Article: Considerations for an Institution for Evaluation of Diabetes Technology Devices to Improve Their Quality in the European Union.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: All medical devices used for self-monitoring of blood glucose (BG), insulin injection, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, and continuous glucose monitoring in the European Union (EU) must have a Communauté Européenne (CE) mark. However, the approval process for obtaining this mark is different from that used by the European Medicines Agency in the EU for drugs or by the Food and Drug Administration in the United States for such medical and in vitro diagnostic devices. The notified bodies involved in the CE mark process perform this evaluation in cooperation with the manufacturers. They have only limited diabetes know-how; they have to handle all kinds of medical devices. There are devices for therapy on the market in the EU (i.e., they have market approval) that do not fulfill quality requirements, as indicated, for example, in the international norm ISO 15197 for BG test systems. Evaluation of the performance of such systems is usually provided by the manufacturers. What is missing in the EU is an independent institution that performs regular and critical evaluation of the quality of devices used for diabetes therapy before and also after their market approval. The work of such an institution would focus on BG test systems (these represent two-thirds of the market of medical devices for diabetes treatment) but would also evaluate the performance of other devices. It has to be clarified what legal framework is required for such an institution and how it can be financed; probably this can be done in a shared manner by the manufacturers of such devices and the health insurance companies. Positive evaluation results should be a prerequisite prior to any reimbursement for such devices.Journal of diabetes science and technology 01/2013; 7(2):542-547.
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ABSTRACT: AIMS: Regular human insulin (RHI) at high doses shows prolongation of its duration of action potentially leading to late postprandial hypoglycaemia. This study compared late metabolic activity (4-12 and 6-12 h post-dosing) and duration of action (time to reach late half-maximal activity) over a range of doses between insulin aspart (IAsp) and RHI. METHODS: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of subcutaneous IAsp and RHI (6, 12 and 24 (I)U) were compared in 16 healthy subjects in this double-blind, randomized, six-way crossover glucose clamp study. RESULTS: With increasing doses of both insulins, metabolic activity, insulin exposure, maximum metabolic effect and maximum serum insulin concentration increased linearly. Late metabolic activity was lower for IAsp than RHI at all doses, reaching statistical significance (p < 0.05) for 12 and 24 (I)U. Likewise, IAsp had a shorter duration of action at all doses (p < 0.01) and reached time to 80% of total metabolic activity earlier at doses of 12 and 24 (I)U (p < 0.05). IAsp, compared with RHI, showed a higher maximum metabolic effect at 12 and 24 (I)U (p < 0.0001) and a stronger early metabolic activity for all three doses (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: IAsp showed a shorter duration of action and, particularly with doses of 12 and 24 (I)U, less late metabolic activity than RHI. These properties might contribute to the lower incidence of hypoglycaemia observed with IAsp versus RHI in clinical trials as lower late metabolic activity should decrease the risk of late postprandial hypoglycaemia.Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism 08/2012; · 3.38 Impact Factor
Lutz Heinemann, Lars Krinelke[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion from an insulin pump depends on reliable transfer of the pumped insulin to the subcutaneous insulin depot by means of an insulin infusion set (IIS). Despite their widespread use, the published knowledge about IISs and related issues regarding the impact of placement and wear time on insulin absorption/insulin action is relatively small. We also have to acknowledge that our knowledge is limited with regard to how often patients encounter issues with IISs. Reading pump wearer blogs, for instance, suggests that these are a frequent source of trouble. There are no prospective clinical studies available on current IIS and insulin formulations that provide representative data on the type and frequency of issues with infusion sets. The introduction of new IISs and patch pumps may foster a reassessment of available products and of patient problems related to their use. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge and recommendations about IISs and to highlight potential directions of IIS development in order to make insulin absorption safer and more efficient.Journal of diabetes science and technology 01/2012; 6(4):954-64.
Lutz Heinemann, Douglas B Muchmore[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Optimal coverage of prandial insulin requirements remains an elusive goal. The invention of rapid-acting insulin analogs (RAIAs) was a big step forward in reducing postprandial glycemic excursions in patients with diabetes in comparison with using regular human insulin; however, even with these, the physiological situation cannot be adequately mimicked. Developing ultrafast-acting insulins (UFIs)-showing an even more rapid onset of action and a shorter duration of action after subcutaneous (SC) administration-is another step forward in achieving this goal. The need for UFIs has been gradually recognized over the years, and subsequently, a number of different approaches to cover this need are in clinical development. A rapid increase in circulating insulin levels can be achieved by different measures: modification of the primary structure of insulin molecule (as we know from RAIAs), addition of excipients that enhance the appearance in the monomeric state post-injection, or addition of enzymes that enable more free spreading of the insulin molecules in the SC tissue. Other measures to increase the insulin absorption rate increase the local blood flow nearby the insulin depot in the SC tissue, injecting the insulin intradermally or applying via another route, e.g., the lung. The development of these approaches is in different stages, from quite early stages to nearing market authorization. In time, daily practice will show if the introduction of UFIs will fulfill their clinical promise. In this review, the basic idea for UFIs will be presented and the different approaches will be briefly characterized.Journal of diabetes science and technology 01/2012; 6(4):728-42.
Article: Improved preservation of residual beta cell function by atorvastatin in patients with recent onset type 1 diabetes and high CRP levels (DIATOR trial).Alexander Strom, Hubert Kolb, Stephan Martin, Christian Herder, Marie-Christine Simon, Wolfgang Koenig, Tim Heise, Lutz Heinemann, Michael Roden, Nanette C Schloot[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A recent randomized placebo-controlled trial of the effect of atorvastatin treatment on the progression of newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes suggested a slower decline of residual beta cell function with statin treatment. Aim of this secondary analysis was to identify patient subgroups which differ in the decline of beta cell function during treatment with atorvastatin. The randomized placebo-controlled Diabetes and Atorvastatin (DIATOR) Trial included 89 patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes and detectable islet autoantibodies (mean age 30 years, 40% females), in 12 centers in Germany. Patients received placebo or 80 mg/d atorvastatin for 18 months. As primary outcome stimulated serum C-peptide levels were determined 90 min after a standardized liquid mixed meal. For this secondary analysis patients were stratified by single baseline characteristics which were considered to possibly be modified by atorvastatin treatment. Subgroups defined by age, sex or by baseline metabolic parameters like body mass index (BMI), total serum cholesterol or fasting C-peptide did not differ in C-peptide outcome after atorvastatin treatment. However, the subgroup defined by high (above median) baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations exhibited higher stimulated C-peptide secretion after statin treatment (p = 0.044). Individual baseline CRP levels correlated with C-peptide outcome in the statin group (r(2) = 0.3079, p<0.004). The subgroup with baseline CRP concentrations above median differed from the corresponding subgroup with lower CRP levels by higher median values of BMI, IL-6, IL-1RA, sICAM-1 and E-selectin. Atorvastatin treatment may be effective in slowing the decline of beta cell function in a patient subgroup defined by above median levels of CRP and other inflammation associated immune mediators. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00974740.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(3):e33108. · 4.09 Impact Factor