Article: Cytologic Features of Focal Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Arising within Follicular Adenoma: A Masked Cytomorphologic Analysis of 17 Cases.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background/Objective: Focal papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) arising within a follicular adenoma (PTCFA) represents a clinically significant, but rare, histopathologic subset of papillary carcinomas whose cytologic features have not been well described. This uncommon presentation of PTC may contribute to a subset of thyroid aspirates interpreted as 'atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance' (AUS/FLUS). Study Design: Seventeen fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) cases diagnosed as 'PTCFA' on corresponding surgical excision were identified from the archival records of 2 large academic medical centers. A control group of 40 FNAB comprised of 20 follicular adenomas (FA) and 20 PTC was identified (based on the corresponding surgical pathology diagnosis) for comparison. All 57 FNAB were reviewed in a masked fashion and scored for a series of 31 cytomorphologic features. The intraclass correlation between diagnostic categories and overall agreement between cytopathologists was statistically evaluated. Results: Aspirates of PTCFA were originally diagnosed as 'negative' (n = 3), 'AUS/FLUS' (n = 7), 'suspicious for a follicular neoplasm' (n = 3), 'suspicious for malignancy' (n = 3), and 'malignant' (n = 1). On masked review, the most common cytomorphologic features of PTCFA were a nonmacrofollicular cytoarchitectural pattern (71%), medium-large cell size (74%), and micronucleoli (79%). Intranuclear pseudoinclusions and a papillary architecture were absent in 85 and 88% of the cases, respectively. Relative to the 2 control groups, the PTCFA cases demonstrated overlapping features between FA and PTC for the majority of the 31 examined cytomorphologic features. Conclusion: PTCFA represent a rare subset of PTC that is difficult to recognize as PTC by FNAB. Most cases exhibit overlapping features between a benign thyroid nodule and conventional PTC, and they are often interpreted as 'AUS/FLUS'.Acta cytologica 01/2011; 55(6):531-8. · 0.49 Impact Factor
Article: PLAG1 alteration in carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma: immunohistochemical and fluorescence in situ hybridization studies of 22 cases.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CA-ex-PA) may arise with nearly any histologic subtype of carcinoma of the salivary gland. In the absence of recognizable residual pleomorphic adenoma (PA) or a prior history of PA, distinction of CA-ex-PA from morphologically similar de novo carcinomas may be difficult. Oncogenic rearrangement of PLAG1 (pleomorphic adenoma gene 1) has been established in PA; however, it has not yet been proven that PLAG1 alteration persists in carcinomas developed from preceding PA. We evaluated 22 histologically diverse CA-ex-PA by immunohistochemistry for PLAG1, and/or by FISH targeting PLAG1. Of these, 17 cases were immunoreactive (1+ to 3+) and 5 were immunonegative/rare positive for PLAG1. For comparison, 39 various salivary gland neoplasms were immunostained for PLAG1, of which all scored negative/rare positive. Twelve of 19 CA-ex-PA analyzed by PLAG1 FISH (63 %) were positive for gene rearrangement, 2 showed only a trisomy/polysomy profile, and 5 had a normal pattern. One FISH-positive tumor showed amplification of PLAG1. One of 3 cases analyzed for HMGA2 FISH was positive for gene rearrangement. In our series, the majority of CA-ex-PA harbored altered PLAG1 or HMGA2 genes detectable by FISH. While PLAG1 immunostain was specific for CA-ex-PA against other carcinomas, its application as a standalone discriminatory test was limited by variable expression. We conclude that most CA-ex-PA, regardless of morphologic subtype, carry altered PLAG1 or HMGA2 genes, and that FISH for PLAG1, along with immunohistochemistry for PLAG1, may help discriminate CA-ex-PA from its de novo carcinoma counterpart.Head and Neck Pathology 04/2012; 6(3):328-35.
Article: HPV-associated neuroendocrine carcinoma of the oropharynx: a rare new entity with potentially aggressive clinical behavior.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: High-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of the head and neck is an aggressive neoplasm which rarely arises in the oropharynx. Here we report a series of 8 oropharyngeal neuroendocrine carcinomas associated with both human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and tobacco exposure. The tumor occurred predominantly in male patients (6 of 8) at a mean age of 59 years. Histologically, these cases were all classified as poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (small cell carcinoma) with high mitotic activity [mean 53.3 mitoses per 10 HPF], necrosis, high nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio, and nuclear molding. One case also exhibited a moderately differentiated component, and one other case had a component of squamous cell carcinoma with basaloid features. Neuroendocrine differentiation was confirmed by immunoreactivity for synaptophysin and/or chromogranin A in all cases. P63 staining was negative, except in 1 case. Seven of the 8 cases showed strong and diffuse p16 expression, a surrogate marker for high-risk HPV infection. HPV infection was confirmed in 6 of these 7 cases by HPV in situ hybridization and/or polymerase chain reaction analysis. HPV subtypes 16, 18, and 33 were identified in 1 case each by polymerase chain reaction testing. Six of the 7 patients for whom clinical history was available presented with advanced disease (4 with regional lymph node metastases, 1 with distant metastases, and 1 with distant and locoregional metastases). Disease recurred in 5 of the 6 patients with available clinical follow-up, with 3 developing distant metastases to brain, bones, lung, pleura, adrenal glands, and pancreas. These 3 cases were all from the HPV-positive group. In summary, neuroendocrine carcinoma of the oropharynx represents a rare novel HPV-associated entity with high-grade histologic features and aggressive clinical behavior.The American journal of surgical pathology 03/2012; 36(3):321-30. · 4.06 Impact Factor
Article: Disseminated carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma in an adolescent confirmed by application of PLAG1 immunohistochemistry and FISH for PLAG1 rearrangement.Armita Bahrami, James D Dalton, Shivakumar Bangalore, Charlene Henry, Jeffrey F Krane, Fariba Navid, David W Ellison[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A 16-year-old previously asymptomatic boy presented with complaints of fatigue, weight loss, and back pain for several months. Imaging studies revealed a large superior mediastinal mass, numerous bilateral pulmonary nodules, and multiple lytic bone lesions. A needle biopsy from a sternal lesion showed a poorly differentiated carcinoma, immunoreactive for cytokeratins and EMA and immunonegative for various organ/tissue-specific markers.His past medical history was significant for excision of aparotid gland tumor 5 years earlier. Histologic review of the salivary gland tumor revealed a pleomorphic adenoma containing a microscopic focus of invasive carcinoma(carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma). By immunohistochemistry, both the salivary gland tumor and the disseminated carcinoma expressed PLAG1 with a strong nuclear pattern.Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), using dual-color, break-apart probes for PLAG1, showed rearrangement of the gene in both the salivary gland and the disseminated tumors.FISH demonstrated additional cytogenetic aberrations in the carcinoma, including polysomy for chromosome 8 (in both the primary salivary gland and the metastatic tumors) and PLAG1 amplification (in the metastatic tumor). We conclude that in the proper clinicopathologic setting, application of PLAG1 immunohistochemistry and FISH for PLAG1 gene rearrangement may be valuable in establishing the diagnosis of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma as the source of a cancer of unknown primary site.Head and Neck Pathology 02/2012; 6(3):377-83.
Article: A subset of cutaneous and soft tissue mixed tumors are genetically linked to their salivary gland counterpart.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Neoplasms morphologically similar to mixed tumors and myoepitheliomas of the salivary glands, under the broad concept of myoepithelial neoplasia, have recently been defined in the skin and soft tissue; however, to date, no data have supported a shared genetic background with their salivary gland counterpart. From a large body of research, it has been well established that rearrangement of pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) leads to aberrant expression of its protein and is pathogenically relevant in the development of salivary mixed tumors. On the other hand, in soft tissue lesions, compelling evidence suggests that EWSR1 is involved in a significant subset. To examine the hypothesis that there is a genetic link between these histologically similar tumors at different sites, we randomly selected 20 benign myoepitheliomas/mixed tumors of skin and soft tissue (10 cases each). Nineteen cases could be immunostained for PLAG1, of which 11 cases showed distinct nuclear staining with moderate or strong intensity in a significant number of cells. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization for PLAG1 was successfully performed in 11 cases (seven in skin and four in soft tissue) and was positive for gene rearrangement in eight cases (five in skin and three in soft tissue). All PLAG1-rearranged tumors, except one, had clear-cut ductal structures and were immunoreactive for PLAG1. In our series, tumors with PLAG1 alteration shared a common morphologic phenotype characterized by prominent tubuloductal differentiation, suggesting that myoepithelial neoplasms with genuine salivary gland-like morphology, so-called soft tissue/cutaneous mixed tumors, are genetically related to their salivary gland counterpart.Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 02/2012; 51(2):140-8. · 3.31 Impact Factor