Jayanthi Abraham

M.Phil., Ph.D
Associate Professor
· Microbial Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Biosciences and Technology

Publications

  • Jayanthi Abraham, Sivagnanam Silambarasan
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    ABSTRACT: Endosulfan and their metabolites can be detected in soils with a history of endosulfan application. Microbial degradation offers an effective approach to remove toxicants, and in this study, Enterobacter asburiae JAS5 and Enterobacter cloacae JAS7 were isolated through enrichment technique. The biodegradation of endosulfan and its metabolites rate constant (k) and DT50 were determined through first-order kinetic models. E. asburiae JAS5 degraded the endosulfan, and its metabolites in liquid medium was characterized by the k which was 0.382 day−1 (α-endosulfan), 0.284 day−1 (β-endosulfan) and 0.228 day−1 (endosulfan sulphate), and DT50 was 1.8 day (α-endosulfan), 2.4 days (β-endosulfan) and 3.0 days (endosulfan sulphate). The α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan and endosulfan sulphate metabolites were present in the liquid medium that was degraded by E. cloacae JAS7 which was characterized by the k of 0.391, 0.297 day−1 and 0.273 day−1, and DT50 was 1.7, 2.3 and 2.5 days, respectively. The infrared spectrum of endosulfan degraded sample in the aqueous medium by E. asburiae JAS5 and E. cloacae JAS7 showed a band at 1402 cm−1 which is the characteristics of COOH group. E. asburiae JAS5 and E. cloacae JAS7 strains also showed the ability of plant growth promoting traits such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production, organic acids production and solubilization of various inorganic phosphates. E. asburiae JAS5 solubilized 324 ± 2 μg ml−1 of tricalcium phosphate, 296 ± 6 μg ml−1 of dicalcium phosphate and 248 ± 5 μg ml−1 of zinc phosphate, whereas E. cloacae JAS7 solubilized 338 ± 5, 306 ± 4 and 268 ± 3 μg ml−1 of tricalcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate and zinc phosphate, respectively. The IAA production by JAS5 and JAS7 strains were estimated to be 38.6 ± 0.3 and 46.6 ± 0.5 μg ml−1, respectively. These bacterial strains form a potential candidate for bioremediation of pesticide-contaminated agricultural fields. In addition, it has been demonstrated that the development of powder formulation has several advantages including high cell count, longer shelf life, greater protection against environmental stresses and increased field efficacy.
    Applied biochemistry and biotechnology 02/2015; · 1.69 Impact Factor
  • Ritika Chauhan, Jayanthi Abraham
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    ABSTRACT: Actinomycetes are versatile and prolific source of microbial natural products with great advantage in medicine and agriculture. Recently there is growing interest in exploring biological active compounds from rare actinomycetes. Usually rare actinomycetes are regarded as strains of actinomycetes whose isolation frequency by conventional methods is much lower than that of Streptomycetes strains. Amycolatopsis orientalis JAR10 rare genera of actinomycetes which have been isolated, characterized and antimicrobial activity against various pathogens have been determined in the present work. The morphological, cultural, genotypical and physiological characteristics of strain JAR10 has been examined by International Streptomyces Project. The bioactive metabolites produced by strain JAR10 were extracted by solvent extraction method and the crude extract obtained was further analyzed against various pathogens. The minimum inhibitory concentration of crude extract obtained from Amycolatopsis orientalis JAR10 was analyzed by broth dilution method and was found to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus at 60 µg/ml indicating the presence of biological active compounds.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 02/2015; DOI:10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.6(2).757-61 · 0.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present investigation reveals the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Solanum nigrum and Cardiospermum halicacabum. The silver nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer (UV-Vis), Fourier transfer infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force mass spectroscopy (AFM) and particle shape of the synthesized nanoparticles were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, synthesized nanoparticles were evaluated for antimicrobial effect against various pathogens and cytotoxic effect on human osteosarcoma (MG-63) cell line. The plant mediated silver nanoparticles exhibited good antimicrobial activity against clinical pathogens and cytotoxic effect against bone cancer cells. Plant mediated silver nanoparticles possess therapeutic properties which may be useful in pharmaceutical applications.
    World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 01/2015; 4(01):1012-1027. · 5.99 Impact Factor
  • Jayanthi Abraham, Sivagnanam Silambarasan
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    ABSTRACT: Microbial degradation offers an effective approach to remove toxicants and in this study, a microbial consortium consisting bacterial strains and fungal strains were originally obtained from endosulfan contaminated agricultural soils. Identification of the bacterial isolates by 16S rRNA sequences revealed the isolates to be Halophilic bacterium JAS4, Klebsiella pneumoniae JAS8, Enterobacter asburiae JAS5, Enterobacter cloacae JAS7, whereas the fungal isolates were identified by 18S rRNA sequences and the isolates were Botryosphaeria laricina JAS6, Aspergillus tamarii JAS9 and Lasiodiplodia sp. JAS12. The biodegradation of endosulfan was monitored by using HPLC and FTIR analysis. The bacterial and fungal consortium could degrade 1000 mg l-1 of endosulfan efficiently in aqueous medium and in soil. The infrared spectrum of endosulfan degraded samples in the aqueous medium by bacterial and fungal consortium showed bands at 1400 and 950 cm-1 which are the characteristics of COOH group and acid dimer band respectively. In the present investigation, low cost solid materials such as sawdust, soil, fly Page 2 of 15ash, molasses and nutrients were used for the formulation of microbial consortium and to achieve greater multiplication and survival of the microbial strains.
    Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 09/2014; 116. DOI:10.1016/j.pestbp.2014.09.006 · 2.01 Impact Factor
  • Jayanthi Abraham, Sivagnanam Silambarasan
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    ABSTRACT: The present investigation was carried out with the concept of bioremediation in isolating microbes with the unique capability of utilizing endosulfan for their growth thereby enhancing degradation of the persistant organochlorine pesticide. The fungal and bacterial strain was isolated from rhizosphere soil. Molecular characterization based on 18S rRNA and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of JAS12 and JAS8 strains isolated from endosulfan treated soil confirmed its identity as Lasiodiplodia sp. JAS12 and Klebsiella pneumoniae JAS8, respectively. The infrared spectrum of endosulfan degraded sample in the aqueous medium by JAS12 and JAS8 showed bands at 1400 and 1402 cm−1 respectively which are the characteristics of COOH group. Furthermore, K. pnuemoniae JAS8 strain confirmed plant growth promoting traits which exhibited production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), organic acids and solubilization of various sources of inorganic phosphates. The modern agro-techniques necessitate the development of a new formulation where powder inoculants can play a significant role. In the present investigation, low cost solid materials such as sawdust, soil, fly ash, molasses and nutrients were used to achieve greater multiplication and survival of the microbial strains.
    Ecological Engineering 09/2014; 70:235-240. DOI:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2014.05.029 · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several researchers have focussed on degradation of pesticides by microorganisms, which is the most viable option in remediation of agricultural soil. However, very few have illustrated the degradation of mixed pesticides. Hence, in the present investigation biodegradation of a mixture of both organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticide directed by microbial consortium was carried out in a fermentor–bioreactor system. The pesticides chosen were chlorpyrifos, monocrotophos (organophosphorus) and endosulfan (organochlorine). In order to accomplish an effective degradation, the microorganisms were isolated from agricultural fields which were previously exposed to the pesticides mentioned above. The bacteria were isolated by minimal meda with the individual pesticide as the only carbon source. The individual strains were identified by morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA characterization. The bacterial consortium comprised of 10 organisms which were as follows: Alcaligenes sp. JAS1, Ochrobactrum sp. JAS2, Sphingobacterium sp. JAS3 which were screened and selected from chlorpyrifos contaminated soil, Enterobacter ludwigii JAS17, Pseudomonas moraviensis JAS18 and Serratia marcescens JAS16 which were isolated from monocrotophos spiked soil and Klebsiella pneumoniae JAS8, Enterobacter cloacae JAS7, Halophilic bacteria JAS4, Enterobacter asburiae strain JAS5 were obtained from endosulfan persistent soil sample. The fermentor–bioreactor system containing 2 L of sterile minimal medium supplemented with 300 mg l−1 of chlorpyrifos, 1000 mg l−1 of monocrotophos, 1000 mg l−1 of endosulfan as the only source of carbon and inoculated with 20 ml of bacterial consortium (approximately 3 × 106 cells ml−1). The HPLC and GC–MS studies were performed to record the degradation of mixed pesticides.
    Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers 09/2014; 45(5). DOI:10.1016/j.jtice.2014.06.014 · 2.64 Impact Factor
  • Jayanthi Abraham, Ritika Chauhan
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    ABSTRACT: Amycolatopsis decaplanina JAR8 is rare actinomycetes which was isolated from agricultural field of Punjab, India. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of strain JAR8 showed 98% similarity with Amycolatopsis decaplanina. The morphological, cultural and physiological characteristics were determined by International Streptomyces project by using various mediums. The bioactive metabolites produced by the strain were obtained from the optimized culture medium through solvent extraction method. The ethyl acetate extract obtained after extraction was characterized using UV, FTIR and GC-MS spectroscopic analysis. The minimum inhibitory concentration of active metabolite was found to be 60 µg/ml against Staphylococcus aureus. The present study deals with the exploration of rare actinomycetes which also produces various biological active compounds against infectious diseases.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Ficusracemosa Linn is an important traditional medicinal plant, the present study was carried out to explore the phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of leaves of this plant against clinical pathogens. The ethanol extract of Ficusracemosa Linn exhibited many phytochemical compounds and 10 µg/mL of the extract manifested good antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity of plant contributes to the ethanopharmacological importance which indicates the pharmaceutical applications to be employed in the medicinal field against various infectious diseases.
  • DHAYA RANI VARKEY, V.Balaji, Jayanthi Abraham
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs) have been observed virtually in all the species belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. The enzymes are predominantly plasmid mediated and are derived from broad-spectrum beta lactamase genes TEM, SHV, CTX-M. This study was undertaken to characterize ESBL producers in Trichy, Tamilnadu. Methods: Total of 361 blood samples were screened for ESBL producing isolates. The organisms isolated were subjected to morphological and biochemical test and the isolates identified were predominantly Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed employing Kirby Bauer’s disc diffusion method. Results: PCR analysis for β-lactamases genes of the family TEM, SHV and CTX-M was carried out. Among the isolates obtained 138 ESBL positive for E. coli harbour 75% TEM gene, 66% SHV gene and 71% CTX-M gene, followed by K. pneumoniae, and E. cloacae. Conclusion: The results show an emergence of ESBL positive strains out of 361 isolates 250 samples were confirmed as ESBL producers.
    International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 03/2014; 6(3):276-278. · 1.59 Impact Factor
  • RITIKA CHAUHAN, JERUSHA EMMANUEL, JAYANTHI ABRAHAM
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The present study was aimed to estimate the production of Mycophenolic acid by fungus Byssochlamys nivea strain JSR2 in various substrates and to conduct in silico studies to determine the interaction of MPA with the NS5B receptor of Hepatitis C Virus. Methods: The isolate was characterized as Byssochlamys nivea strain JSR2 by 18S rRNA gene sequencing. The production of mycophenolic acid by strain JSR2 was determined on various substrates such as pineapple and apple extract and was estimated using chromatographic technique. The morphological and spore arrangement of strain JSR2 was determined by high resolution scanning electron microscope. In silico studies were also conducted to determine the interaction of MPA with the NS5B receptor of hepatitis C virus with ribavarin as the reference ligand. Results: The mycophenolic acid production was found to be highest with pineapple juice substrate and was further identified by high performance liquid chromatography. The binding energy of MPA and ribavarin was found to be similar through Autodock Vina which further represents the same mechanism of action. Conclusion: The strain JSR2 produced good amount mycophenolic acid in the presence of pineapple juice as substrate and it represents the similar mode of action against Hepatitis C virus when compare to ribavaran with reference to in silico studies.
    International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 03/2014; 6(3):227-230. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present work was focused in isolating fungus which possessed the special ability to degrade malathion. The pesticide of choice was malathion as it is being used to control a variety of pests in the agricultural fields in India. The fungal strains with the potential to degrade malathion was isolated by enrichment technique from malathion contaminated soil. The molecular characterization of 18S rRNA sequence homology confirmed its identity as Fusarium oxysporum. The isolate was able to degrade 400 mg L−1 malathion completely in mineral medium. In soil spiked with malathion and with addition of nutrients (carbon, nitrogen, phosphate), the isolate was capable of degrading malathion at 8th day of incubation. Where as in the second trial, in the absence of nutrients, JASA1 was able to degrade 400 mg L−1 malathion on the 9th day of incubation. The course of the degradation process was studied using High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses which confirmed the degradation potential of the fungus. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 00: 000–000, 2014
    Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy 03/2014; 34(1). DOI:10.1002/ep.11970 · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the biological active phytochemical compounds from moss of Berijam Lake, Kodaikanal, India. Methods: Acetone and methanol extracts of moss were obtained using soxhlet extractor and the obtained extracts were evaluated for various biological activities. The combined effect of commercially available antibiotics and moss extracts was also investigated by disk-diffusion assay method against various Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The free radical scavenging activity of moss extracts were studied by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Results: The maximum zone of inhibition was found against Gram negative pathogens whereas weak inhibitory activity was investigated against Staphylococcus aureus. The combined effect of chloramphenicol with acetone and methanol extracts exhibited pronounced antimicrobial effect against Bacillus subtilis, Proteus mirabilis and Escherichia coli. The phytochemical tests revealed the presence of carbohydrates in Funaria sp. and the acetone extract showed effective antioxidant activity when compare to methanol extract using free radical scavenging assay. Conclusion: The present study reveals that the bryophytes from Berijam Lake possess potential antimicrobial and antioxidant activity.
    Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 02/2014; 7(2):84-87. · 0.51 Impact Factor
  • Nidhi Singh, Jayanthi Abraham
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    ABSTRACT: There are many antibiotic-resistant microbial pathogens that have emerged in recent years causing normal infections to become harder and sometimes impossible to treat. The major mechanisms of acquired resistance are the ability of the microorganisms to destroy or modify the drug, alter the drug target, reduce uptake or increase efflux of the drug and replace the metabolic step targeted by the drug. However, in recent years, resistant strains have been reported from almost every environment. New antimicrobial compounds are of major importance because of the growing problem of bacterial resistance, and antimicrobial peptides have been gaining a lot of interest. Their mechanism of action, however, is often obscure. Antimicrobial peptides are widespread and have a major role in innate immunity. An increasing number of peptides capable of inhibiting microbial growth are being reviewed here. In this article, we consider the possible use of antimicrobial peptides against pathogens.The Journal of Antibiotics advance online publication, 12 February 2014; doi:10.1038/ja.2013.138.
    The Journal of Antibiotics 02/2014; 67(4). DOI:10.1038/ja.2013.138 · 2.04 Impact Factor
  • Sivagnanam Silambarasan, Jayanthi Abraham
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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial strain, Halophilic bacterium JAS4, capable of degrading endosulfan and its metabolites was isolated from Gossypium herbaceum rhizosphere soil by enrichment technique, considering the fact that the microorganism had adapted to exposure in pesticide after having been in contact with pesticide contaminated soil. The JAS4 isolate had remarkable potential to degrade 1000 mg/l of endosulfan by catabolic activity and transform them into simpler compounds. The biodegradation experiments showed that a,b-endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate in the aqueous medium was degraded by JAS4 strain which was characterized by the rate constant (k) of 0.017 d�1, 0.003 d�1, and 1.219 d�1, respectively. The period within which the initial pesticide concentration was reduced by 50% (DT50) was 40.7 d (a-endosulfan), 231 d (b-endosulfan) and 0.5 d (endosulfan sulfate). Inoculation of sterile soil with Halophilic bacterium JAS4 and nutrients enhanced the disappearance rate of pesticide, and DT50 for a,b-endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate was 0.01 d, 346.5 d and 1.07 d, respectively. In the present study powder formulations were prepared by two methods; they are less expensive and handling is also easy.
    Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers 02/2014; 45(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jtice.2014.01.013 · 2.64 Impact Factor
  • Ritika Chauhan, Arpita Reddy, Jayanthi Abraham
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    ABSTRACT: The development of eco-friendly alternative to chemical synthesis of metal nanoparticles is of great challenge among researchers. The present study aimed to investigate the biological synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial study and synergistic effect of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles against clinical pathogens using Pichia fermentans JA2. The extracellular biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles was investigated using Pichia fermentans JA2 isolated from spoiled fruit pulp bought in Vellore local market. The crystalline and stable metallic nanoparticles were characterized evolving several analytical techniques including UV-visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction pattern analysis and FE-scanning electron microscope with EDX-analysis. The biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles were tested for their antimicrobial property against medically important Gram positive, Gram negative and fungal pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, the biosynthesized nanoparticles were also evaluated for their increased antimicrobial activities with various commercially available antibiotics against clinical pathogens. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles inhibited most of the Gram negative clinical pathogens, whereas zinc oxide nanoparticles were able to inhibit only Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The combined effect of standard antibiotic disc and biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles enhanced the inhibitory effect against clinical pathogens. The biological synthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles is a novel and cost-effective approach over harmful chemical synthesis techniques. The metallic nanoparticles synthesized using Pichia fermentans JA2 possess potent inhibitory effect that offers valuable contribution to pharmaceutical associations.
    01/2014; DOI:10.1007/s13204-014-0292-7
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    Kingsley D, Ravikumar G, Ritika Chauhan, Jayanthi Abraham
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT: In the present study, Vigna mungo (blackgram) have been used to investigate bioactive compounds through soxhlet extraction. The obtained methanol extract was evaluated for antimicrobial activity by Kirby- Bauer method against bacterial strains (Enterococci sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella sp., Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus aueres) and fungal strains (Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans) on Muller Hinton agar medium and potato dextrose agar medium respectively. The blackgram was analyzed for the presence of proteins through SDS-PAGE and compared with the BSA (66KDa) and Lysine (18KDa) protein markers. The sensitivity of the obtained methanol extract against pathogenic microorganisms was studied with the combined effect of commercially available antibiotics which resulted in good and enhanced antimicrobial effect. The methanol extract of blackgram was also analyzed for bioactive compounds through gaschromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The GC-MS spectrum revealed bioactive compound with molecular weight of 297.3268 (Heptadecanoic acid, 9-methyl, methyl ester). The active constituents of Vigna mungo was identified through mass spectroscopy analysis act as potential compound for effective antimicrobial and pharmaceutical studies.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 01/2014; 5(2):1000-1003. · 0.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: _____________________________________________________________________________________________ ABSTRACT The main aim of the present work was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of selenium and silver biogenic nanoparticles and further characterize them. The bacterial colony isolated from coal mine sample was found to reduce selenium and silver ions to their elemental forms respectively. Under experimental conditions, the isolated bacterium was capable of synthesising these nanoparticles which was indicated by the change in the colour of the medium to red for selenium and brown for silver. The effectiveness of these nanoparticles were tested against four clinical pathogens Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Staphylococcus aureus. The nanoparticles synthesised were then characterized by X-Ray diffraction analysis, Atomic Force Microscopy, UV-Vis analysis and Transmission Electron Microscopy. The sizes of these nanoparticles were also calibrated.
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    Sivagnanam Silambarasan, Jayanthi Abraham
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    ABSTRACT: A novel fungal strain JAS4 was isolated from agricultural soil and was found to be highly effective in degrading chlorpyrifos and its major degradation product 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP). The molecular characterization based on 18S rRNA sequence analysis, revealed strain JAS4 as Ganoderma sp. which could able to degrade chlorpyrifos and its metabolite in an aqueous medium with rate constant of 0.8460 day(-1) , following first order rate kinetics, and the time in which the initial insecticide concentration was reduced by 50% (DT50 ) was 0.81 days. Studies on biodegradation in soil with nutrients showed that JAS4 strain exhibited efficient degradation of insecticide with a rate constant of 0.9 day(-1) , and DT50 was 0.73 day. In contrast, degradation of insecticide in soil without nutrients was characterized by a rate constant of 0.7576 day(-1) and the DT50 was 0.91 day.
    Journal of Basic Microbiology 01/2014; 54(1). DOI:10.1002/jobm.201200437 · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    Sivagnanam Silambarasan, Jayanthi Abraham
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    ABSTRACT: Microbial degradation offers an efficient and ecofriendly approach to remove toxicants from the contaminated environments. Botryosphaeria laricina JAS6 and Aspergillus tamarii JAS9 were capable of degrading endosulfan and their metabolites which were isolated through enrichment technique. Both the strains were able to withstand an exposure of 1300 mg/L and showed luxuriant growth at 1000 mg/L of endosulfan. The change in pH in the culture broth was from 6.8 to 3.4 and 3.8 during growth kinetic studies of JAS6 and JAS9 strains, respectively upon biological degradation of endosulfan. The degradation of endosulfan by JAS6 and JAS9 strains were examined by HPLC. The biodegradation rate constant (k) and the initial concentration were reduced by 50% (DT50) which was determined by first and pseudo first order kinetic models. In the present investigation it has been revealed that Botryosphaeria laricina JAS6 and Aspergillus tamarii JAS9 possessing endosulfan degrading capability are being reported for the first time. These findings confirm the degradation of endosulfan by JAS6 and JAS9 strains which were accompanied by significant reduction in the toxicity and could be used as remedial measure in contaminated environments.
    PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e77170. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0077170 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Paddy field soil with prior exposure to chlorpyrifos was chosen for the biodegradation of the pesticide by employing bacteria with special emphasis given to Actinomycetes. Actinomycetes are organisms predominantly known for their bioactive compounds but there is dearth of work pertaining to their role in bioremediation. So this work was carried out to screen for Actinomycetes and assess their potential in degradation of the pesticide. Actinobacterial strains were isolated from paddy field soil, with capabilities to degrade chlorpyrifos and its major metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP). Two strains were successfully isolated among which one strain was efficient and was able to tolerate high concentrations of chlorpyrifos. This strain was selected for further investigation; it was identified as Gordonia sp based on 16S rRNA analysis and designated as Gordonia sp JAAS1. The actinobacterial strain was able to degrade 110 mg l(-1) of chlorpyrifos within 24 h incubation and TCP was found to accumulate in the culture medium. However, after 72 h of incubation, TCP was degraded and finally diethylthiophosphoric acid (DETP) was obtained. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Letters in Applied Microbiology 08/2013; DOI:10.1111/lam.12141 · 1.75 Impact Factor

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