Article: Corticosteroid therapy in intensive care unit patients with PCR-confirmed influenza A(H1N1) infection in Finland.R Linko, V Pettilä, E Ruokonen, T Varpula, S Karlsson, J Tenhunen, M Reinikainen, K Saarinen, J Perttilä, I Parviainen, T Ala-Kokko[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the incidence, treatment, and outcome of influenza A(H1N1) in Finnish intensive care units (ICUs) with special reference to corticosteroid treatment. During the H1N1 outbreak in Finland between 11 October and 31 December 2009, we prospectively evaluated all consecutive ICU patients with high suspicion of or confirmed pandemic influenza A(H1N1) infection. We assessed severity of acute disease and daily organ dysfunction. Ventilatory support and other concomitant treatments were evaluated and recorded daily throughout the ICU stay. The primary outcome was hospital mortality. During the 3-month period altogether 132 ICU patients were tested polymerase chain reaction-positive for influenza A(H1N1). Of these patients, 78% needed non-invasive or invasive ventilatory support. The median (interquartile) length of ICU stay was 4 [2-12] days. Hospital mortality was 10 of 132 [8%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3-12%]. Corticosteroids were administered to 72 (55%) patients, but rescue therapies except prone positioning were infrequently used. Simplified Acute Physiology Score II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores in patients with and without corticosteroid treatment were 31 [24-36] and 6 [2-8] vs. 22 [5-30] and 3 [2-6], respectively. The crude hospital mortality was not different in patients with corticosteroid treatment compared to those without: 8 of 72 (11%, 95% CI 4-19%) vs. 2 of 60 (3%, 95% CI 0-8%) (P = 0.11). The majority of H1N1 patients in ICUs received ventilatory support. Corticosteroids were administered to more than half of the patients. Despite being more severely ill, patients given corticosteroids had comparable hospital outcome with patients not given corticosteroids.Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 09/2011; 55(8):971-9. · 2.19 Impact Factor
Article: N-terminal-pro-BNP in critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure: a prospective cohort study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) in unselected critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). Prospective, observational cohort study in 25 intensive care units in Finland. This study included a total of 602 patients with laboratory samples from 958 consecutive patients with ARF treated either with invasive or with non-invasive ventilatory support (the FINNALI study). Plasma NT-pro-BNP samples were drawn after the onset of ventilatory support (day 0) and on the morning of the second day. The median [interquartile ranges (IQR)] NT-pro-BNP-values were significantly higher at baseline in 90-day non-survivors than the survivors, 4378 pg/ml (1400-13,943 pg/ml) vs. 1052 pg/ml (232-4076 pg/ml), respectively. The median (IQR) NT-pro-BNP values were significantly higher in patients with chronic cardiac disease or cardiac surgery than in non-cardiac patients, 1947 pg/ml (801-4687 pg/ml) vs. 417 pg/ml (153-1735 pg/ml), respectively, if renal function was normal. With deteriorating renal function, the NT-pro-BNP values showed a significant increase. The area under curve for baseline NT-pro-BNP predicting 90-day mortality was moderate: 0.718 (95% confidence interval 0.674-0.761). Baseline NT-pro-BNP over 1765 pg/ml was independently associated with 90-day mortality by logistic regression analysis (P<0.001). NT-pro-BNP on admission is commonly elevated and independently associated with 90-day mortality in critically ill ARF patients. However, the routine use of NT-pro-BNP for prognostic purpose does not seem to add value to clinical data in ARF patients.Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 07/2011; 55(6):749-57. · 2.19 Impact Factor
Saara Wittfooth, Risto Tertti, Mauri Lepäntalo, Pekka Porela, Qiu-Ping Qin, Joanna Tynjälä, Outi Inkinen, Juha Perttilä, K E Juhani Airaksinen, Kim Pettersson[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Intravenous low molecular weight (LMWH) and unfractionated heparin (UFH) increase the circulating concentrations of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), a novel cardiac risk marker, in haemodialysis and coronary angiography patients. To further investigate the mechanisms of heparin effects, free PAPP-A was analysed in serial serum samples collected during haemodialysis (intravenous LMWH), carotid endarterectomy or abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery (intravenous UFH), treatment at intensive care unit (subcutaneous LMWH), and coronary angiography (intravenous bivalirudin). PAPP-A was extracted from plaque tissue samples of endarterectomy and aneurysm patients. The interaction between heparin products and free PAPP-A was studied with gel filtration. After intravenous UFH and LMWH free PAPP-A increased significantly but bivalirudin had no effect. After LMWH bolus in haemodialysis patients 85% of free PAPP-A was cleared with a half-life of 13.1 min and the rest with a half-life of 96.6 min. Subcutaneous LMWH led to lower and slower free PAPP-A elevation. PAPP-A extracted from plaque tissues was in free form and extraction was strongly enhanced by LMWH. Heparin products increased the molecular size of free PAPP-A. The heparin-induced PAPP-A elevation is seen in various patients and should be taken into account when PAPP-A is studied as a biomarker.Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 01/2011; 412(3-4):376-81. · 2.54 Impact Factor
Esko Ruokonen, Seppo Hovilehto, Pekka Loisa, Juha Perttilä, Ville Pettilä, Marja Puurunen, Esa Rintala, Ari Uusaro[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: According to the Finnsepsis Study, the incidence in Finland of severe sepsis requiring intensive care was 0.38/1,000 inhabitants/year. ICU and hospital mortality was 15.5% and 28.3%, respectively. The Finnsepsis Study showed that compliance with protocols was rather poor and antimicrobial treatment was often delayed. These guidelines emphasize the importance of prompt antibiotic and fluid therapy. In shock, norepinephrine is the first line vasopressor. Low-dose hydrocortisone may be used to shorten the need for vasopressors. Activated protein C should be considered in selected patients. The blood glucose target recommendation is between 5 and 8 mmol/l.Duodecim; lääketieteellinen aikakauskirja 01/2009; 125(21):2402-3.
Duodecim; lääketieteellinen aikakauskirja 02/2001; 117(13):1311-7.