Publications

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    ABSTRACT: Mycotoxin mitigation is of major interest as ingestion of mycotoxins results in poor animal health, decreased productivity as well as substantial economic losses. A feed additive (FA) consisting of a combination of bacteria (Eubacterium BBSH797) and enzyme (fumonisin esterase FumD) was tested in pigs for its ability to neutralize the effects of mono- and co-contaminated diets with deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FB) on hematology, biochemistry, tissue morphology and immune response. Forty-eight animals, allocated into eight groups, received one of eight diets for 35 days: a control diet, a diet contaminated with either DON (3 mg/kg) or FB (6 mg/kg), or both toxins, and the same four diets with FA. Inclusion of FA restored the circulating number of neutrophils of piglets fed the FB and DON+FB diets. Similarly, FA counteracted the minor changes observed on plasma concentrations of albumin and creatinine. In lung, the lesions induced by the ingestion of FB in mono- and co-contaminated diets were no longer observed after addition of FA in these diets. Lesions recorded in the liver of pigs fed either of the contaminated diets with FA were partly reduced, and the increased hepatocyte proliferation was totally neutralized when FA was present in the co-contaminated diet. After 35 days of exposure, the development of the vaccinal response was significantly improved in animals fed diets supplemented with FA, as shown by results of lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine expression in spleen, and the production of specific Ig. Similarly, in jejunum of animals fed diets with FA, occurrence of lesions and upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines were much less obvious. The ameliorative effects provided by FA suggest that this approach would be suitable in the control of DON and FB that commonly co-occur in feed.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 06/2013; · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Enniatins, the most prevalent emerging mycotoxins, represent an emerging food safety issue, because of their common co-occurrence with other fusariotoxins such as trichothecenes co-produced by Fusarium spp on field grains and because of their extensive prevalence in grains. In this study, the intestinal toxicity of enniatin B1 (ENN) alone and mixed with the most toxic trichothecene T-2 toxin (T2) was characterized by using two biological models from pig, the most sensitive species: the intestinal cell line IPEC1 (in vitro exposure) and jejunal explants (ex vivo exposure). Dose-dependent decreases in cell proliferation in IPEC1 and in the histopathological scores of explants were observed for ENN at μM-levels and for T2 at nM-levels, with IC50 values for ENN of 15.8 and 29.7 μM, and for T2 of 9.3 and 15.1 nM in vitro and ex vivo, respectively. Interaction analysis by probabilistic and by determinist approaches showed a less than additive effect both in vitro and ex vivo, at IC50 values, with increasing antagonism with decreasing concentrations of toxins. The results obtained by the determinist median-effect dose analysis and by the nonlinear regression analysis were concordant. All the median-effect doses estimated for IPEC cells were included in the IC50 confidence intervals of the nonlinear regression fitting. Given the occurrence of enniatins, potential synergy following the co-occurrence of enniatins and the major fusariotoxins, especially trichothecene B deoxynivalenol should be investigated.
    Archives of Toxicology 05/2013; · 5.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Trichothecenes induce changes in the intestinal barrier function through decreased expression of cell junction proteins and apoptosis of enterocytes. The mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) play an important role in the signaling pathways of cell turnover and differentiation. Using ex vivo and in vivo approaches, the purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of low doses of DON to induce histological changes in the intestine and to activate the MAPK ERK 1/2, p38 and JNK. Twelve weaning piglets received during four weeks a control diet or a DON-contaminated diet (2.3 mg DON/kg feed). Six weaning piglets were used to prepare jejunal explants (ex vivo model). Explants were exposed during 4 h to vehicle, 5 or 10 μM DON. Intestinal changes were graded using a histological score. Pigs fed a DON-diet and explants exposed to DON showed a significant decrease in the jejunal score. In both models, the toxin significantly enhanced phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 and p38, whereas the increased phosphorylation of JNK was non significant. Taken together these results indicate that in vivo or ex vivo exposure of intestinal tissue to DON lead to similar intestinal lesions and activation of MAPK. These effects could impair the homeostasis of intestinal tissue in the aspects of barrier function and immune protection. The similarity of the in vivo and ex vivo results provides also strong evidence that the jejunal explant model is a good alternative for toxicological studies in intestinal tissue.
    Toxicon 02/2013; 66C:31-36. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The intestinal epithelium is the first barrier against food contaminants and is highly sensitive to mycotoxins, especially de oxynivalenol (DON). Consumption of DON-contaminated food is associated with outbreaks of gastroenteritis. In cereals and their byproducts, DON is present together with two acetylated derivatives, 3-ADON and 15-ADON. The aim of this study was to compare the intestinal toxicity of DON and A-DONs, using noncytotoxic doses. The toxicity was assessed using in vitro (intestinal epithelial cell line), ex vivo (intestinal explants), and in vivo (animals exposed to mycotoxin-contaminated diets) models. The effects were studied on cell proliferation, barrier function, and intestinal structure. The mechanism of toxicity was investigated by measuring the expression of the tight junction proteins and of phosphorylated ERK1/2, p38, and JNK, which are effectors of signaling pathway involved in cellular programs including embryogenesis, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. On proliferating cells, 3-ADON was less toxic than DON, which was less toxic than 15-ADON. On differentiated cells, 15-ADON impaired the barrier function, whereas DON and 3-ADON did not have a significant effect. Similarly, ex vivo and in vivo, 15-ADON caused more histological lesions than DON or 3-ADON. At the molecular level, the 15-ADON activated the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) ERK1/2, p38, and JNK in the intestinal cell line, explants, and the jejunum from exposed animals at lower dose than DON and 3-ADON. Our results show that the higher toxicity of 15-DON is due to its ability to activate the MAPK. Given that cereal-based foods are contaminated with DON and acetylated-DON, the higher toxicity of 15-ADON should be taken into account.
    Toxicological Sciences 08/2012; 130(1):180-90. · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FB) are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species, which naturally co-occur in animal diets. The gastrointestinal tract represents the first barrier met by exogenous food/feed compounds. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of DON and FB, alone and in combination, on some intestinal parameters, including morphology, histology, expression of cytokines and junction proteins. A total of twenty-four 5-week-old piglets were randomly assigned to four different groups, receiving separate diets for 5 weeks: a control diet; a diet contaminated with either DON (3 mg/kg) or FB (6 mg/kg); or both toxins. Chronic ingestion of these contaminated diets induced morphological and histological changes, as shown by the atrophy and fusion of villi, the decreased villi height and cell proliferation in the jejunum, and by the reduced number of goblet cells and lymphocytes. At the end of the experiment, the expression levels of several cytokines were measured by RT-PCR and some of them (TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-10) were significantly up-regulated in the ileum or the jejunum. In addition, the ingestion of contaminated diets reduced the expression of the adherent junction protein E-cadherin and the tight junction protein occludin in the intestine. When animals were fed with a co-contaminated diet (DON+FB), several types of interactions were observed depending on the parameters and segments assessed: synergistic (immune cells); additive (cytokines and junction protein expression); less than additive (histological lesions and cytokine expression); antagonistic (immune cells and cytokine expression). Taken together, the present data provide strong evidence that chronic ingestion of low doses of mycotoxins alters the intestine, and thus may predispose animals to infections by enteric pathogens.
    The British journal of nutrition 09/2011; 107(12):1776-86. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FB) are the most frequently encountered mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species and most commonly co-occur in animal diets. These mycotoxins were studied for their toxicity in piglets on several parameters including plasma biochemistry, organ histopathology and immune response. Twenty-four 5-wk-old animals were randomly assigned to four different groups, receiving separate diets for 5 wk, a control diet, a diet contaminated with either DON (3 mg/kg) or FB (6 mg/kg) or both toxins. At days 4 and 16 of the trial, the animals were subcutaneously immunized with ovalbumin to assess their specific immune response. The different diets did not affect animal performance and had minimal effect on hematological and biochemical blood parameters. By contrast, DON and FB induced histopathological lesions in the liver, the lungs and the kidneys of exposed animals. The liver was significantly more affected when the two mycotoxins were present simultaneously. The contaminated diets also altered the specific immune response upon vaccination as measured by reduced anti-ovalbumin IgG level in the plasma and reduced lymphocyte proliferation upon antigenic stimulation. Because cytokines play a key role in immunity, the expression levels of IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β were measured by RT-PCR at the end of the experiment. The expression of these four cytokines was significantly decreased in the spleen of piglets exposed to multi-contaminated diet. Taken together, our data indicate that ingestion of multi-contaminated diet induces greater histopathological lesions and higher immune suppression than ingestion of mono-contaminated diets.
    Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 01/2011; 55(5):761-71. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An outbreak of conidiobolomycosis affecting sheep in the State of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil is reported. The disease occurred in six Santa Inês breed sheep from a flock of 75 during the rainy season. Common clinical signs were noisy respiration and dyspnea, serous to mucosanguineous nasal discharge and exophthalmus. At necropsy there was a dense yellow mass in the nasopharyngeal area affecting the ethmoidal region, turbinate bones and occasionally limph nodes, central nervous system and pleura. Histopathologycally there was multifocal granulomas whith an eosinophilic necrotic reaction containing ribbon type hyphae similar to zygomycetous fungi. At molecular examination Conidiobolus lamprauges DNA was detected. The clinical, epidemiological, macroscopical, microscopical and molecular aspects characterize conidiobolomycosis caused by Conidiobolus lamprauges in sheep.
    Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 07/2010; 30(7):529-532. · 0.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Twenty five goats, maintained in paddocks, had died in five subsequent days after have been offered leaves, mixed in the ration, of Trema micrantha, a tree commonly called grandiúva. Four animals were necropsied and samples were collected for histopathology. Clinical signs included apathy, anorexia, head pressing against obstacles, decubitus and death. Macroscopic findings included suffusions in the epi- and endocardium, a yellowish liver with pronounced lobular pattern, in one goat, the liver presented additionally multiple visible hemorrhages. Histological examination revealed centrilobular to massive hepatic necrosis consistent with acute liver toxicosis. In the brain, satelitosis, neuronal swelling, and perineuronal and perivascular edema was found. The diagnosis of poisoning by Trema micrantha was based in the clinical picture characteristic of toxic hepatitis associated in the feeding of the plant to the goats.
    Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 03/2010; 30(3):191-194. · 0.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Toxicosis caused by the ingestion of onion (Allium cepa) by 5 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) occurred in the district of Caçador, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The water buffalo died after ingestion of a large quantity of onion that had been left in the pasture. Clinical signs started 8 days postingestion and were characterized by pale mucous membranes, lethargy, and dark urine. At necropsy, pieces of onions were found in the rumen of 1 animal. The carcass smelled strongly of onion, and the kidneys and urine were dark brown. Microscopic renal lesions included tubular degeneration and necrosis with deposits of eosinophilic material in the cytoplasm of renal tubular epithelial cells and tubular lumina. These changes were consistent with hemoglobinuric nephrosis. Centrilobular coagulation necrosis was observed in the liver accompanied by hemorrhage and macrophages containing brown cytoplasmic pigment. A diagnosis of hemolytic anemia caused by onion toxicosis was based on the epidemiological data, clinical signs, macroscopic changes, and histological lesions.
    Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation: official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc 06/2009; 21(3):402-5. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical and pathologic findings for the spontaneous poisoning by Sida carpinifolia in cattle are described in this study. A survey on field cases of S. carpinifolia in cattle was carried out on farms of Alto Vale do Itajaí, State of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Sixteen affected animals were clinically evaluated and 9 were subjected to postmortem examination. The main clinical signs consisted of marching gait, alert gaze, head tremors, and poor growth. Histologic and ultrastructural lesions consisted of vacuolization and distension of neuronal perikarya, mainly from Purkinje cells, and of the cytoplasm of acinar pancreatic and thyroid follicular cells. Clinical signs and lesions varied from mild to severe. Improvement of the clinical signs was observed in cattle after a period of up to 90 days without consuming the plant; however, residual lesions, mainly characterized by axonal spheroids and absence of Purkinje neurons in some areas of the cerebellum, were observed in these cases. It is concluded that the natural chronic consumption of S. carpinifolia was the etiologic cause of storage disease in cattle in this study.
    Veterinary Pathology 04/2009; 46(2):343-7. · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical and pathological findings for the spontaneous poisoning by Sida carpinifolia in cattle are described in this study. A survey on field cases of Sida carpinifolia in cattle was carried out in farms of the Alto Vale do Itajaí, in the State of Santa Catarina, in Southern Brazil. Sixteen affected cattle were clinically evaluated and 9 were subjected to necropsy. The main clinical signs consisted of marching gait, alert gaze, head tremors and poor growth. Histological and ultrastructural main lesions consisted of vacuolization and distension of neuronal perikarya mainly from Purkinje cells, and of the cytoplasm of acinar pancreatic cells and thyroid follicular cells. Clinical signs and lesions varied from mild to severe. An improvement of the clinical signs was observed in cattle euthanatized after a period of up to 90 days without consuming the plant; however, residual lesions mainly characterized for axonal spheroids and absence of Purkinje neurons in some areas of the cerebellum were observed in those cases. It is concluded that the natural chronic consumption of Sida carpinifolia was determined to be the etiological cause of storage disease in cattle in this study.
    Veterinary Pathology 02/2009; · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two outbreaks of closantel overdosage in sheep and goat flocks are described. In the first outbreak 12 sheep were affected, 5 of them showed blindness, three sheep died (Sheep 1-3) and two were euthanized 6 months after the onset of clinical manifestation (Sheep 4 and 5). In the second outbreak 26 goats were affected, from which six survived despite blindness and one was euthanized. Clinically the animals showed depression, ataxia, motor incoordination, decreased or absent pupil reflexes. In some animals this clinical picture developed to bilateral blindness, with no reaction to threat and bilateral irresponsive midriasis. In the ophthalmic examination retinal vessel atrophy and hyperreflexia were observed. The histological examination showed myelin edema leading to status spongiosus in the central nervous system and compressive neuropathy of the optic nerve, associated with retinal degeneration and/or atrophy. This report aims to describe the epidemiologic, clinic and pathologic aspects of closantel overdosage in sheep and goats.
    Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 01/2009; 29(1):89-93. · 0.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical and pathological findings of experimental poisoning by Sida carpinifolia in cattle are described. A neurologic disease was observed in cattle on farms of the Alto Vale do Itajaí region of the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina. For the experimental reproduction of the disease, fresh green leaves, weekly harvested in the same region where spontaneous case occurred, were force-fed to five cattle at doses of 10 and 20g/kg for 120 days, 40g/kg for 30 days, and 30 and 40g/kg body weight for 150 days. One animal died and the others were euthanatized at the end of the experiment. Clinical signs and lesions varied from mild to severe in the experimentally poisoned cattle and depended on dose and length of the period of consumption. Main histological and ultrastructural lesions consisted of vacuolation and distension of neuronal perikarya (mainly of Purkinje cells), and of the cytoplasm of acinar pancreatic cells and thyroid follicular cells. It is concluded that ingestion of even small amounts S. carpinifolia for prolonged periods of time cause lisosomal storage disease in cattle.
    Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 01/2008; 28(1):57-62. · 0.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The spontaneous and experimental poisoning by Eupatorium tremulum in cattle is described. Spontaneous cases were diagnosed in a herd of 19 cattle in the municipality of Lages, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Three of the animals were found dead after having been transferred to a pasture with abundant quantities of E. tremulum. On two of them postmortem examination was performed and several internal organs were sampled for histological examination. Green leaves of E. tremulum were force-fed orally to 5 calves in single doses of 23-32g/kg body weight. Three calves showed clinical signs and two died. The main clinical signs included anorexia, apathy, absence of rumen movements, diarrhea and a flabby abdominal wall. Gross changes were restricted to the fore stomachs and were identical to those observed in the cases of natural poisoning. Rumen and reticulum were slightly reddish from outside; the corneal layer of their internal lining was loosely attached to a markedly red mucosa. The histological examination of rumen and reticulum from spontaneous and experimental cases revealed necrosis and vesicle formation in the epithelium; in some segments of the ruminal mucosa there was detachment of the epithelial covering and infiltration by neuthophils. Poisoning by E. tremulum has clinical course, gross lesions and histopathology very similar to those observed in poisoning caused by ingestion of the plants Baccharidastrum triplinervium, Baccharis coridifolia and Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii. The diagnosis of the spontaneous cases here described was confirmed by epidemiological data and the experimental reproduction of characteristic gross lesions and histopathology.
    Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 10/2007; 27(10):442-445. · 0.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Arcanobacterium pyogenes is a commensal bacteria of the mucous membranes of the respiratory and genital tracts of a number of domestic and wildlife animal species. However, following a stress or traumatic insults, A. pyogenes can become an opportunistic pathogen, associated with suppurative infections. Stress is an important risk factor for disease in all animals but especially in wild animals unaccustomed to human contact. A Pampas Deer (Ozoteceros bezearticus) fed in a conservation area, was found prostated and showing respiratory difficulties. This animal was taken to the Veterinary Clinical Hospital - CAV/ UDESC, where it was treated but died two days later. Microscopic examination of lungs revealed areas focally extensive of necrosis associated with moderate infiltrates of polymorphonuclear surrounded by fibrous tissue. According to necropsy, micro- biological cultive and DNA sequencing, the agent was classified as A. pyogenes. Characterizing the first reported case of Bronchopneumonia caused by A. pyogenes in Pampas Deer (Ozoteceros bezearticus) in Brazil.

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