Jayanthi Abraham

M.Phil., Ph.D
Associate Professor
VIT University · Microbial Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Biosciences and Technology

Publications

  • Jayanthi Abraham, Sivagnanam Silambarasan
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    ABSTRACT: The present investigation was carried out with the concept of bioremediation in isolating microbes with the unique capability of utilizing endosulfan for their growth thereby enhancing degradation of the persistant organochlorine pesticide. The fungal and bacterial strain was isolated from rhizosphere soil. Molecular characterization based on 18S rRNA and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of JAS12 and JAS8 strains isolated from endosulfan treated soil confirmed its identity as Lasiodiplodia sp. JAS12 and Klebsiella pneumoniae JAS8, respectively. The infrared spectrum of endosulfan degraded sample in the aqueous medium by JAS12 and JAS8 showed bands at 1400 and 1402 cm−1 respectively which are the characteristics of COOH group. Furthermore, K. pnuemoniae JAS8 strain confirmed plant growth promoting traits which exhibited production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), organic acids and solubilization of various sources of inorganic phosphates. The modern agro-techniques necessitate the development of a new formulation where powder inoculants can play a significant role. In the present investigation, low cost solid materials such as sawdust, soil, fly ash, molasses and nutrients were used to achieve greater multiplication and survival of the microbial strains.
    Ecological Engineering 09/2014; 70:235-240. · 2.96 Impact Factor
  • Jayanthi Abraham, Ritika Chauhan
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    ABSTRACT: Amycolatopsis decaplanina JAR8 is rare actinomycetes which was isolated from agricultural field of Punjab, India. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of strain JAR8 showed 98% similarity with Amycolatopsis decaplanina. The morphological, cultural and physiological characteristics were determined by International Streptomyces project by using various mediums. The bioactive metabolites produced by the strain were obtained from the optimized culture medium through solvent extraction method. The ethyl acetate extract obtained after extraction was characterized using UV, FTIR and GC-MS spectroscopic analysis. The minimum inhibitory concentration of active metabolite was found to be 60 µg/ml against Staphylococcus aureus. The present study deals with the exploration of rare actinomycetes which also produces various biological active compounds against infectious diseases.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research 08/2014; · 2.19 Impact Factor
  • DHAYA RANI VARKEY, V.Balaji, Jayanthi Abraham
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs) have been observed virtually in all the species belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. The enzymes are predominantly plasmid mediated and are derived from broad-spectrum beta lactamase genes TEM, SHV, CTX-M. This study was undertaken to characterize ESBL producers in Trichy, Tamilnadu. Methods: Total of 361 blood samples were screened for ESBL producing isolates. The organisms isolated were subjected to morphological and biochemical test and the isolates identified were predominantly Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed employing Kirby Bauer’s disc diffusion method. Results: PCR analysis for β-lactamases genes of the family TEM, SHV and CTX-M was carried out. Among the isolates obtained 138 ESBL positive for E. coli harbour 75% TEM gene, 66% SHV gene and 71% CTX-M gene, followed by K. pneumoniae, and E. cloacae. Conclusion: The results show an emergence of ESBL positive strains out of 361 isolates 250 samples were confirmed as ESBL producers.
    International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 03/2014; 6(3):276-278. · 1.59 Impact Factor
  • RITIKA CHAUHAN, JERUSHA EMMANUEL, JAYANTHI ABRAHAM
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The present study was aimed to estimate the production of Mycophenolic acid by fungus Byssochlamys nivea strain JSR2 in various substrates and to conduct in silico studies to determine the interaction of MPA with the NS5B receptor of Hepatitis C Virus. Methods: The isolate was characterized as Byssochlamys nivea strain JSR2 by 18S rRNA gene sequencing. The production of mycophenolic acid by strain JSR2 was determined on various substrates such as pineapple and apple extract and was estimated using chromatographic technique. The morphological and spore arrangement of strain JSR2 was determined by high resolution scanning electron microscope. In silico studies were also conducted to determine the interaction of MPA with the NS5B receptor of hepatitis C virus with ribavarin as the reference ligand. Results: The mycophenolic acid production was found to be highest with pineapple juice substrate and was further identified by high performance liquid chromatography. The binding energy of MPA and ribavarin was found to be similar through Autodock Vina which further represents the same mechanism of action. Conclusion: The strain JSR2 produced good amount mycophenolic acid in the presence of pineapple juice as substrate and it represents the similar mode of action against Hepatitis C virus when compare to ribavaran with reference to in silico studies.
    International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 03/2014; 6(3):227-230. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present work was focused in isolating fungus which possessed the special ability to degrade malathion. The pesticide of choice was malathion as it is being used to control a variety of pests in the agricultural fields in India. The fungal strains with the potential to degrade malathion was isolated by enrichment technique from malathion contaminated soil. The molecular characterization of 18S rRNA sequence homology confirmed its identity as Fusarium oxysporum. The isolate was able to degrade 400 mg L−1 malathion completely in mineral medium. In soil spiked with malathion and with addition of nutrients (carbon, nitrogen, phosphate), the isolate was capable of degrading malathion at 8th day of incubation. Where as in the second trial, in the absence of nutrients, JASA1 was able to degrade 400 mg L−1 malathion on the 9th day of incubation. The course of the degradation process was studied using High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses which confirmed the degradation potential of the fungus. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 00: 000–000, 2014
    Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy 03/2014; · 0.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the biological active phytochemical compounds from moss of Berijam Lake, Kodaikanal, India. Methods: Acetone and methanol extracts of moss were obtained using soxhlet extractor and the obtained extracts were evaluated for various biological activities. The combined effect of commercially available antibiotics and moss extracts was also investigated by disk-diffusion assay method against various Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The free radical scavenging activity of moss extracts were studied by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Results: The maximum zone of inhibition was found against Gram negative pathogens whereas weak inhibitory activity was investigated against Staphylococcus aureus. The combined effect of chloramphenicol with acetone and methanol extracts exhibited pronounced antimicrobial effect against Bacillus subtilis, Proteus mirabilis and Escherichia coli. The phytochemical tests revealed the presence of carbohydrates in Funaria sp. and the acetone extract showed effective antioxidant activity when compare to methanol extract using free radical scavenging assay. Conclusion: The present study reveals that the bryophytes from Berijam Lake possess potential antimicrobial and antioxidant activity.
    Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 02/2014; 7(2):84-87. · 0.51 Impact Factor
  • Nidhi Singh, Jayanthi Abraham
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    ABSTRACT: There are many antibiotic-resistant microbial pathogens that have emerged in recent years causing normal infections to become harder and sometimes impossible to treat. The major mechanisms of acquired resistance are the ability of the microorganisms to destroy or modify the drug, alter the drug target, reduce uptake or increase efflux of the drug and replace the metabolic step targeted by the drug. However, in recent years, resistant strains have been reported from almost every environment. New antimicrobial compounds are of major importance because of the growing problem of bacterial resistance, and antimicrobial peptides have been gaining a lot of interest. Their mechanism of action, however, is often obscure. Antimicrobial peptides are widespread and have a major role in innate immunity. An increasing number of peptides capable of inhibiting microbial growth are being reviewed here. In this article, we consider the possible use of antimicrobial peptides against pathogens.The Journal of Antibiotics advance online publication, 12 February 2014; doi:10.1038/ja.2013.138.
    The Journal of Antibiotics 02/2014; · 2.19 Impact Factor
  • Sivagnanam Silambarasan, Jayanthi Abraham
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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial strain, Halophilic bacterium JAS4, capable of degrading endosulfan and its metabolites was isolated from Gossypium herbaceum rhizosphere soil by enrichment technique, considering the fact that the microorganism had adapted to exposure in pesticide after having been in contact with pesticide contaminated soil. The JAS4 isolate had remarkable potential to degrade 1000 mg/l of endosulfan by catabolic activity and transform them into simpler compounds. The biodegradation experiments showed that a,b-endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate in the aqueous medium was degraded by JAS4 strain which was characterized by the rate constant (k) of 0.017 d�1, 0.003 d�1, and 1.219 d�1, respectively. The period within which the initial pesticide concentration was reduced by 50% (DT50) was 40.7 d (a-endosulfan), 231 d (b-endosulfan) and 0.5 d (endosulfan sulfate). Inoculation of sterile soil with Halophilic bacterium JAS4 and nutrients enhanced the disappearance rate of pesticide, and DT50 for a,b-endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate was 0.01 d, 346.5 d and 1.07 d, respectively. In the present study powder formulations were prepared by two methods; they are less expensive and handling is also easy.
    Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers 02/2014; · 2.08 Impact Factor
  • Ritika Chauhan, Arpita Reddy, Jayanthi Abraham
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    ABSTRACT: The development of eco-friendly alternative to chemical synthesis of metal nanoparticles is of great challenge among researchers. The present study aimed to investigate the biological synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial study and synergistic effect of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles against clinical pathogens using Pichia fermentans JA2. The extracellular biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles was investigated using Pichia fermentans JA2 isolated from spoiled fruit pulp bought in Vellore local market. The crystalline and stable metallic nanoparticles were characterized evolving several analytical techniques including UV-visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction pattern analysis and FE-scanning electron microscope with EDX-analysis. The biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles were tested for their antimicrobial property against medically important Gram positive, Gram negative and fungal pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, the biosynthesized nanoparticles were also evaluated for their increased antimicrobial activities with various commercially available antibiotics against clinical pathogens. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles inhibited most of the Gram negative clinical pathogens, whereas zinc oxide nanoparticles were able to inhibit only Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The combined effect of standard antibiotic disc and biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles enhanced the inhibitory effect against clinical pathogens. The biological synthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles is a novel and cost-effective approach over harmful chemical synthesis techniques. The metallic nanoparticles synthesized using Pichia fermentans JA2 possess potent inhibitory effect that offers valuable contribution to pharmaceutical associations.
    Applied Nano Science. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Several researchers have focussed on degradation of pesticides by microorganisms, which is the most viable option in remediation of agricultural soil. However, very few have illustrated the degradation of mixed pesticides. Hence, in the present investigation biodegradation of a mixture of both organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticide directed by microbial consortium was carried out in a fermentor–bioreactor system. The pesticides chosen were chlorpyrifos, monocrotophos (organophosphorus) and endosulfan (organochlorine). In order to accomplish an effective degradation, the microorganisms were isolated from agricultural fields which were previously exposed to the pesticides mentioned above. The bacteria were isolated by minimal meda with the individual pesticide as the only carbon source. The individual strains were identified by morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA characterization. The bacterial consortium comprised of 10 organisms which were as follows: Alcaligenes sp. JAS1, Ochrobactrum sp. JAS2, Sphingobacterium sp. JAS3 which were screened and selected from chlorpyrifos contaminated soil, Enterobacter ludwigii JAS17, Pseudomonas moraviensis JAS18 and Serratia marcescens JAS16 which were isolated from monocrotophos spiked soil and Klebsiella pneumoniae JAS8, Enterobacter cloacae JAS7, Halophilic bacteria JAS4, Enterobacter asburiae strain JAS5 were obtained from endosulfan persistent soil sample. The fermentor–bioreactor system containing 2 L of sterile minimal medium supplemented with 300 mg l−1 of chlorpyrifos, 1000 mg l−1 of monocrotophos, 1000 mg l−1 of endosulfan as the only source of carbon and inoculated with 20 ml of bacterial consortium (approximately 3 × 106 cells ml−1). The HPLC and GC–MS studies were performed to record the degradation of mixed pesticides.
    Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers 01/2014; · 2.08 Impact Factor
  • Kingsley D, Ravikumar G, Ritika Chauhan, Jayanthi Abraham
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT: In the present study, Vigna mungo (blackgram) have been used to investigate bioactive compounds through soxhlet extraction. The obtained methanol extract was evaluated for antimicrobial activity by Kirby- Bauer method against bacterial strains (Enterococci sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella sp., Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus aueres) and fungal strains (Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans) on Muller Hinton agar medium and potato dextrose agar medium respectively. The blackgram was analyzed for the presence of proteins through SDS-PAGE and compared with the BSA (66KDa) and Lysine (18KDa) protein markers. The sensitivity of the obtained methanol extract against pathogenic microorganisms was studied with the combined effect of commercially available antibiotics which resulted in good and enhanced antimicrobial effect. The methanol extract of blackgram was also analyzed for bioactive compounds through gaschromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The GC-MS spectrum revealed bioactive compound with molecular weight of 297.3268 (Heptadecanoic acid, 9-methyl, methyl ester). The active constituents of Vigna mungo was identified through mass spectroscopy analysis act as potential compound for effective antimicrobial and pharmaceutical studies.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 01/2014; 5(2):1000-1003. · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: _____________________________________________________________________________________________ ABSTRACT The main aim of the present work was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of selenium and silver biogenic nanoparticles and further characterize them. The bacterial colony isolated from coal mine sample was found to reduce selenium and silver ions to their elemental forms respectively. Under experimental conditions, the isolated bacterium was capable of synthesising these nanoparticles which was indicated by the change in the colour of the medium to red for selenium and brown for silver. The effectiveness of these nanoparticles were tested against four clinical pathogens Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Staphylococcus aureus. The nanoparticles synthesised were then characterized by X-Ray diffraction analysis, Atomic Force Microscopy, UV-Vis analysis and Transmission Electron Microscopy. The sizes of these nanoparticles were also calibrated.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Paddy field soil with prior exposure to chlorpyrifos was chosen for the biodegradation of the pesticide by employing bacteria with special emphasis given to Actinomycetes. Actinomycetes are organisms predominantly known for their bioactive compounds but there is dearth of work pertaining to their role in bioremediation. So this work was carried out to screen for Actinomycetes and assess their potential in degradation of the pesticide. Actinobacterial strains were isolated from paddy field soil, with capabilities to degrade chlorpyrifos and its major metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP). Two strains were successfully isolated among which one strain was efficient and was able to tolerate high concentrations of chlorpyrifos. This strain was selected for further investigation; it was identified as Gordonia sp based on 16S rRNA analysis and designated as Gordonia sp JAAS1. The actinobacterial strain was able to degrade 110 mg l(-1) of chlorpyrifos within 24 h incubation and TCP was found to accumulate in the culture medium. However, after 72 h of incubation, TCP was degraded and finally diethylthiophosphoric acid (DETP) was obtained. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Letters in Applied Microbiology 08/2013; · 1.63 Impact Factor
  • Jayanthi Abraham, Sivagnanam Silambarasan
    PROCESS BIOCHEMISTRY 07/2013; · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    Ritika Chauhan, Jayanthi Abraham
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    ABSTRACT: Objective(s): The ongoing increasing antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest challenges faced by global public health. The perennial need for new antimicrobials against a background of increasing antibiotic resistance in pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms obliges the scientific community to constantly develop new drugs and antimicrobial agents. Lichens are known prolific sources of natural antimicrobial drugs and biologically active natural products. This study was aimed to explore in vitro antimicrobial activity of lichen Parmotrema sp. Material and Methods: The methanol and aqueous extracts of lichen Parmotrema sp. was extracted using Soxhlet extractor. Antibiotic assessment of methanol and aqueous extracts was done against eight bacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Enterococci faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae,) clinical pathogens and five plant pathogenic fungal strains (Aspergillus terreus strain JAS1, Scedosporium sp. JAS1, Ganoderma sp. JAS4, Candida tropicalis and Fusarium sp.) by Kirby-Bauer method. Results: The methanol lichen Parmotrema sp. extract inhibited all the test organisms. The highest antibacterial activity was found against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The weakest activity was manifested in Salmonella sp. and Scedosporium sp. JAS1. Strong antifungal effect was found against Ganoderma sp. JAS4 and Fusarium sp. The aqueous lichen Parmotrema sp. extract revealed neither antibacterial nor antifungal activity. Conclusion: The present study shows that tested lichen Parmotrema sp. extracts demonstrated a strong antimicrobial effect. That suggests the active components from methanol extracts of the investigated lichen Parmotrema sp. can be used as natural antimicrobial agent against pathogens.
    Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Science 07/2013; 16(7):882-5. · 0.24 Impact Factor
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    Ritika Chauhan, Abhishek Kumar, Jayanthi Abraham
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    ABSTRACT: The biological approach to synthesize metal nanoparticles is an important aspect of current nanotechnology research. Silver nanoparticles have been well-known for their inhibitory and antimicrobial effects. The ever-increasing antibiotic resistance in pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms is a major threat to the health care industry. In the present investigation, silver nanoparticles have been successfully biosynthesized by Streptomyces sp JAR1. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by means of several analytical techniques including a UV-Visible spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction pattern analysis, and atomic force microscopy. An evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was carried out against clinically important pathogenic microorganisms. The metal nanoparticles were also evaluated for their combined effects with antibiotics against the clinical pathogens. The antibacterial activities of the antibiotics increased in the presence of the biologically synthesized AgNPs against the clinically important pathogens. The highest enhancing effect was observed for erythromycin against the test pathogens.
    Scientia Pharmaceutica 06/2013; 81(2):607-21.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Use of various plant materials for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles is considered a green technology, as it does not involve any harmful chemicals. The present study reports that silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were synthesized from a silver nitrate solution by commercially available plant powders, such as Solanum tricobatum, Syzygium cumini, Centella asiatica and Citrus sinensis. Ag NPs were characterized by UV–vis spectrophotometer, X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The formation and stability of the reduced silver nanoparticles in the colloidal solution were monitored by UV–vis spectrophotometer analysis. The mean particle diameter of silver nanoparticles was calculated from the XRD pattern, according to the line width of the plane, and the refraction peak, using Scherrer’s equation. AFM showed the irregular shapes of Ag NPs, and the formation of silver nanoparticles was found to be 53, 41, 52 and 42 nm, corresponding to Syzygium cumini, Citrus sinensis, Solanum tricobatum and Centella asiatica, respectively. FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the presence of protein as the stabilizing agent surrounding the Ag NPs. Antimicrobial activity of the silver bio-nanoparticles was performed by a well diffusion method. The highest antimicrobial activity of Ag NPs synthesized by C. sinensis and C. asiatica was found against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (16 mm). The Ag NPs synthesized in this process were found to have efficient antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria.
    Scientia Iranica 06/2013; 20(3):1049-1054. · 0.54 Impact Factor
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    Sivagnanam Silambarasan, Jayanthi Abraham
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    ABSTRACT: Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos was studied in mineral medium and soil with a novel fungal strain JAS1 isolated from a paddy field soil. The molecular characterization based on 18S rRNA sequence homol-ogy confirmed its identity as Aspergillus terreus. The 300-mg L −1 chlorpyrifos and its major metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) were completely de-graded within 24 h of incubation in the mineral medi-um. In soil enriched with chlorpyrifos and nutrients (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous), A. terreus JAS1 was able to degrade chlorpyrifos and its metabolite TCP (300 mgkg −1 soil) in 24 and 48 h, respectively. The soil was spiked with chlorpyrifos (300 mgkg −1 soil) devoid of nutrients and the fungal strain was capable of degrading both chlorpyrifos and TCP in 24 and 48 h, respectively. The course of the degrada-tion process was studied using high-performance liq-uid chromatography and Fourier transform infrared analyses. These results showed that the chlorpyrifos-degrading fungal strain had the potential to degrade the pesticide-contaminated agricultural soils even without addition of nutrients.
    Water Air and Soil Pollution 04/2013; · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    Sivagnanam Silambarasan, Jayanthi Abraham
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    ABSTRACT: A novel fungal strain JAS4 was isolated from agricultural soil and was found to be highly effective in degrading chlorpyrifos and its major degradation product 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP). The molecular characterization based on 18S rRNA sequence analysis, revealed strain JAS4 as Ganoderma sp. which could able to degrade chlorpyrifos and its metabolite in an aqueous medium with rate constant of 0.8460 day(-1) , following first order rate kinetics, and the time in which the initial insecticide concentration was reduced by 50% (DT50 ) was 0.81 days. Studies on biodegradation in soil with nutrients showed that JAS4 strain exhibited efficient degradation of insecticide with a rate constant of 0.9 day(-1) , and DT50 was 0.73 day. In contrast, degradation of insecticide in soil without nutrients was characterized by a rate constant of 0.7576 day(-1) and the DT50 was 0.91 day.
    Journal of Basic Microbiology 04/2013; · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    Nidhi Singh, Jayanthi Abraham
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    ABSTRACT: Profiling and antifungal susceptibility of Candida sp. in blood was conducted and the specimens were collected from Thanjavur Medical College, Thanjavur, India. A total of 31 isolates were selected for prospective analysis over a period of 6 months. Candidemia was diagnosed by positive blood culture bottles. Candida sp. were identified to species level by germ tube test, Hi-Chrome Candida agar, methyl blue SDA agar, rapid trehalose and maltose test, corn meal agar and sugar fermentation tests using standard techniques. All the Candida isolates were tested for antifungal susceptibility to amphotericin B and fluconazole by the disc diffusion method. Most frequent isolates were C. parapsilosis (66%), C. tropicalis (19%), C. albicans (6%), C. glabrata (6%) and C. guillermondii (3%). About 6.5% polymicrobial candidemia has been described. Most of the blood isolates were from the Intensive Care Units (ICU) (81%) especially neonatal (61%) and few from other wards (19%). 84% isolates were resistance to fluconazole, 56% isolates were resistant to voriconazole and 16% isolates were resistance to amphotericin B. Among the isolates C. parapsilosis was found to be predominant in occurrence. Most of the isolates were resistant to fluconazole.
    01/2013;

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