Jose Jackson

University of Botswana · Centre for Scientific Reseach, Indigenous Knowledge and Innovation

Publications

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    ABSTRACT: Papaya, a nutritious tropical fruit, is consumed both in its fresh form and as a processed product worldwide. Major quality indices which include firmness, acidity, pH, colour and size, are cultivar dependent. Transgenic papayas engineered for resistance to Papaya ringspot virus were evaluated over the ripening period to address physicochemical quality attributes and food safety concerns. With the exception of one transgenic line, no significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in firmness, acidity and pH. Lightness (L*) and redness (a*) of the pulps of non-transgenic and transgenic papaya were similar but varied over the ripening period (P < 0.05). Fruit mass though non-uniform (P < 0.05) for some lines was within the range reported for similar papaya cultivars as were shape indices of female fruits. Transgene proteins, CP and NPTII, were not detected in fruit pulp at the table-ready stage. The findings suggest that transformation did not produce any major unintended alterations in the physicochemical attributes of the transgenic papayas. Transgene proteins in the edible fruit pulp were low or undetectable.
    Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 08/2013; · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To describe patterns of food consumption associated with overweight/ obesity (OW/OB) and their links to socio-economic status (SES) and urbanization.Design A nationwide cross-sectional survey.Setting Secondary schools in cities, towns and villages in Botswana, Africa.Subjects A total of 746 adolescent schoolchildren.Results OW/OB is associated with greater SES, city residence and a snack-food diet pattern. Students belonging to higher SES compared with those from a lower SES background reported significantly (P < 0·01) more daily servings of snack foods (1·55 v. 0·76) and fewer servings of traditional diet foods (0·99 v. 1·68) and also reported that they ate meals outside the home more often (90 % v. 72 %). Students in cities ate significantly (P < 0·01) more servings of snacks (1·69 v. 1·05 v. 0·51) and fewer servings of traditional foods (0·67 v. 1·52 v. 1·61) compared with those in urban and rural villages. The odds of OW/OB were increased 1·16-fold with a snack-food diet, a result that was diminished when controlled for SES.Conclusions These data suggest that nutritional transition occurs at different rates across urbanization and SES levels in Botswana. In cities, increasing the availability of fruit while reducing access to or portion sizes of snack items is important. Emphasis on continued intake of traditional foods may also be helpful as rural areas undergo economic and infrastructural development.
    Public Health Nutrition 11/2011; 14(12):2260 - 2267. · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The study's objectives were to gain school personnel's (1) perceptions on diet, physical activity, body size, and obesity, (2) description of school food and physical activity practices, and (3) recommendations for programs to prevent adolescent obesity. The study took place in six junior secondary schools of varying socioeconomic status in Gaborone, Botswana. Using a qualitative descriptive design, semistructured interviews were conducted with key school personnel. Directed content analysis was used to summarize the findings. School personnel believed that obesity was an important problem. They felt that school food was unhealthy and that physical activity was provided insufficiently. Participants shared enthusiasm for a school-based health-promoting intervention that must be fun and include active engagement and education on healthy lifestyles for all students. Participants supported on-site food shop inventory changes and physical activity programs. Potential barriers listed were schools' financial resources, interest of students, and time limitations of all involved.
    The Journal of School Nursing 11/2011; 28(3):220-9. · 1.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tylosema esculentum (marama) beans and tubers are used as food, and traditional medicine against diarrhoea in Southern Africa. Rotaviruses (RVs) are a major cause of diarrhoea among infants, young children, immunocompromised people, and domesticated animals. Our work is first to determine anti-RV activity of marama bean and tuber ethanol and water extracts; in this case on intestinal enterocyte cells of human infant (H4), adult pig (CLAB) and adult bovine (CIEB) origin. Marama cotyledon ethanolic extract (MCE) and cotyledon water extract (MCW) without RV were not cytotoxic to all cells tested, while seed coat and tuber extracts showed variable levels of cytotoxicity. Marama cotyledon ethanolic and water extracts (MCE and MCW, resp.) (≥0.1 mg/mL), seed coat extract (MSCE) and seed coat water extract (MSCW) (0.01 to 0.001 mg/mL), especially ethanolic, significantly increased cell survival and enhanced survival to cytopathic effects of RV by at least 100% after in vitro co- and pre-incubation treatments. All marama extracts used significantly enhanced nitric oxide release from H4 cells and enhanced TER (Ω/cm(2)) of enterocyte barriers after coincubation with RV. Marama cotyledon and seed coat extracts inhibited virion infectivity possibly through interference with replication due to accumulation of nitric oxide. Marama extracts are therefore promising microbicides against RV.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2011; 2011:284795. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The morama bean is an underutilized leguminous oilseed native to the Kalahari Desert and neighboring sandy regions of Botswana, Namibia, and South Africa (Limpopo, North-West, Gauteng, and Northern Cape provinces), and forms part of the diet of the indigenous population in these countries. It is also known as gemsbok bean, moramaboontjie, elandboontjie, braaiboonjie, marama, marumana, tsi, tsin, gami, and ombanui. It is reported as an excellent source of good quality protein (29-39%); its oil (24-48%) is rich in mono- and di-unsaturated fatty acids and contains no cholesterol. Morama is a good source of micronutrients such as calcium, iron, zinc, phosphate, magnesium, and B vitamins including folate. It is also reported to be a potential source of phytonutrients including phenolic compounds (e.g., tannins), trypsin inhibitors, phytates, and oligosaccharides, components which have been shown in other foods to contribute to health in particular, prevention of noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and some cancers. From a nutritional and health perspective, the morama bean has potential commercial value as a cash crop and value-added products, particularly in the communities where it is found.
    Advances in food and nutrition research 01/2010; 61:187-246.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Papaya (Carica papaya L.) production is limited by over 20 viruses, the most damaging of which is papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Owing to a lack of suitable PRSV-resistant sources in Carica germplasm, transgenic resistance using the coat protein (cp) gene of a local PRSV strain is being developed to manage the disease in Jamaica. For assurance of food safety, the nutritional and antinutritional composition of transgenic papayas during ripening was compared with that of unmodified control samples.RESULTS: Mature unripe fruits of transgenic and non-transgenic papayas were repeatedly harvested and stored at room temperature for 1 week periods, during which random samples were assessed. With the exception of one transgenic line, no significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in selected nutrients and antinutrients between the control and test samples at three stages of maturity, although a few random variations were noted.CONCLUSION: Transformation with viral cp gene and two marker genes did not produce any major unintended alterations in either the nutritional or the antinutritional composition of transgenic papayas. These findings must be compared with other physicochemical and safety assessments to provide a scientific basis for concluding substantial equivalence with conventional papayas available on the market in Jamaica. Copyright © 2008 Society of Chemical Industry
    Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 06/2008; 88(11):1911 - 1920. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    Orane A Blake, Maurice R Bennink, Jose C Jackson
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoglycin A, the toxin found in the ackee fruit, has been reported in the literature as the causative agent in incidences of acute toxicity termed Jamaican vomiting sickness or toxic hypoglycemic syndrome. Hypoglycin A toxicity in this study was determined by feeding male and female Sprague-Dawley rats a control diet and ackee diets that contained 4-3840 ppm of hypoglycin. The fixed dose method was used to quantify the acute toxic dose of hypoglycin A and was determined by feeding a diet consisting of the lowest hypoglycin A concentration; this was increased to the next highest dose after 24h until toxicity was observed. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of hypoglycin A was determined by feeding rats the ackee and control diets over a 30-day period. The acute toxic dose for male and female rats was 231.19+/-62.5 5mg hypoglycinA/kgBW and 215.99+/-63.33 mg hypoglycinA/kgBW, respectively. This was considerably greater than the dose of 100 mg hypoglycin/kgBW reported in a previous study when aqueous hypoglycin was administered orally. The MTD of hypoglycin A in both male and female rats was 1.50+/-0.07 mg hypoglycinA/kgBW/day. These findings suggest that the form in which hypoglycin in ackee is administered could affect the toxicological properties it exhibits. Therefore, for the purpose of a hazard assessment, it may be best administered within the matrix of the fruit, which is the form that humans consume it.
    Food and Chemical Toxicology 03/2006; 44(2):207-13. · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Home interviews of 110 randomly selected householders representing three distinct socio-economic groups in North Central St Andrew, an urban community in Jamaica, were conducted during January-March 1999. Respondents were interviewed about their awareness of safe food handling, risk perception, food handling practices and attitude to food safety issues. The majority of respondents reported a fairly high knowledge of safe food handling practices; however, more than one-half were unfamiliar with the correct procedure for freezing and thawing of foods. Householders were very concerned about the food they purchased for preparation at home, displayed strong concerns about sanitation of food handling establishments, food handlers practices, and the appearance of foods purchased. The majority of respondents had never contacted their local Health Department or the Ministry of Health regarding food safety concerns. Diarrhea, stomach pain, vomiting and nausea were reported as the major symptoms of food-borne illness, while animal foods including dairy, beef, chicken, pork and fish/shellfish were implicated as the main source of food borne illnesses. There were no significant differences (P<0.5) observed between gender and socio-economic groups in the study, except for concern of the appearance of food and shopping options, respectively. These findings raise concerns about consumer food safety knowledge and practices in Jamaica. It is suggested that a national knowledge, awareness and practices survey should be conducted, followed by a properly designed food safety public education campaign, to enhance household food safety awareness in Jamaica.
    International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 08/2003; 54(4):309-20. · 1.26 Impact Factor
  • Jose Candace. Jackson
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    ABSTRACT: "Copyright by Jose Candace Jackson, 1999"--Leaf [iv]. Thesis (Ph. D.)--Michigan State University. Dept. of Food Sciences & Human Nutrition, 1999. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 199-217).

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