/1000 inhabitants/year) between countries. Countries that have not introduced multiple demand side measures to counteract commercial pressures to enhance the prescribing of generics have seen considerably higher expenditures than those that have instigated a range of measures. Conclusions: There are considerable opportunities for European countries to enhance their prescribing efficiency, with countries already learning from each other. The 4E methodology allows European countries to concisely capture the range of current demand-side measures and plan for the future knowing that initiatives can be additive to further enhance their prescribing efficiency.Frontiers in pharmacology. 01/2010; 1:141.
Article: Use of Generics—A Critical Cost Containment Measure for All Healthcare Professionals in Europe?Godman Brian, Shrank William, Wettermark Bjorn, Andersen Morten, Bishop Iain, Burkhardt Thomas, Garuolienè Kristina, Kalaba Marija, Laius Ott, Joppi Roberta, Sermet Catherine, Schwabe Ulrich, Teixeira Inês, F Cankat Tulunay, Wendykowska Kamila, Zara Corinne, Lars L Gustafsson[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pharmaceutical expenditures in ambulatory care rose rapidly in Europe in the 1990s and early 2000s. This was typically faster than other components of healthcare spending, leading to reforms to moderate future growth. A number of these centered on generic medicines with measures to lower reimbursed prices as well as enhance their prescribing and dispensing. The principal objective of this paper is to review additional measures that some European countries can adopt to further reduce reimbursed prices for generics. Secondly, potential approaches to address concerns with generics when they arise to maximize savings. Measures to enhance the prescribing of generics will also briefly be discussed. A narrative review of the extensive number of publications and associated references from the co-authors was conducted supplemented with known internal or web-based articles. In addition, health authority and health insurance databases, principally from 2001 to 2007, were analyzed to assess the impact of the various measures on price reductions for generic omeprazole and generic simvastatin vs. pre-patent loss prices, as well as overall efficiency in Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI) and statin prescribing. The various initiatives generally resulted in considerable lowering of the prices of generics as well as specifically for generic omeprazole and generic simvastatin vs. pre-patent loss prices. At one stage in the UK, generic simvastatin was just 2% of the originator price. These measures also led to increased efficiency for PPI and statin prescribing with reimbursed expenditure for the PPIs and statins either falling or increasing at appreciably lower rates than increases in utilization. A number of strategies have also been introduced to address patient and physician concerns with generics to maximize savings. In conclusion, whilst recent reforms have been successful, European countries must continue learning from each other to fund increased volumes and new innovative drugs as resource pressures grow. Policies regarding generics and their subsequent impact on reimbursement and utilization of single sourced products will continue to play a key role to release valuable resources. However, there must continue to be strategies to address concerns with generics when they exist.Pharmaceuticals. 01/2010;