Justin M Hettick

Analytical Chemistry, Biochemistry, Immunochemistry

Ph.D. Texas A&M University, Analytical Chemistry
31.86

Publications

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chaetomium globosum is a hydrophilic fungal species and a contaminant of water-damaged building materials in North America. Methods to detect Chaetomium species include subjective identification of ascospores, viable culture, or molecular-based detection methods. In this study, we describe the production and initial characterization of a monoclonal antibody (MAb) for C. globosum enolase. MAb 1C7, a murine IgG1 isotype MAb, was produced and reacted with recombinant C. globosum enolase (rCgEno) in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and with a putative C. globosum enolase in a Western blot. Epitope mapping showed MAb 1C7 specific reactivity to an enolase decapeptide, LTYEELANLY, that is highly conserved within the fungal class Sordariomycetes. Cross-reactivity studies showed MAb 1C7 reactivity to C. atrobrunneum but not C. indicum. MAb 1C7 did not react with enolase from Aspergillus fumigatus, which is divergent in only two amino acids within this epitope. The results of this study suggest potential utility of MAb 1C7 in Western blot applications for the detection of Chaetomium and other Sordariomycetes species.
    Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy 12/2014; 33(6). DOI:10.1089/mab.2014.0042
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Most murine models of fungal exposure are based on the delivery of uncharacterized extracts or liquid conidia suspensions using aspiration or intranasal approaches. Studies that model exposure to dry fungal aerosols using whole body inhalation have only recently been described. In this study, we aimed to characterize pulmonary immune responses following repeated inhalation of conidia utilizing an acoustical generator to deliver dry fungal aerosols to mice housed in a nose only exposure chamber. Immunocompetent female BALB/cJ mice were exposed to conidia derived from Aspergillus fumigatus wild-type (WT) or a melanin-deficient (Δalb1) strain. Conidia were aerosolized and delivered to mice at an estimated deposition dose of 1×105 twice a week for 4 weeks (8 total). Histopathological and immunological endpoints were assessed 4, 24, 48, and 72 hours after the final exposure. Histopathological analysis showed that conidia derived from both strains induced lung inflammation, especially at 24 and 48 hour time points. Immunological endpoints evaluated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the mediastinal lymph nodes showed that exposure to WT conidia led to elevated numbers of macrophages, granulocytes, and lymphocytes. Importantly, CD8+ IL17+ (Tc17) cells were significantly higher in BALF and positively correlated with germination of A. fumigatus WT spores. Germination was associated with specific IgG to intracellular proteins while Δalb1 spores elicited antibodies to cell wall hydrophobin. These data suggest that inhalation exposures may provide a more representative analysis of immune responses following exposures to environmentally and occupationally prevalent fungal contaminants.
    PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e109855. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0109855 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diisocyanates (dNCOs) are potent chemical allergens utilized in various industries. It has been proposed that skin exposure to dNCOs produces immune sensitization leading to work-related asthma and allergic disease. We examined dNCOs sensitization by using a dermal murine model of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) exposure to characterize the disposition of TDI in the skin, identify the predominant haptenated proteins, and discern the associated antigen uptake by dendritic cells. Ears of BALB/c mice were dosed once with TDI (0.1% or 4% v/v acetone). Ears and draining lymph nodes were excised at selected time points between 1 hr and 15 days post-exposure and were processed for histological, immunohistochemical, and proteomic analyses. Monoclonal antibodies specific for TDI-haptenated protein (TDI-hp) and antibodies to various cell markers were utilized with confocal microscopy to determine co-localization patterns. Histopathological changes were observed following exposure in ear tissue of mice dosed with 4% TDI/acetone. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated TDI-hp localization in the stratum corneum, hair follicles and sebaceous glands. TDI-hp were co-localized with CD11b(+) (integrin αM/Mac-1), CD207(+) (langerin), CD103(+) (integrin αE) cells in the hair follicles and in sebaceous glands. TDI-hp were also identified in the draining lymph nodes (DLN) 1 hr post exposure. Cytoskeletal and cuticular keratins along with mouse serum albumin were identified as major haptenated species in the skin. The results of this study demonstrate that the stratum corneum, hair follicles and associated sebaceous glands in mice are dendritic cell accessible reservoirs for TDI-hp and thus identify a mechanism for immune recognition following epicutaneous exposure to TDI.
    Toxicological Sciences 05/2014; 140(2). DOI:10.1093/toxsci/kfu079 · 4.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diisocyanates (dNCOs) used in industrial applications are well known low molecular weight allergens. Occupational exposure is associated with adverse health outcomes including allergic sensitization and occupational asthma. In this study, we report the production and initial characterization of a dNCO-hapten specific murine IgM monoclonal antibody (mAb). Female BALB/c mice were immunized intraperitoneally with 25 μg of 4,4'-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI)-keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Following six biweekly booster immunizations, splenocytes were recovered and fused to Sp2/0-Ag14 murine myeloma cell line for hybridoma production. Hybridomas were then screened in a solid-phase indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against 40:1 4,4'-MDI- human serum albumin (HSA). mAb reactivity to dNCO-HSA conjugates and dNCO-HSA spiked human serum were characterized using a sandwich ELISA. One hybridoma produced a multimeric IgM mAb (15D4) that reacted with 4,4'-MDI-HSA. Sandwich ELISA analysis demonstrated comparable reactivity with other occupationally relevant dNCO-HSA adducts, including 2,4-toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-HSA, 2,6-TDI-HSA, and 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI)-HSA, but not other electrophilic chemical HSA conjugates. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of 4,4'-MDI-HSA, 2,4-TDI-HSA, 2,6-TDI-HSA, and 1,6-HDI-HSA sandwich ELISAs were 567.2, 172.7, 184.2, and 403.5 ng/mL (8.67, 2.60, 2.77, and 6.07 pmol/mL), respectively. In contrast, experiments using dNCO-supplemented human sera showed an increase in the detectable limit of the assay. A mAb has been produced that has potential utility for detecting mixed diisocyanate exposures in occupational environments. The mAb may have additional utility in the standardization of specific IgE detection immunoassays as well as chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods to enrich dNCO adducted HSA in the plasma of occupationally exposed workers.
    Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 02/2014; 11(2):101-10. DOI:10.1080/15459624.2013.843783 · 1.21 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 02/2014; 133(2):AB101. DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2013.12.375 · 11.25 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diisocyanates (dNCOs) are potent chemical allergens utilized in various industries. It has been proposed that skin exposure to dNCOs produces immune sensitization leading to work-related asthma and allergic disease. We examined dNCOs sensitization by using a dermal murine model of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) exposure to characterize the disposition of TDI in the skin, identify the predominant haptenated proteins, and discern the associated antigen uptake by dendritic cells. Ears of BALB/c mice were dosed once with TDI (0.1% or 4% v/v acetone). Ears and draining lymph nodes (DLNs) were excised at selected time points between 1 h and 15 days post-exposure and were processed for histological, immunohistochemical, and proteomic analyses. Monoclonal antibodies specific for TDI-haptenated protein (TDI-hp) and antibodies to various cell markers were utilized with confocal microscopy to determine co-localization patterns. Histopathological changes were observed following exposure in ear tissue of mice dosed with 4% TDI/acetone. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated TDI-hp localization in the stratum corneum, hair follicles, and sebaceous glands. TDI-hp were co-localized with CD11b+ (integrin αM/Mac-1), CD207+ (langerin), and CD103+ (integrin αE) cells in the hair follicles and in sebaceous glands. TDI-hp were also identified in the DLN 1 h post-exposure. Cytoskeletal and cuticular keratins along with mouse serum albumin were identified as major haptenated species in the skin. The results of this study demonstrate that the stratum corneum, hair follicles, and associated sebaceous glands in mice are dendritic cell accessible reservoirs for TDI-hp and thus identify a mechanism for immune recognition following epicutaneous exposure to TDI.
    Toxicological Sciences 01/2014; · 4.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Aspergillus fumigatus is a filamentous fungus that produces abundant pigmented conidia. Several fungal components have been identified as virulence factors, including melanin; however, the impact of these factors in a repeated exposure model resembling natural environmental exposures remains unknown. This study examined the role of fungal melanin in the stimulation of pulmonary immune responses using immunocompetent BALB/c mice in a multiple exposure model. It compared conidia from wild-type A. fumigatus to two melanin mutants of the same strain, Δarp2 (tan) or Δalb1 (white). Mass spectrometry-based analysis of conidial extracts demonstrated that there was little difference in the protein fingerprint profiles between the three strains. Field emission scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the immunologically inert Rodlet A layer remained intact in melanin-deficient conidia. Thus, the primary difference between the strains was the extent of melanization. Histopathology indicated that each A. fumigatus strain induced lung inflammation, regardless of the extent of melanization. In mice exposed to Δalb1 conidia, an increase in airway eosinophils and a decrease in neutrophils and CD8(+) IL-17(+) (Tc17) cells were observed. Additionally, it was shown that melanin mutant conidia were more rapidly cleared from the lungs than wild-type conidia. These data suggest that the presence of fungal melanin may modulate the pulmonary immune response in a mouse model of repeated exposures to A. fumigatus conidia.
    Journal of Immunotoxicology 08/2013; 11(2). DOI:10.3109/1547691X.2013.819054 · 1.91 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Allergic sensitization to Cannabis sativa is rarely reported, but the increasing consumption of marijuana has resulted in an increase in the number of individuals who become sensitized. To date, little is known about the causal allergens associated with C sativa. To characterize marijuana allergens in different components of the C sativa plant using serum IgE from marijuana sensitized patients. Serum samples from 23 patients with a positive skin prick test result to a crude C sativa extract were evaluated. IgE reactivity was variable between patients and C sativa extracts. IgE reactivity to C sativa proteins in Western blots was heterogeneous and ranged from 10 to 70 kDa. Putative allergens derived from 2-dimensional gels were identified. Prominent IgE reactive bands included a 23-kDa oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 2 and a 50-kDa protein identified to be the photosynthetic enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Additional proteins were identified in the proteomic analysis, including those from adenosine triphosphate synthase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, and luminal binding protein (heat shock protein 70), suggesting these proteins are potential allergens. Deglycosylation studies helped refine protein allergen identification and demonstrated significant IgE antibodies against plant oligosaccharides that could help explain cross-reactivity. Identification and characterization of allergens from C sativa may be helpful in further understanding allergic sensitization to this plant species.
    Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology: official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology 07/2013; 111(1):32-37.e4. DOI:10.1016/j.anai.2013.04.018 · 2.75 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Protein haptenation by polyurethane industrial intermediate methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) is thought to be an important step in the development of diisocyanate (dNCO)-specific allergic sensitization; however, MDI haptenated albumins used to screen specific antibody are often poorly characterized. Recently, the need to develop standardized immunoassays using a consistent, well characterized dNCO-haptenated protein to screen for the presence of MDI-specific IgE and IgG from workers' sera has been emphasized and recognized. This has been challenging to achieve due to the bivalent, electrophilic nature of dNCO leading to the capability to produce multiple cross-linked protein species and polymeric additions to proteins. In the present study, MDI was reacted with human serum albumin (HSA) and hemoglobin (Hb) at molar ratios ranging from 1:1 to 40:1 MDI: protein. Adducts were characterized by (1) loss of available trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) binding to primary amines, (2) electrophoretic migration in polyacrylamide gels, (3) quantification of methylene diphenyl diamine following acid hydrolysis and (4) immunoassay. Concentration dependent changes in all the above noted parameters were observed demonstrating increase in both number and complexity of conjugates formed with increasing MDI concentration. In conclusion, a series of bio-analytical assays should be performed to standardize MDI-antigen preparations across lots and laboratories for measurement of specific antibody in exposed workers which in total indicate degree of intra- and inter-molecular cross-linking, number of dNCO bound, number of different specific binding sites on the protein and degree of immuno-reactivity.
    Analytical Biochemistry 06/2013; 440(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ab.2013.05.022 · 2.22 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 02/2013; 131(2):AB214-AB214. DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2012.12.1432 · 11.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Adam V Wisnewski · Morgen Mhike · Justin M Hettick · Jian Liu · Paul D Siegel
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Airway fluid glutathione (GSH) reactivity with inhaled vapors of diisocyanate, a common occupational allergen, is postulated to be a key step in exposure-induced asthma pathogenesis. METHODS: A mixed (vapor/liquid) phase exposure system was used to model the in vivo reactivity of inhaled HDI vapor with GSH in the airway fluid. HDI-GSH reaction products, and their capacity to transfer HDI to human albumin, were characterized through mass spectrometry and serologic assays, using HDI-specific polyclonal rabbit serum. RESULTS: HDI vapor exposure of 10 mM GSH solutions resulted in primarily S-linked, bis(GSH)-HDI reaction products. In contrast, lower GSH concentrations (100 μM) resulted in mainly mono(GSH)-HDI conjugates, with varying degrees of HDI hydrolysis, dimerization and/or intra-molecular cyclization, depending upon the presence/absence of H(2)PO(4)(-)/HPO(4)(2-) and Na(+)/Cl(-) ions. The ion composition and GSH concentration of the fluid phase, during HDI vapor exposure, strongly influenced the transfer of HDI from GSH to albumin, as did the pH and duration of the carbamoylating reaction. When carbamoylation was performed overnight at pH 7, twenty-five of albumin's lysines were identified as potential sites of conjugation with partially hydrolyzed HDI. When carbamoylation was performed at pH 9, more rapid (within 3 hours) and extensive modification was observed, including additional lysine sites, intra-molecular cross-linkage with HDI, and novel HDI-GSH conjugation. CONCLUSIONS: The data define potential mechanisms by which the levels of GSH, H(2)PO(4)(-)/HPO(4)(2-), and/or other ions (e.g. H(+)/OH(-), Na(+), Cl(-)) affect the reactivity of HDI vapor with self-molecules in solution (e.g. airway fluid), and thus, might influence the clinical response to HDI respiratory tract exposure.
    Toxicology in Vitro 11/2012; 27(2). DOI:10.1016/j.tiv.2012.11.013 · 3.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The nitrosation of cysteamine (H2NCH2CH2SH) to produce cysteamine-S-nitrosothiol (CANO) was studied in slightly acidic medium by using nitrous acid prepared in situ. The stoichiometry of the reaction was H2NCH2CH2SH + HNO2 -> H2NCH2CH2SNO + H2O. On prolonged standing, the nitrosothiol decomposed quantitatively to yield the disulfide, cystamine: 2H(2)NCH(2)CH(2)SNO -> H2NCH2CH2S-SCH2CH2NH2 + 2NO. NO2 and N2O3 are not the primary nitrosating agents, since their precursor (NO) was not detected during the nitrosation process. The reaction is first order in nitrous acid, thus implicating it as the major nitrosating agent in mildly acidic pH conditions. Acid catalyzes nitrosation after nitrous acid has saturated, implicating the protonated nitrous acid species, the nitrosonium cation (NO+) as a contributing nitrosating species in highly acidic environments. The acid catalysis at constant nitrous acid concentrations suggests that the nitrosonium cation nitrosates at a much higher rate than nitrous acid. Bimolecular rate constants for the nitrosation of cysteamine by nitrous acid and by the nitrosonium cation were deduced to be 17.9 +/- 1.5 (mol/L)(-1) s(-1) and 6.7 x 10(4) (mol/L)(-1) s(-1), respectively. Both Cu(I) and Cu(II) ions were effective catalysts for the formation and decomposition of the cysteamine nitrosothiol. Cu(II) ions could catalyze the nitrosation of cysteamine in neutral conditions, whereas Cu(I) could only catalyze in acidic conditions. Transnitrosation kinetics of CANO with glutathione showed the formation of cystamine and the mixed disulfide with no formation of oxidized glutathione (GSSG). The nitrosation reaction was satisfactorily simulated by a simple reaction scheme involving eight reactions.
    Canadian Journal of Chemistry 08/2012; 90(9):724-738. DOI:10.1139/V2012-051 · 1.01 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Justin M Hettick · Paul D Siegel · Brett J Green · Jian Liu · Adam V Wisnewski
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Exposure to toluene diisocyanate (TDI), an industrially important crosslinking agent used in the production of polyurethane products, can cause asthma in sensitive workers. Albumin has been identified as a major reaction target for TDI in vivo, and TDI-albumin reaction products have been proposed to serve as exposure biomarkers and to act as asthmagens, yet they remain incompletely characterized. In the current study, we used a multiplexed tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) approach to identify the sites of albumin conjugation by TDI vapors, modeling the air/liquid interface of the lung. Vapor phase TDI was found to react with human albumin in a dose-dependent manner, with up to 18 potential sites of conjugation, the most susceptible being Lys351 and the dilysine site Lys413-414. Sites of vapor TDI conjugation to albumin were quantitatively limited compared with those recently described for liquid phase TDI, especially in domains IIA and IIIB of albumin. We hypothesize that the orientation of albumin at the air/liquid interface plays an important role in vapor TDI conjugation and, thus, could influence biological responses to exposure and the development of in vitro assays for exposure and immune sensitivity.
    Analytical Biochemistry 12/2011; 421(2):706-11. DOI:10.1016/j.ab.2011.12.013 · 2.22 Impact Factor
  • Justin M. Hettick · Paul D. Siegel
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diisocyanates are industrially important chemicals that serve as polymerizing agents in a variety of polyurethane products. In addition to their many industrial uses, diisocyanates have been implicated as causative agents of occupational allergic respiratory disease, although the specific mechanism(s) by which these diseases occur remains unknown. In this study the sites of conjugation of the two most industrially important monomeric diisocyanates, methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) and toluene diisocyanate (TDI) on human serum albumin are identified utilizing multiplexed tandem mass spectrometry on a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Analysis of human albumin reacted with MDI and TDI over the range of 1:1–40:1 (isocyanate:protein) mol ratio reveals that MDI and TDI react with a maximum of 20 and 37 residues, respectively. Conjugation of diisocyanates to albumin proceeds in a concentration-dependant manner with MDI and TDI reacting at a preferred subset of 5 and 10 residues, respectively, in the limiting case of a 1:1mol ratio. MDI reacts at fewer residues than does TDI, and is not observed to react with any residues exclusive of TDI. These results cannot be explained on the basis of simple sterics or hydrophobicity, but rather on the basis of increased reactivity of one TDI isocyanate moiety due to electron withdrawing character of the second isocyanate moiety. Furthermore, reaction of diisocyanates with albumin in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution provides three additional reactive sites that are not observed in ammonium bicarbonate buffer. Two lysine residues, Lys199 and Lys525, are observed to be reactive to both diisocyanates at all concentrations and in all solvent systems employed in this study. This study presents a comprehensive conjugation map of MDI and TDI on human albumin. The results suggest that several albumin residues are reactive toward both MDI and TDI and may be useful for biomonitoring of diisocyanate exposures.
    International Journal of Mass Spectrometry 09/2011; 309. DOI:10.1016/j.ijms.2011.09.015 · 2.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diisocyanates (dNCOs) are highly reactive low molecular weight chemicals used in the manufacture of polyurethane products and are the most commonly reported cause of occupational asthma. Mechanistic disease studies and development of biomonitoring and research tools, such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been hampered by dNCOs' ability to self-polymerize and to cross-link biomolecules. Toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), with potential use in immunoassays for exposure and biomarker assessments, were produced and reactivities characterized against mono- and diisocyanate and dithioisocyanate protein conjugates. In general, TDI reactive mAbs displayed stronger recognition of isocyanate haptenated proteins when the NCO was in the ortho position relative to the tolyl group, and were capable of discriminating between isocyanate and isothiocyanate conjugates and between aromatic and aliphatic dNCOs. Preliminary studies using TDI vapor exposed cells suggest potential utility of these mAbs for both research and biomonitoring.
    Journal of immunological methods 08/2011; 373(1-2):127-35. DOI:10.1016/j.jim.2011.08.011 · 2.01 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Adam V Wisnewski · Justin M Hettick · Paul D Siegel
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glutathione has previously been identified as a reaction target for toluene diisocyanate (TDI) in vitro and in vivo, and has been suggested to contribute to toxic and allergic reactions to exposure. In this study, the reactivity of reduced glutathione (GSH) with TDI in vitro was further investigated using a mixed phase (vapor/liquid) exposure system to model the in vivo biophysics of exposure in the lower respiratory tract. HPLC/MS/MS was used to characterize the observed reaction products. Under the conditions tested, the major reaction products between TDI vapor and GSH were S-linked bis(GSH)-TDI and to a lesser extent mono(GSH)-TDI conjugates (with one N═C═O hydrolyzed). The vapor-phase-generated GSH-TDI conjugates were capable of transcarbamoylating human albumin in a pH-dependent manner, resulting in changes in the self-protein's conformation/charge, on the basis of electrophoretic mobility under native conditions. Specific sites of human albumin-TDI conjugation, mediated by GSH-TDI, were identified (Lys(73), Lys(159), Lys(190), Lys(199), Lys(212), Lys(351), Lys(136/137), Lys(413/414), and Lys(524/525)) along with overlap with those susceptible to direct conjugation by TDI. Together, the data extend the proof-of-principle for GSH to act as a "shuttle" for a reactive form of TDI, which could contribute to clinical responses to exposure.
    Chemical Research in Toxicology 08/2011; 24(10):1686-93. DOI:10.1021/tx2002433 · 4.19 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aspergillus terreus has been difficult to identify in cases of aspergillosis, and clinical identification has been restricted to the broad identification of aspergillosis lesions in affected organs or the detection of fungal carbohydrates. As a result, there is a clinical need to identify species-specific biomarkers that can be used to detect invasive A. terreus disease. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were developed to a partially purified preparation of cytolytic hyphal exoantigens (HEA) derived from A. terreus culture supernatant (CSN). Twenty-three IgG1 isotype murine MAbs were developed and tested for cross-reactivity against hyphal extracts of 54 fungal species. Sixteen MAbs were shown to be specific for A. terreus. HEA were detected in conidia, hyphae, and in CSN of A. terreus. HEA were expressed in high levels in the hyphae during early stages of A. terreus growth at 37°C, whereas at room temperature the expression of HEA peaked by days 4 to 5. Expression kinetics of HEA in CSN showed a lag, with peak levels at later time points at room temperature and 37°C than in hyphal extracts. Serum spiking experiments demonstrated that human serum components do not inhibit detection of the HEA epitopes by MAb enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunoprecipitation and proteomic analysis demonstrated that MAbs 13E11 and 12C4 immunoprecipitated a putative uncharacterized leucine aminopeptidase (Q0CAZ7), while MAb 19B2 recognized a putative dipeptidyl-peptidase V (DPP5). Studies using confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that the uncharacterized leucine aminopeptidase mostly localized to extracellular matrix structures while dipeptidyl-peptidase V was mostly confined to the cytoplasm.
    Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI 07/2011; 18(9):1568-76. DOI:10.1128/CVI.05163-11 · 2.37 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Exposure to soy antigens has been associated with asthma in community outbreaks and in some workplaces. Recently, 135 soy flake processing workers (SPWs) in a Tennessee facility were evaluated for immune reactivity to soy. Allergic sensitization to soy was common and was five times more prevalent than in health care worker controls (HCWs) with no known soy exposure. To characterize sensitization to soy allergens in SPWs. Sera that were positive to soy ImmunoCAP (n=27) were tested in IgE immunoblots. Wild-type (WT) and transgenic (TG) antigens were sequenced using nanoscale Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (nanoUPLC MS/MS). IgE reactivity towards 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (CP4-EPSP), a protein found in TG soy, was additionally investigated. De-identified sera from 50 HCWs were used as a control. Immunoblotting of WT and TG soy flake extracts revealed IgE against multiple soy antigens with reactivity towards 48, 54, and 62 kDa bands being the most common. The prominent proteins that bound SPW IgE were identified by nanoUPLC MS/MS analysis to be the high molecular weight soybean storage proteins, β-conglycinin (Gly m 5), and Glycinin (Gly m 6). No specific IgE reactivity could be detected to lower molecular weight soy allergens, Gly m 1 and Gly m 2, in soybean hull (SH) extracts. IgE reactivity was comparable between WT and TG extracts; however, IgE antibodies to CP4-EPSP could not be detected. SPWs with specific IgE to soy reacted most commonly with higher molecular weight soybean storage proteins compared with the lower molecular weight SH allergens identified in community asthma studies. IgE reactivity was comparable between WT and TG soy extracts, while no IgE reactivity to CP4-EPSP was observed. High molecular weight soybean storage allergens, Gly m 5 and Gly m 6, may be respiratory sensitizers in occupational exposed SPWs.
    Clinical & Experimental Allergy 07/2011; 41(7):1022-30. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2011.03756.x · 4.32 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: New data sets on both (i) equilibrium theophylline (TH) partitioning/binding in stratum corneum and (ii) transient TH diffusion through human epidermis are explained by an extended partition-diffusion model with reversible binding. Data conform to a linear binding isotherm within the tested concentration range (0-2000 μg/mL) with an equilibrium ratio of bound-to-free solute of approximately 1.4. The permeability coefficient for TH is 4.86 × 10(-5) cm/h, and the lag time is 20.1 h. Binding occurs as a slow process, significantly affecting the kinetics of dermal penetration.
    Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 07/2011; 100(7):2989-95. DOI:10.1002/jps.22489 · 3.01 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Itai Chipinda · Justin M Hettick · Paul D Siegel
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Low molecular weight chemical (LMW) allergens are commonly referred to as haptens. Haptens must complex with proteins to be recognized by the immune system. The majority of occupationally related haptens are reactive, electrophilic chemicals, or are metabolized to reactive metabolites that form covalent bonds with nucleophilic centers on proteins. Nonelectrophilic protein binding may occur through disulfide exchange, coordinate covalent binding onto metal ions on metalloproteins or of metal allergens, themselves, to the major histocompatibility complex. Recent chemical reactivity kinetic studies suggest that the rate of protein binding is a major determinant of allergenic potency; however, electrophilic strength does not seem to predict the ability of a hapten to skew the response between Th1 and Th2. Modern proteomic mass spectrometry methods that allow detailed delineation of potential differences in protein binding sites may be valuable in predicting if a chemical will stimulate an immediate or delayed hypersensitivity. Chemical aspects related to both reactivity and protein-specific binding are discussed.
    Journal of Allergy 06/2011; 2011:839682. DOI:10.1155/2011/839682

19 Following View all

57 Followers View all