Jean-François Rouet

Cognitive Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Educational Psychology

26.41

Publications

  • Ladislao Salmerón · Monica Macedo-Rouet · Jean-François Rouet
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    ABSTRACT: Social question & answer forums offer great learning opportunities, but students need to evaluate the credibility of answers to avoid being misled by untrustworthy sources. This critical evaluation may be beyond the capabilities of students from primary and secondary school. We conducted two studies to assess how students from primary, secondary and undergraduate education perceive and use two relevant credibility cues in forums: author’s identity and evidence used to support his/her answer. Students didn’t use these cues when they evaluated forums with a single answer (exp. 1), but they recommended more often answers from self-reported experts than from users under pseudonym when multiple sources discussed in the forum (exp. 2). This pattern of results suggested that multiple viewpoints increase students' attention to source features in forum messages. Experiment 2 also revealed that primary school students preferred personal experience as evidence in the messages, whereas undergraduate students preferred the inclusion of documentary sources. Thus, while children mimic the adult preference for expert sources in web forums, they treat source information in a rather superficial manner. To conclude, we outlined possible mechanisms to understand how credibility assessment evolves across educational levels, and discussed potential implications for the educational curriculum in information literacy.
    Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology 01/2016; · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    M. Anne Britt · Tobias Richter · Jean-François Rouet
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    ABSTRACT: In this article, we examine the mental processes and representations that are required of laypersons when learning about science issues from texts. We begin by defining scientific literacy as the ability to understand and critically evaluate scientific content in order to achieve one's goals. We then present 3 challenges of learning from science texts: the intrinsic complexity of science phenomena, the need to coordinate multiple documents of various types, and the rhetorical structure of the texts themselves. Because scientific information focuses on models, theories, explanations, and evidence, we focus on how explanatory and argumentative texts are processed. Then we examine 2 components of executive control in reading—goal-directed guidance and evaluation of content—that readers can acquire and adopt to deal with these challenges. Finally, we discuss 3 implications that these theories and empirical findings have for interventions intended to improve laypersons’ understanding of scientific information.
    Educational Psychologist 06/2014; 49(2). DOI:10.1080/00461520.2014.916217 · 3.29 Impact Factor
  • Julien Dampuré · Christine Ros · Jean-François Rouet · Nicolas Vibert
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    ABSTRACT: Two experiments examined the impact of task-set on people’s use of the visual and semantic features of words during visual search. Participants’ eye movements were recorded while the distractor words were manipulated. In both experiments, the target word was either given literally (literal task) or defined by a semantic clue (categorical task). According to Kiefer and Martens, participants should preferentially use either the visual or semantic features of words depending on their relevance for the task. This assumption was partially supported. As expected, orthographic neighbours of the target word attracted participants’ attention more and took longer to reject, once fixated, during the literal task. Conversely, semantic associates of the target word took longer to reject during the categorical task. However, they did not attract participants’ attention more than in the literal task. This unexpected finding is discussed in relation to the processing of words in the peripheral visual field.
    Journal of Cognitive Psychology 04/2014; 26(5). DOI:10.1080/20445911.2014.907576 · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two experiments examined readers' memory for information sources in short news stories. Based on current theories of text comprehension, we assumed that sources involved in the situation described (e.g. a witness or a participant) would be better remembered than remote sources (e.g. someone commenting on the topic from a distance). We additionally tested the assumption that less plausible stories would enhance readers' memory for remote information sources. Experiment 1 found that readers remembered sources involved in the situation better than remote sources. Although sources of less plausible stories were not better remembered than sources of more plausible stories, implausible details were. In Experiment 2, source-focusing instructions increased readers' memory for sources but did not affect the overall pattern of effects. We discuss the findings with respect to theories of text comprehension and knowledge elaboration. We conclude that comprehension theories and task-oriented reading theories can be extended to account for the encoding of source as well as content information.
    Journal of Cognitive Psychology 02/2014; 26(2):187-204. DOI:10.1080/20445911.2013.879152 · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In two experiments, we examined fourth and fifth graders' comprehension of the source of information in texts presenting controversial issues. In Experiment 1, participants read short texts in which two people presented different arguments regarding an issue. Participants identified who said what and evaluated each source's knowledge of the issue. Most students correctly identified the source of information but failed to take into account each source's characteristics when determining who was most knowledgeable. In Experiment 2, we implemented an intervention on students' evaluations of information sources. Less skilled students in the intervention group assessed source knowledge more accurately than those in a control group. We conclude that elementary school students' comprehension of who says what in a text can benefit from training sessions that involve practice, feedback, explanations, and discussions. We consider the implications for document-based learning in elementary and secondary education.
    Cognition and Instruction 04/2013; 31(2). DOI:10.1080/07370008.2013.769995 · 0.93 Impact Factor
  • Ludovic Le Bigot · Eric Jamet · Jean-François Rouet · Virginie Amiel
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes an experiment on the effects of learning, mode of interaction (written vs. spoken) and transfer mode on user performance and discourse organization during interaction with a natural language dialogue system. Forty-eight participants took part in a series of 12 dialogues with an information retrieval system presented either in the written or the spoken mode during the first six dialogues. The next six dialogues were then presented either in the same interaction mode or in another mode. The analysis of the results showed that performance (time, number of effective turns) improved throughout the dialogues whatever the mode of interaction. Nevertheless, performance was higher in the written mode. Moreover, mode-specific characteristics were observed. These consisted in greater use of subject pronouns and articles in the spoken mode. Similarly, in the spoken mode, the users found it easier to re-use the formulations presented in the system speech than in the written mode. Furthermore, the analysis also revealed a positive transfer effect on performance and discourse organization when the individuals first interacted in the spoken mode and then in the written mode. Both positive and negative transfer effects were observed when the individuals interacted first in the written mode followed by the spoken mode. The implications of the results are discussed in terms of direct and indirect consequences of modality effects on natural language dialogue interaction.
    Computers in Human Behavior 03/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.chb.2004.10.006 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    Jean-François Rouet · Zsofia Vörös · Csaba Pléh
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the impact of readers' visuo-spatial (VS) capacity on their incidental learning of page links during the exploration of simple hierarchical hypertextual documents. Forty-three university students were asked to explore a series of hypertexts for a limited period of time. Then the participants were asked to recall the layout and the contents of the pages. We found that low VS capacity readers had more difficulty recalling the links located at a deeper level in the page hierarchy. A content map included in half the trials had a limited effect on recall accuracy. We conclude that reading networked digital documents taps VS working memory, possibly due to readers’ attempts to construct a topological representation of the network that coexists with the semantic representation of the contents.
    Behaviour 01/2012; 31:71-81. DOI:10.1080/0144929X.2011.604103 · 1.40 Impact Factor
  • Laure Léger · Jean-François Rouet · Christine Ros · Nicolas Vibert
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    ABSTRACT: An eye-tracking experiment was performed to assess the influence of orthographic and semantic distractor words on visual search for words within lists. The target word (e.g., "raven") was either shown to participants before the search (literal search) or defined by its semantic category (e.g., "bird", categorical search). In both cases, the type of words included in the list affected visual search times and eye movement patterns. In the literal condition, the presence of orthographic distractors sharing initial and final letters with the target word strongly increased search times. Indeed, the orthographic distractors attracted participants' gaze and were fixated for longer times than other words in the list. The presence of semantic distractors related to the target word also increased search times, which suggests that significant automatic semantic processing of nontarget words took place. In the categorical condition, semantic distractors were expected to have a greater impact on the search task. As expected, the presence in the list of semantic associates of the target word led to target selection errors. However, semantic distractors did not significantly increase search times any more, whereas orthographic distractors still did. Hence, the visual characteristics of nontarget words can be strong predictors of the efficiency of visual search even when the exact target word is unknown. The respective impacts of orthographic and semantic distractors depended more on the characteristics of lists than on the nature of the search task.
    Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology 12/2011; 66(1):32-43. DOI:10.1037/a0026111 · 1.02 Impact Factor
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    Jason L G Braasch · Jean-François Rouet · Nicolas Vibert · M Anne Britt
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    ABSTRACT: In two experiments, we examined the role of discrepancy on readers' text processing of and memory for the sources of brief news reports. Each story included two assertions that were attributed to different sources. We manipulated whether the second assertion was either discrepant or consistent with the first assertion. On the basis of the discrepancy-induced source comprehension (D-ISC) assumption, we predicted that discrepant stories would promote deeper processing and better memory for the sources conveying the messages, as compared to consistent stories. As predicted, readers mentioned more sources in summaries of discrepant stories, recalled more sources, made more fixations, and displayed longer gaze times in source areas when reading discrepant than when reading consistent stories. In Experiment 2, we found enhanced memory for source-content links for discrepant stories even when intersentential connectors were absent, and regardless of the reading goals. Discussion was focused on discrepancies as one mechanism by which readers are prompted to encode source-content links more deeply, as a method of integrating disparate pieces of information into a coherent mental representation of a text.
    Memory & Cognition 11/2011; 40(3):450-65. DOI:10.3758/s13421-011-0160-6 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    Zsofia Vörös · Jean-François Rouet · Csaba Pléh
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigates the cognitive abilities involved in hypertext learning and design approaches that can help users. We examined the effects of two types of high-level content organizers – a graphic spatial map and an alphabetical list – on readers’ memory for hypertext structure. In the control condition, a simple “home” page with no navigational aid was offered. Subjects were asked to read the hypertext with the purpose of learning the content, but in the post test phase they also had to recall the layout of nodes and links. Memory for links and page places varied as a function of condition. When a spatial map was available participants reconstructed more accurate formal structure then in the two other conditions. Participants’ memory about page places was the least accurate in the list condition. Results also indicate that participants use the content organizer when it is available in order to orientate during learning from hypertext documents.Our results prove that a content organizer showing the formal structure can facilitate the spatial mapping process. However, an organizer exposing a different structure than the real one would generate a conflict.
    Computers in Human Behavior 09/2011; 27(5):2047-2055. DOI:10.1016/j.chb.2011.04.005 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two experiments investigated primary and secondary school students' Web menu selection strategies using simulated Web search tasks. It was hypothesized that students' selections of websites depend on their perception and integration of multiple relevance cues. More specifically, students should be able to disentangle superficial cues (e.g., keywords and typographical emphasis) from deep semantic cues. Experiment 1 found that 5th and 7th graders' selections were strongly influenced by superficial relevance cues. The influence of superficial cues decreased in 9th and 12th graders. Experiment 2 examined the influence of prior elaboration of the search topic on 5th and 7th graders' website selection. Reading a short text about the search topic prior to selecting websites increased good readers' selection of relevant websites. Poor readers' selection performance was lower and unaffected by the task context manipulation. The results are discussed in terms of students' acquisition of flexible reading skills that include an awareness of the contextual demands. Implications for the use of Web-based tasks in instructional settings are considered.
    Learning and Instruction 04/2011; 46(2). DOI:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2010.02.007 · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    Ivar Bråten · M. Anne Britt · Helge I. Strømsø · Jean-François Rouet
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    ABSTRACT: In present-day knowledge societies, competent reading involves the integration of information from multiple sources into a coherent, meaningful representation of a topic, issue, or situation. This article reviews research and theory concerning the comprehension of multiple textual resources, focusing especially on linkages recently established between dimensions of epistemic beliefs and multiple-text comprehension. Moreover, a proposed model incorporates epistemic beliefs into a theoretical framework for explaining multiple-text comprehension, specifying how and why different epistemic belief dimensions may be linked to the comprehension and integration of multiple texts. Also discussed is the need for further research concerning mediational mechanisms, causality, and generalizability.
    Educational Psychologist 01/2011; 46(1-1):48-70. DOI:10.1080/00461520.2011.538647 · 3.29 Impact Factor
  • M. Anne Britt · Jean-François Rouet
    Information Design Journal 01/2011; 19(1). DOI:10.1075/idj.19.1.08bri
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to determine the influence of textual feedback on the content and outcome of spoken interaction with a natural language dialogue system. More specifically, the assumption that textual feedback could disrupt spoken interaction was tested in a human-computer dialogue situation. In total, 48 adult participants, familiar with the system, had to find restaurants based on simple or difficult scenarios using a real natural language service system in a speech-only (phone), speech plus textual dialogue history (multimodal) or text-only (web) modality. The linguistic contents of the dialogues differed as a function of modality, but were similar whether the textual feedback was included in the spoken condition or not. These results add to burgeoning research efforts on multimodal feedback, in suggesting that textual feedback may have little or no detrimental effect on information searching with a real system. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The results suggest that adding textual feedback to interfaces for human-computer dialogue could enhance spoken interaction rather than create interference. The literature currently suggests that adding textual feedback to tasks that depend on the visual sense benefits human-computer interaction. The addition of textual output when the spoken modality is heavily taxed by the task was investigated.
    Ergonomics 01/2010; 53(1):43-55. DOI:10.1080/00140130903306666 · 1.61 Impact Factor
  • Jean-François Rouet · Minna Puustinen
    Computers & Education 12/2009; 53(4):1011-1013. DOI:10.1016/j.compedu.2009.07.001 · 2.63 Impact Factor
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    Minna Puustinen · Jean-François Rouet
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    ABSTRACT: Education researchers have amply documented the beneficial effects of help seeking on learning and understanding. Requesting help from teachers (or other human sources) when faced with a difficult task is now considered a self-regulated learning strategy. In a related domain, information search refers to learner-initiated efforts to obtain further task-related information from books or other non-human sources when undertaking an assignment. The integration of human and information-based resources in information and communication technology (ICT) tends to blur the distinction between help seeking and information searching, thus offering new perspectives on the study of the processes and skills involved in these activities. The aim of this paper is to redefine the boundaries between help seeking and information searching, by replacing the dichotomous definition (i.e., human versus non-human sources) by a more integrative theoretical framework. Beyond the obvious theoretical importance of the issue, clarifying the boundaries between seeking help and searching for information may contribute to the development of more effective forms of human and non-human support for technology-enhanced learning environments.
    Computers & Education 12/2009; 53(4-53):1014-1019. DOI:10.1016/j.compedu.2008.07.002 · 2.63 Impact Factor
  • Jean-François Rouet
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    ABSTRACT: Designers of interactive learning environments face the issue of managing the learner's cognitive load, reducing irrelevant sources while optimizing useful sources of load. I propose a conceptual framework aimed at organizing the contributions of the papers presented in this special issue. The framework identifies three main dimensions, namely individual, task and environment, which may have specific or combined effects on the amount and type of cognitive load experienced during learning activities. I summarize some of the findings presented in the special issue with respect to each of these dimensions. Then I discuss some limitations of the studies and some perspectives for further research in the domain. I emphasize the need to control learners’ level of familiarity with the task setting and environment features, not just their prior knowledge of the content area, in order to obtain reliable assessments of cognitive load and learning outcomes.
    Learning and Instruction 10/2009; 19(5):445-450. DOI:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2009.02.007 · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Jean-François Rouet · M. Anne Britt · Loïc Caroux · Clément Nivet · Ludovic Le Bigot
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    ABSTRACT: Two experiments investigated the role of story consistency and reading context on readers' encoding of source information in short news reports. Based on the Documents Model framework (Britt et al., 1999), we hypothesized that readers would be more likely to encode source information when (a) the news reports included discrepant statements and (b) the task directions focused readers' attention on the consistency of the report. Experiment 1 examined those assumptions in the context of a summarization task; experiment 2 attempted to demonstrate the impact of task and story features on readers' recognition of source information. Both experiments were being conducted at the time of submission.
    13th Biennial International Conference of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction, EARLI 2009, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 08/2009
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    ABSTRACT: Many researchers in medical and life sciences commonly use the PubMed online search engine (http://www.pubmed.gov) to access the MEDLINE bibliographic database. The researchers' strategies were investigated as a function of their knowledge of the content area. Sixteen life science researchers with no experience in neuroscience and 16 neuroscience researchers of matched professional experience performed five bibliographic search tasks about neuroscience topics. Objective measures and concomitant verbal protocols were used to assess behavior and performance. Whatever their knowledge of PubMed, neuroscientists could find adequate references within the allotted time period. Despite their lack of knowledge in neuroscience, life scientists could select adequate references with the same efficiency. However, differences were observed in the way neuroscientists and life scientists proceeded. For instance, life scientists took more time to read the task instructions and opened more abstracts while selecting their answers. These data suggest that regular use of online databases combined with graduate-level expertise in a broad scientific field like biology can compensate for the absence of knowledge in the specific domain in which references are sought. The large inter-individual variability in performance within both groups implies that beyond domain knowledge, individual cognitive abilities are the main determinants of bibliographic search performance.
    Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 07/2009; 60(7):1423-1447. DOI:10.1002/asi.21078 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    Zsófia Vörös · Jean-François Rouet · Csaba Pléh
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the effect of spatial memory capacity and content maps on readers' memory for hypertext structure. Simple hierarchical hypertexts were built on four topics. For each topic there was a 6-node and a 9-node version. Each version came with or without a content map. Young adult participants were asked to read each hypertext with the purpose of learning the contents and structure. Then, they had to recall the layout of nodes and links. Memory for links varied as a function of spatial memory and the presence or absence of a map. When no map was available, high spatial memory participants drew more accurate maps than low memory participants. When a map was available the two groups had better results and did not differ from each other. The benefit of the map was larger for 9-node than for 6-node items. The results indicate that mentally representing hypertext structure relies on spatial working memory. Global content representations act as scaffolds for low spatial memory users.
    The Ergonomics Open Journal 01/2009; 2(1). DOI:10.2174/1875934300902010088

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