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    Marcus Mund, Franz J Neyer
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    ABSTRACT: Contrary to premises of dynamic transactionism, most studies investigating personality-relationship transaction only found personality effects on relationships but failed to find effects of relationship experiences on personality development. The current study reconsiders this issue in 3 ways. First, alongside the broad Big Five characteristics (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness), specific personality facets were considered to make comparisons with relationships more symmetric. Second, a recent extension of latent change modeling was applied allowing for a theoretically more appropriate model that compensates for the shortcomings of traditionally used cross-lagged panel or growth curve models. Third, personality-relationship transaction was studied from young adulthood to midlife using a 15-year longitudinal study with 654 German adults. Results showed patterns of personality-relationship transaction with the romantic partner, friends, kin, and other interaction partners. Specifically, the development of Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness and their facets was closely interacting with partner and friend relationships, underlining the importance of these relationships for personality maturation during the adult years. We conclude that relationship effects have often been underestimated in previous studies. They are not bound to specific developmental periods, such as emerging adulthood, but their detection depends on the modeling approach and the analysis level (broad dimensions vs. facets). Relationship effects are most likely to occur in relationships that reflect self-selected life styles and circumstances. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 08/2014; 107(2):352-368. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The transactional paradigm states that people create, maintain, and change their environments according to their personalities. At the same time, the environment reacts back on personality. As social relationships are part of an individual's environment, this likewise implies that there are reciprocal transactions between personality and relationships. However, earlier studies have concluded that adult personality traits are so stable that they have a stronger effect on later relationships, but that relationship effects on personality are negligible. In this article, we contend that personality-relationship transactions should be revisited. We submit that the relative powers of personality versus relationship effects depend on the type of life transition during which the effects take place: Relationship effects on personality development are more likely to emerge in the context of rather normative and highly scripted life transitions, whereas personality effects on relationship development are more likely to occur in the context of rather non-normative life transitions that are less regulated by social expectations. We illustrate these assumptions with examples from our own work and other findings reported in the literature. Furthermore, we theorize that effects of personality-relationship transactions on health also vary with the normativeness of the eliciting life transition.
    Journal of Personality 08/2013; · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    Marcus Mund, Kristin Mitte
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: When Freud introduced the term repression, he stated its pathogenic potential. Since then, this notion was adapted and continued to date. Surprisingly, there is no attempt to synthesize research on the effect of repressive coping on somatic diseases quantitatively. The current study closes this gap and examines the association between repressive coping as operationalized by Weinberger, Schwartz, and Davidson (1979) and the incidence of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, asthma, and diabetes by applying meta-analytic techniques. Method: An extensive literature search identified 22 studies that met all inclusion criteria and assessed a total of 6,775 participants. The study set was analyzed both as a whole sample (k = 22 studies) and disease-specific (k = 2-10 studies; no study found for diabetes). Results: The results of the meta-analysis indicate a higher risk for repressive copers to suffer from one of the investigated diseases, especially cancer (logOdds after diagnosis: 0.41; 95% confidence interval, 0.09-0.73, p = .012) and hypertension (logOdds: 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.86, p < .0001). After application of a continuity correction due to a missing control group the results for coronary heart disease imply an increased risk for nonrepressors to be affected. Results for cardiovascular diseases in general, heart attack, and asthma did not reach significance. Conclusions: The current meta-analysis revealed significant associations between repressive coping, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases, especially hypertension. These results add to the notion of repressive coping as a consequence of cancer as well as to its important role for the issue of hypertension. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
    Health Psychology 11/2011; 31(5):640-9. · 3.95 Impact Factor

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