Article: Power-Spectral density estimate of the Bloor-Gerrard instability in flows around circular cylinders[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There have been differences in the literature concerning the power law relationship between the Bloor-Gerrard instability frequency of the separated shear layer from the circular cylinder, the Bénard-von Kármán vortex shedding frequency and the Reynolds number. Most previous experiments have shown a significant degree of scatter in the measurement of the development of the shear layer vortices. Shear layers are known to be sensitive to external influences, which can provide a by-pass transition to saturated growth, thereby camouflaging the fastest growing linear modes. Here, the spatial amplification rates of the shear layer instabilities are calculated using power-spectral density estimates, allowing the fastest growing modes rather than necessarily the largest structures to be determined. This method is found to be robust in determining the fastest growing modes, producing results consistent with the low scatter results of previous experiments.Experiments in Fluids 04/2012; 50(3):527-534. · 1.74 Impact Factor
Article: Computed tomographic X-ray velocimetry for simultaneous 3D measurement of velocity and geometry in opaque vessels[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Computed tomographic X-ray velocimetry has been developed for simultaneous three-dimensional measurement of flow and vessel geometry. The technique uses cross-correlation functions calculated from X-ray projection image pairs acquired at multiple viewing angles to tomographically reconstruct the flow through opaque objects with high resolution. The reconstruction is performed using an iterative, least squares approach. The simultaneous measurement of the object’s structure is performed with a limited projection tomography method. An extensive parametric study using Monte Carlo simulation reveals accurate measurements with as few as 3 projection angles, and a minimum required scan angle of only 30°. When using a single/source detector system, the technique is limited to measurement of periodic or steady flow fields; however, with the use of a multiple source/detector system, instantaneous measurement will be possible. Synchrotron experiments are conducted to demonstrate the simultaneous measurement of structure and flow in a complex geometry with strong three-dimensionality. The technique will find applications in biological flow measurement, and also in engineering applications where optical access is limited, such as in mineral processing.Experiments in Fluids 04/2012; 52(3):543-554. · 1.74 Impact Factor
Article: Wake transition of a rolling sphere.J. Visualization. 01/2011; 14:1-2.
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ABSTRACT: A study investigating the flow around a cylinder rolling or sliding on a wall has been undertaken in two and three dimensions. The cylinder motion is specified from a set of five discrete rotation rates, ranging from prograde through to retrograde rolling. A Reynolds number range of 20–500 is considered. The effects of the nearby wall and the imposed body motion on the wake structure and dominant wake transitions have been determined. Prograde rolling is shown to destabilize the wake flow, while retrograde rotation delays the onset of unsteady flow to Reynolds numbers well above those observed for a cylinder in an unbounded flow.Two-dimensional simulations show the presence of two recirculation zones in the steady wake, the lengths of which increase approximately linearly with the Reynolds number. Values of the lift and drag coefficient are also reported for the steady flow regime. Results from a linear stability analysis show that the wake initially undergoes a regular bifurcation from a steady two-dimensional flow to a steady three-dimensional wake for all rotation rates. The critical Reynolds number Rec of transition and the spanwise wavelength of the dominant mode are shown to be highly dependent on, but smoothly varying with, the rotation rate of the cylinder. Varying the rotation from prograde to retrograde rolling acts to increase the value of Rec and decrease the preferred wavelength. The structure of the fully evolved wake mode is then established through three-dimensional simulations. In fact it is found that at Reynolds numbers only marginally (~5%) above critical, the three-dimensional simulations indicate that the saturated state becomes time dependent, although at least initially, this does not result in a significant change to the mode structure. It is only at higher Reynolds numbers that the wake undergoes a transition to vortex shedding.An analysis of the three-dimensional transition indicates that it is unlikely to be due to a centrifugal instability despite the superficial similarity to the flow over a backward-facing step, for which the transition mechanism has been speculated to be centrifugal. However, the attached elongated recirculation region and distribution of the spanwise perturbation vorticity field, and the similarity of these features with those of the flow through a partially blocked channel, suggest the possibility that the mechanism is elliptic in nature. Some analysis which supports this conjecture is undertaken.Journal of Fluid Mechanics 04/2010; 648:225 - 256. · 2.46 Impact Factor
Article: A numerical study of global frequency selection in the time-mean wake of a circular cylinder[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A series of direct numerical simulations, both in two- and three-dimensions, of the flow past a circular cylinder for Reynolds numbers Re ≤ 600 has been conducted. From these simulations, the time-mean (and, for the three-dimensional simulations, the spanwise spatial-mean) flow has been calculated. A global linear stability analysis has been conducted on these mean flows, showing that the mean cylinder wake for Re ≤ 600 is marginally stable and the eigenfrequency of the leading global mode closely predicts the eventual saturated vortex shedding frequency. A local stability analysis has also been conducted. For this, a series of streamwise velocity profiles has been extracted from the mean wake and the stability of these profiles has been analysed using the Rayleigh stability equation. The real and imaginary instability frequencies gained from these profiles have then been used to find the global frequency selected by the flow using a saddle-point criterion. The results confirm the success of the saddle-point criterion when the mean flow is quasi-parallel in the vicinity of the saddle point; however, the limitations of the method when the mean flow exhibits higher curvature are also elucidated.Journal of Fluid Mechanics 02/2010; 645:435 - 446. · 2.46 Impact Factor
Prof Kerry (Kyriakos) Hourigan has an extensive research and industrial background in experimental and computational fluid dynamics, having worked at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the California Institute of Technology, the CSIRO and Monash University, as well as numerous visiting professorships in France, Japan and the USA. He now directs the Division of Biological Engineering at Monash University, establishing major laboratories and facilities for bioengineering.