M Fiala, L Skňouřil, O Toman, J Pindor, D Wojnarová, V Bulková, J Chovančík, M Dorda, H Szymeczek, R Neuwirth, D Vavřík, S Krawiec, O Jiravský, L Rybka, R Lábrová, J Januška, J Spinar[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Purpose: This study assessed ablation techniques, recurrent arrhythmias, long-term outcomes, and complications of catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients 65 years of age. Methods: Consecutive patients aged < 65 years (n = 653) vs 65 years (n = 213), who underwent catheter ablation of AF in the course of eight years, were compared. Ablation strategy and procedure endpoints were left at the operators discretion. Results: The group of patients 65 years comprised more females (p < 0.001), and more frequently presented with persistent AF (p = 0.010). These patients less frequently underwent simple pulmonary vein isolation (p = 0.017); on the contrary, extensive ablation including coronary sinus intervention was more common (p = 0.020). There was no difference in repeat ablation procedures (25 % vs 26 % patients; p = 0.823, or 1.4 vs 1.5 ablation procedures/1 patients; p = 0.479, respectively). Spectrum of recurrent arrhythmias did not differ between the groups except for more frequent paroxysmal AF before the first repeat ablation in patients < 65 years (p = 0.050). At the end of 49 ± 26 month total follow-up, stable sinus rhythm (SR) was achieved in 85 % patients < 65 years vs 76 % patients 65 years (p = 0.318). To maintain stable SR, older patients more often continued to take antiarrhythmic medication (p = 0.054). More serious complication occurred in 3.8 % of the patients 65 years vs 2.1 % of the patients < 65 years of age (p = 0.207).Conclusion: Patients 65 years of age achieved insignificantly worse long-term outcome after insignificantly fewer repeat ablation procedures, and with more frequent use of antiarrhythmic drugs. SR maintenance and risk of complications were, however, favorable.Key words: atrial fibrillation - catheter ablation - age - outcomes.Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství 01/2013; 59(1):16-22.
J Spinar, J Vitovec[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: All antagonists (sartans) are considered to be a group of pharmaceuticals with comparable indications and comparable effects as ACE inhibitors, while almost lacking the side effect ofa dry cough. Large clinical trials showed that All antagonists had a comparable (statistically insignificantly smaller) effect on so called "hard targets", i.e. mortality and morbidity, in patients with ischemic heart diseases and/or heart failure. The study of their effect in the treatment of hypertension was first limited to diabetics and patients with microalbuminuria and showed that they had a significant renoprotective effect in said cases. Large clinical trials followed, focusing on hypertension in primary as well as secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Five large clinical trials focusing on All antagonists addressed cerebrovascular accidents and cognitive functions: LIFE, SCOPE, OSCAR, MOSES and POWER. The LIFE study (Losartan Intervention For Endpoint) confirmed that in 9,193 patients with proven left ventricular hypertrophy, losartan led to a lower incidence of cerebrovascular accidents or new development of diabetes mellitus than atenolol, which in turn led to statistically significant lower primary endpoint (fatality, myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accident) (p = 0.021), while blood pressure dropped at the same rate. The SCOPE study (Study on COgnition and Prognosis in Elderly hypertensives) compared candesartan with another antihypertensive treatment in 4,937 hypertonic patients older than 70. The primary endpoint was a decrease in massive cardiovascular accidents (fatality, MI, CVA). The decrease rate reached 10.9%, which was not considered statistically significant (p = 0.19). However, statistically significant was the decrease in cerebrovascular accidents (p = 0.04). The MOSES study (Morbidity and mortality after stroke) compared eprosartan and nitrendipine in secondary prevention of cerebrovascular diseases in 1,405 patients. Blood pressure was reduced to a comparable extent without showing significant differences between the two groups. During the study period, a total of 461 primary accidents occurred: 206 in patients with eprosartan and 255 in patients with nitrendipine (p = 0.014). Cardiovascular accidents were: 77 with eprosartan and 101 with nitrendipine (p = 0.06); cerebrovascular accidents were: 102 with eprosartan and 134 with nitrendipine (p = 0.03). OSCAR study was an open study with the objective to assess the impact of eprosartan treatment on cognitive functions. Use of eprosartan was associated with a significant reduction in blood pressure from 161.9/93.1 mm Hg to 136.1/80.8 mm Hg after 6 months (p < 0.0001). The total average score of the MMSE test after the completion of the follow-up period was 27.9 - 2.9 compared to 27.1 + 3.4 at the beginning (p < 0.0001). The results of the OSCAR study support the statement that antihypertensive treatment based on drugs that target the reninangiotensin system is associated with the preservation of cognitive functions. The POWER study proved in a large unselected population the suitability and practical aspect ofa reduction in the total cardiovascular risk by means of systematic treatment of high blood pressure.Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství 01/2013; 59(1):71-8.
Article: [AII antagonists (candesartan and irbesartan) in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases].J Spinar, J Vítovec[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: reatment of hypertension with angiotensin II receptor antagonists (AIIA) was first limited to diabetics and patients with microalbuminuria. So far, results of several large clinical trials with AIIAs were published, confirming significant renoprotective effect of these agents compared to placebo (RENAAL and IRMA), amlodipin (MARVAL and IDNT) and a combination of ACEI and AIIA (CALM). In 2002, results of 2 large comparator studies in hypertension were published: LIFE - Losartan Intervention For Endpoints and SCOPE - the Study on COgnition and Prognosis in Elderly hypertensives. In 2003, a series of the CHARM studies involving patients with heart failure were published and, from than, AIIA have been used as an alternative to ACEI or in a combination with ACEI. MOSES study - Morbidity and mortality after stroke, eprosartan compared with nitrendipine for secondary prevention - results were published in 2005 and ONTARGET study, focusing on secondary prevention of ischemic heart disease, was published in 2008. The CORD study - Comparison of recommended doses - and the ACTIVE I study (AF Clopidogrel Trial with Irbesartan for prevention of Vascular Events) were published in 2009. Candesartan was used in the CALM, SCOPE, RESOLVED and CHARM studies, irbesartan in the IRMA, IDNT and ACTIVE I. Key words: AII antagonists - candesartan - irbesartan - hypertension - heart failure - atrial fibrilation.Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství 10/2012; 58(10):755-60.
Article: [Diagnosis and treatment of arterial hypertension. 2012 Guidelines of the Czech Hypertension Society].J Filipovský, J Widimský, J Ceral, R Cífková, K Horký, A Linhart, V Monhart, H Rosolová, J Seidlerová, M Souček, J Spinar, J VítovecVnitr̆ní lékar̆ství 10/2012; 58(10):785-801.
Article: [Short-term prognosis and treatment of patients hospitalized for acute heart failure in a regional hospital without a cardiocentre].K Zeman, L Pohludková, J Spinar, J Jarkovský, S Littnerová, L Dušek, R Miklík, M Felšöci, J Pařenica[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Heart failure is a syndrome with increasing prevalence and poor prognosis. The aim of the article is to describe the characteristics, etiology, treatment and short-term prognosis of consecutive patients hospitalized for acute heart failure (AHF) in a regional hospital without Cardiocentre. From 1/2007 to 5/2009 in total 752 patients were hospitalized in Hospital in Frýdek-Místek with diagnosis of AHF, 18% of them were in that period re-hospitalized. Data collection was performed by doctors using the National registry of acute heart failure AHEAD. Systematic sorting of patients with heart failure was made on the basis of guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute heart failure (2005). Statistical analysis was performed at the Institute of Biostatistics and Analyses Masaryk University in Brno. AHF was a reason of 9% of all hospital admissions. This represents approximately 250 hospitalizations due to AHF per 100 000 inhabitants/year. A median of hospital stay was 6.5 days. Patients with de-novo AHF formed 40.8% of all hospitalizations. The most common syndromes of AHF were acute decompensated heart failure (57.7%) and pulmonary oedema (19.8%). According to laboratory tests the incidence of renal insufficiency was in 35.6% of patients, anemia in 39.9%, blood glucose on admission above 10 mmol/l in 29.5% and hyponatremia < 135 mmol/l in 19.1%. During hospitalization, there was a significant increase in the treatment of heart failure. Diuretics were receiving 91% of discharged patients, ACE inhibitors and/or AT2 blockers 85.7% and beta-blockers 69.6% of patients. A total of 30% of discharged patients were not self-sufficient. The total 30-day mortality was 16.8%. Using univariante logistic regression factors most affecting the 30-day mortality were identified: cardiogenic shock, female gender, age over 70 years, acute coronary syndrome, hypotension on admission, atrial fibrillation, renal insufficiency, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, anemia, hyperglycemia, hyperkalemia, and hyponatremia. The paper provides an overview and characteristics of consecutive patients hospitalized in the regional hospital. We identified factors pointing to the adverse short-term prognosis. The work draws attention to social problems, up to 30% of patients hospitalized for acute heart failure were not self-sufficient at discharged.Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství 04/2012; 58(4):273-9.