Answer added in Methods27 Safety Study of leaf extractBy Stephen Okafor · Ahmadu Bello UniversityKaruna Rasineni · University of Nebraska at Omahayou can test test toxicity by assaying liver AST and ALT. one more thing is you can test extract by incubating the blood or lymphocytes in vitro cond... [more]you can test test toxicity by assaying liver AST and ALT. one more thing is you can test extract by incubating the blood or lymphocytes in vitro conditions and then you can test DNA toxicity with commet assy or by measuring caspase activity.Following
Article: Abnormalities in carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in high-fructose dietfed insulin-resistant rats: amelioration by Catharanthus roseus treatments.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: High intake of dietary fructose has been shown to exert a number of adverse metabolic effects in humans and experimental animals. The present study was proposed to elucidate the effect of Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) leaf powder treatment on alterations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in rats fed with high-fructose diet. Male Wistar rats of body weight around 180 g were divided into four groups, two of these groups (groups C and C+CR) were fed with standard pellet diet and the other two groups (groups F and F+CR) were fed with high-fructose (66 %) diet. C. roseus leaf powder suspension in water (100 mg/kg body weight/day) was administered orally to group C+CR and group F+CR. At the end of a 60-day experimental period, biochemical parameters related to carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms were assayed. C. roseus treatment completely prevented the fructose-induced increased body weight, hyperglycemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance observed in group F was significantly decreased with C. roseus treatment in group F+CR. The alterations observed in the activities of enzymes of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms and contents of hepatic tissue lipids in group F rats were significantly restored to near normal values by C. roseus treatment in group F+CR. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that C. roseus treatment is effective in preventing fructose-induced insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia while attenuating the fructose-induced alterations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms. This study suggests that the plant can be used as an adjuvant for the prevention and/or management of insulin resistance and disorders related to it.Journal of physiology and biochemistry 01/2013; · 1.71 Impact Factor
Karuna Rasineni, Carol A Casey[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ethanol abuse and chronic ethanol consumption remains a major public health problem and is responsible for a high rate of morbidity. Alcohol-induced fatty liver generally begins as hepatic steatosis, and if the cause persists, this invariably progresses to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. The original biochemical explanation for an alcoholic fatty liver centered on the ability of ethanol metabolism to shift the redox state of the liver and inhibit fatty acid oxidation. Subsequent studies found repression of fatty acid oxidation and that the induction of lipogenesis can occur in alcoholic conditions. Ethanol activates sterol regulatory element binding protein 1, inducing a battery of lipogenic enzymes. These effects may be due in part to inhibition of AMP-dependent protein kinase, reduction in plasma adiponectin or increased levels of TNF-α the liver. They in turn activate lipogenic pathways and inhibit fatty acid oxidation. Besides the fatty acid synthesis and oxidation, ethanol also alters lipid droplet (LD, the storage form of triglycerides, TG) metabolism in hepatocytes and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion from liver. Because steatosis is now regarded as a significant risk factor for advanced liver pathology, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms in its etiology provides new therapeutic targets to reverse the alcoholic fatty liver.Indian Journal of Pharmacology 05/2012; 44(3):299-303. · 0.27 Impact Factor
Article: Lipid droplet accumulation and impaired fat efflux in polarized hepatic cells: consequences of ethanol metabolism.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Steatosis, an early manifestation in alcoholic liver disease, is associated with the accumulation of hepatocellular lipid droplets (LDs). However, the role ethanol metabolism has in LD formation and turnover remains undefined. Here, we assessed LD dynamics following ethanol and oleic acid treatment to ethanol-metabolizing WIF-B cells (a hybrid of human fibroblasts (WI 38) and Fao rat hepatoma cells). An OA dose-dependent increase in triglyceride and stained lipids was identified which doubled (P < 0.05) in the presence of ethanol. This effect was blunted with the inclusion of an alcohol metabolism inhibitor. The ethanol/ OA combination also induced adipophilin, LD coat protein involved in the attenuation of lipolysis. Additionally, ethanol treatment resulted in a significant reduction in lipid efflux. These data demonstrate that the metabolism of ethanol in hepatic cells is related to LD accumulation, impaired fat efflux, and enhancements in LD-associated proteins. These alterations in LD dynamics may contribute to ethanol-mediated defects in hepatocellular LD regulation and the formation of steatosis.International journal of hepatology. 01/2012; 2012:978136.
Article: Antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities of alcoholic extract of Commiphora mukul gum resin in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.Ramesh Bellamkonda, Karuna Rasineni, Sreenivasa Reddy Singareddy, Ramesh Babu Kasetti, Ramatholisamma Pasurla, Appa Rao Chippada, Saralakumari Desireddy[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background and objectives: The present study investigated the effect of Commiphora mukul ethanol extract gum resin (CMEEt) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats by measuring fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, plasma lipid profile, atherogenic index, hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein oxidation (PO) and activities of enzymatic antioxidants. Methods: Wistar albino rats were divided into 4 groups, normal control group, CM-treated control group, diabetic control group and CM-treated diabetic group. For induction of diabetes, STZ was administered at a dose of 55mg/kg body weight, meanwhile CM-treated groups were administered CMEEt at a dose of 200mg/kg body weight for 60 days. Body weight, plasma glucose and insulin levels were determined in different experimental days, after end of the experimental period the plasma lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes were determined in hepatic tissue. Results: Increase in plasma glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), hepatic LPO and PO levels with decrease in plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), insulin, hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) content and activities of antioxidant enzymes namely, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were the salient features observed in diabetic rats. On the other hand, oral administration of CMEEt at a dose of 200mg/kg for 60 days resulted in the prevention of above mentioned abnormalities. Conclusion: The results suggest that CMEEt could be beneficial in the treatment of diabetes, characterized by atherogenous lipoprotein profile, aggravated antioxidant status and impaired glucose metabolism and in their prevention.Pathophysiology 09/2011; 18(4):255-61.
Article: Antihyperglycemic activity of Catharanthus roseus leaf powder in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Catharanthus roseus Linn (Apocynaceae), is a traditional medicinal plant used to control diabetes, in various regions of the world. In this study we evaluated the possible antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effect of C. roseus (Catharanthus roseus) leaf powder in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 55 mg/kg body wt) to male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups: Control, control-treated, diabetic, and diabetic-treated group. Diabetic-treated and control-treated rats were treated with C. roseus leaf powder suspension in 2 ml distilled water, orally (100 mg/kg body weight/day/60 days). In diabetic rats (D-group) the plasma glucose was increased and the plasma insulin was decreased gradually. In the diabetic-treated group lowering of plasma glucose and an increase in plasma insulin were observed after 15 days and by the end of the experimental period the plasma glucose had almost reached the normal level, but insulin had not. The significant enhancement in plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL-cholesterol, and the atherogenic index of diabetic rats were normalized in diabetic-treated rats. Decreased hepatic and muscle glycogen content and alterations in the activities of enzymes of glucose metabolism (glycogen phosphorylase, hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), as observed in the diabetic control rats, were prevented with C. roseus administration. Our results demonstrated that C. roseus with its antidiabetic and hypolipidemic properties could be a potential herbal medicine in treating diabetes.Pharmacognosy Research 05/2010; 2(3):195-201.