[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatic lipase (HL) is a glycoprotein that plays a major role in remodeling high-density lipoprotein (HDL). The effect of the -250G/A promoter polymorphism on coronary artery disease (CAD) and lipid levels was studied in 231 male CAD patients and in a population-based sample of men and women (n = 514). A sample of 140 men was chosen among those included in the population-based sample as controls for the CAD sample. In the total group of CAD patients, the frequency of the -250A allele was somewhat lower (25% in CAD patients and 32% in controls; p = 0.06), but when the control samples were compared only with the CAD(+) sample (more than 60% of luminal stenosis in at least one coronary artery or major branch segment) the -250A allele was significantly less frequent (23% in the patients vs 32% in controls; p = 0.02). A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that this association was independent of classical CAD risk factors [odds ratio (OR) = 1.79, p = 0.025]. Using multiple linear regression analyses, it has been shown that this polymorphism was a significant factor affecting HDL-C levels in men from the population-based sample (p = 0.001), an interaction between -250G/A variant and wine consumption was also detected (p = 0.001). Thus, our results show that the -250G/A polymorphism in the HL gene is associated with significant variations in HDL-C levels and CAD risk in males.