Lorenzo Fongaro

Laboratory Technician - Scientific Research
European Commission - Joint Re... · Institute for Transuranium Elements


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    ABSTRACT: Consumption of whole grain barley foods reduces blood cholesterol and glycemic index, and promotes weight loss by increasing satiety. However, barley has only been marginally exploited by the baking industry, due to its deteriorating effect on bread quality. The use of sourdough can be a strategy to improve the quality of barley bread. In this study, two sourdoughs, made with sole hull-less barley flour or with a mixture of 50g /100 g barley and 50 g/100 g wheat flours, were characterized from a microbiological and technological point of view, in comparison with a sole wheat flour sourdough. Chemical-physical and sensory analyses of the resulting breads were carried out during 6 days storage. The total titratable acidity, phytate and beta-glucan content of the different types of flour, sourdough, dough and bread were also evaluated. Overall, the results showed that the barley sourdoughs investigated could be used to obtain barley bread with enhanced nutritional value. Furthermore, despite the lower specific volume and denser crumb of barley breads with respect to wheat bread, no significant differences were seen in the degree of liking among the three breads after baking and during shelf-life, thus confirming the possibility for successful exploitation of barley flour in the baking industry.
    LWT - Food Science and Technology. 12/2014; 59(2):973-980.
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    ABSTRACT: Raman spectroscopy and morphological parameters obtained from Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) combined with image analysis, of uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) were studied and assessed as possible signatures for nuclear forensic applications. Raman spectra and morphological data were subsequently treated separately with principal component analysis. The complementary use of infrared and Raman data adds value to the interpretation and shed reasonable doubts regarding the true composition of UOCs such as ammonium diuranate/uranyl hydroxide that resulted from overlapping clusters in PCA analysis of 95 samples. PCA analysis of 30 parameters relating to shapes and sizes of 17 UOC samples is a potential signature for origin assessment indicative of the process.
    IAEA Nuclear Forensics Conference 2014, Vienna, Austria; 07/2014
  • Alyssa Hidalgo, Lorenzo Fongaro, Andrea Brandolini
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    ABSTRACT: Einkorn, durum wheat and Kamut® are rich of carotenoids, antioxidants with beneficial effects on human health. In the present study the effect of flour granule size on carotenoid content and colour was assessed; furthermore, the suitability of two colorimeters (Minolta Chroma meter CR-210 and Minolta Chroma meter II Reflectance), a spectrophotometer (Jasco V-650 with integrating sphere) and image analysis to define colour and determine carotenoid concentration in wheat flours of different granulometry was tested. Carotenoid content did not vary across flours of diverse size, except in the finest einkorn fraction (< 80 μm), which had lower concentration. For all instruments colour coordinate L* decreased and b* increased with flour size growth, while a* varied with the different devices. A Principal Components Analysis (PCA), performed considering carotenoid content and all colorimetric indices, distinguished einkorn from durum and Kamut®, and divided samples of different granulometry; a similar result was achieved by a PCA performed on the absorbance spectra from the integrating sphere. The PCA on image texture data classified the samples following flour size. In conclusion, flour colour is determined not only by carotenoid content but also by flour particle size: therefore, direct colour measurement seems not suitable to predict flour carotenoid content.
    Food Research International. 01/2014; 64:363–370.
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of adding egg albumen or whey proteins to pasta made from parboiled rice flour (PR) were investigated. Pasta quality was evaluated in terms of color, furosine content, and cooking properties (water absorption, cooking loss, and consistency at the optimal cooking time). The surface heterogeneity of the cooked and uncooked materials was studied, and some starch properties (pasting properties and starch susceptibility to α-amylase hydrolysis) were assessed, along with the features of the protein network as determined by conditional solubility studies and with ultrastructural features of the cooked products. Egg albumen improved pasta appearance and gave a product with low cooking loss, firmer, and nutritionally more valuable than the other ones. In albumen-enriched pasta, small starch granules appear homogeneously surrounded by a protein network. In the uncooked product, the protein network is stabilized mostly by hydrophobic interactions, but additional disulfide interprotein bonds form upon cooking. Thus, addition of 15 % liquid albumen to PR results in significant improvement of the textural and structural features of rice-based gluten-free pasta.
    European Food Research and Technology 09/2013; · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The red colour intensity of a meat product like salami mainly depends on the relative quantity of each myoglobin oxidation state. The aim of this work was to evaluate whether MIA could monitor the colour changes occurring during the aging of salami, in comparison with the assessment of the colour coordinates (R, G, B, Intensity mean) by Image Analysis.
    II International Workshop on Multivariate Image Analysis; 05/2013
  • Lorenzo Fongaro, Knut Kvaal
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    ABSTRACT: Surface texture is an important characteristic of foods, as well as color, shape, consistency and taste. It plays an important role in consumers' decision and it can affect the properties of a product during its preparation. This work shows the ability of three different image analysis techniques to characterize the surface texture of three Italian pasta samples. The first method is based on the evaluation of Heterogeneity (HTG); the second on the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and Haralic statistics; the third, the angle measure technique (AMT), is based on image multivariate feature extraction. The results obtained showed that it is possible to highlight differences in the surface aspect of pasta samples both before and after cooking, and that it is also possible to correlate them to some of their chemical–physical characteristics (e.g., total starch and protein contents, solids lost in the cooking water, pasta adhesiveness; r>0.6, pb0.05). A partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) applied on GLCM and AMT results allowed the classification of the different pasta samples only on the basis of their surface texture features (sensitivity>0.963; specificity>0.648).
    Food Research International 05/2013; 51:693-705. · 3.05 Impact Factor
  • Lorenzo Fongaro; Mara Lucisano; Manuela Mariotti
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    ABSTRACT: Surface aspect, also called surface texture, is an important characteristic of foods as well as color, shape, consistency and taste. This work shows the ability of different image analysis techniques to characterize the surface texture of two cereal products: corn flakes (3 commercial samples) and plum cakes (5 experimental samples). In particular, two ImageJplugins were used: the Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) and the Angle Measure Technique (AMT). A quantitative analysis of different GLCM descriptors was used to characterize the surface texture of each sample, and significant differences (p<0.05) were highlighted within each group. By applying the Principal Component Analysis, followed by the Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis on the AMT spectra obtained from each image dataset, the samples class modeling (sensitivity>0.83; specificity>0.69) only as a function of the surface texture features was found. These results showed the high potential of the ImageJ-plugins in the evaluation of the surface properties of foods. As the surface texture depends on many factors and can influence many other properties of foods, its evaluation is important especially to predict some phenomena related to changes in formulations or process conditions.
    ImageJ User & Developer Conference 2012; 10/2012
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    ABSTRACT: The rapid stiffening of a well-developed gluten network able to entrap swollen starch granules is a key factor for the high quality of durum wheat pasta during cooking. Good resistance and firmness, low stickiness and limited release of organic materials into the cooking water are quality traits of primary importance for traditional pasta. In gluten-free (GF) pasta, the formation of a scaffold of retrograded starch can be an alternative to gluten networking: it confers rigidity to the cooked product and reduces pasta stickiness and loss of soluble materials into the cooking water. In a previous paper, 14 commercial GF spaghetti samples were studied as uncooked products from a chemical, biochemical and physical point of view. The aim of this study was to determine the cooking behaviour of these samples. A durum wheat pasta was also included as reference. Suitable cooking conditions were adopted and different conventional and innovative evaluations (i.e. compression test, creep test) were performed as a function of cooking time. Different behaviours were evidenced, often related to the ultrastructural organization of the uncooked products. In particular, the creep test revealed to be very effective in discriminating among the properties of the different GF spaghetti.
    Journal of Cereal Science 01/2012; 56(3):667-675. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The addition of pseudocereal flours to semolina is becoming more and more popular to improve the nutritional quality of the resultant pasta. The aim of this study was the evaluation of several properties of commercial pasta made from a mixture of buckwheat flour and durum wheat semolina. The characterisation of products, belonging to different producers, focused on the evaluation of chemical and physical properties, such as water uptake and mechanical properties before and after cooking and surface characteristics. A sensory analysis was also performed in order to evaluate firmness, resistance to breaking and overall acceptability. The results highlighted high heterogeneity of the mechanical properties, solid loss and water absorption among the samples. The great variability could be explained by the different processing conditions adopted by each producer, particularly by the procedure used to form and shape the dough into the final product.
    International Journal of Food Science & Technology 09/2011; 46(11):2393 - 2400. · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since its first appearance, the alkali test has been extensively employed in rice quality studies as an indirect estimation of the gelatinisation temperature and the cooking quality. Nevertheless, the modifications brought to this method during the years focused on the experimental conditions of the test without taking into account the subjective interpretation of the results. The aim of this study was the search for a reasonable substitute for the human visual decision-making process implicated in the alkali test and, in particular, for a digital image analysis method involving the use of a flatbed scanner (easy to use and available at low cost) to quantitatively measure the degree of dispersion of rice kernels during the test. Significant correlations were found between a new index, the rice kernel disintegration area, obtained from Image Analysis, and the alkali spreading value (r=0.942, P�<0.01), the amylose content (r=0.855, P�<0.01) and the micro-visco-amylographic gelatinisation temperature (r=0.928, P�<0.01).
    Journal of Cereal Science 01/2010; 52:227-235. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Very few methods have been proposed to evaluate the technological characteristics of breadcrumb, an ingredient of stuffed pasta. Nevertheless, the physical properties of this raw material can play a relevant role in modifying the filling texture, which is important both for the filling workability and product consistency after cooking. The aim of this study was to determine the most suitable methodologies for describing breadcrumb characteristics, with particular attention to those features that can potentially influence the performance of this ingredient. Three lots of two different types of commercial breadcrumb were analysed for their chemical composition, particle size distributions, pasting properties, and water binding capacity. The texture of breadcrumb/water dispersion was also evaluated using different methods. Chemical analyses did not prove to give a satisfactory differentiation between samples. On the contrary, the different rheological tests adopted (Bostwick, Farinographic, and compression test) turned out to be very effective in describing the thickening properties of breadcrumb. In particular, a statistically significant differentiation (P < 0.05) between the samples was obtained by means of the Bostwick consistometer, an easy to use, rapid and cheap instrument that turned out to be suitable for defining the technological characteristics of breadcrumb.
    Journal of Cereal Science 01/2010; 51. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cooking quality of rice is the most important characteristic that affects consumer acceptance and different methodologies have been proposed for its evaluation. In this work, the quality of 11 rice varieties, 6 traditional and 5 aromatic, was investigated. Image Analysis was used as a tool for measuring the morphological characteristics of the kernel; to predict cooking quality, samples were analyzed for protein, starch, amylose and pasting behaviour; the hardness and the stickiness of cooked rice were measured by extrusion and compression tests. Results were statistically processed. The textural parameters were significantly correlated to each other and to the amylose content and the rheological characteristics of the cooked samples were statistically correlated with the amylographic indices, confirming the importance of the latter parameters as descriptors of the cooking quality of rice. Interesting differences were evidenced between traditional and aromatic rice varieties.
    Cereal Chemistry 01/2009; 86(5):542-548. · 1.25 Impact Factor
  • Cereal Chemistry - CEREAL CHEM. 01/2009; 86(5):0909041222-548.
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    ABSTRACT: Panettone is a traditional Italian Christmas cake that is widely produced through either craft or industrial processes, and therefore it represents a very important economic item in Italy. A basic challenge in panettone manufacture is to preserve it by preventing it from going stale during its shelf-life, which may last for several months. Accordingly, the aim of the present work was to verify the potential of two "antistaling" agents added to the recipe of a panettone with chocolate. The texture analyses highlighted the capability of both food additives to increase the softness of the product and to retard the staling process. This finding is consistent with the results seen for the moisture content and water activity values. Subsequently, the additive that showed the best "anti-staling" activity was tested on other two varieties of panettone and the results obtained confirmed its capability to retard the staling process.
    Industrie Alimentari 01/2008; 47:349-354.

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