Article: Rubella seroprevalence among primary and pre- primary school pupils at Moi's Bridge location, Uasin Gishu District, Kenya.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Rubella is an infectious and generally mild childhood viral disease. The disease is of public health importance because infection acquired during early pregnancy often results in foetal abnormalities that are classified as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). The burden of rubella infection in most developing countries in not well documented because of limited epidemiological data. However, availability of an effective vaccine has made it necessary to have all the countries with no routine vaccination schedule to evaluate the burden of disease in order to make informed decisions on rubella vaccination and strategy. To address this gap we conducted a study to determine age-specific rubella seroprevalence rates and related risk factors among primary and pre-primary school children in Uasin Gishu district, Moi's Bridge location of Kenya. Subjects of the study were 498 pupils from seven primary schools aged 4-20 years. Questionnaire surveys with blood sampling were conducted between January to July 2005. Samples were tested for rubella specific IgG antibody using ELISA test kit (Enzygnost Behring, Germany). Overall, rubella seropositivity rate was 80% and it increased with age from 59% (among ages 4-6 years) to 94% (ages 14-20 years). Multivariate logistic regression analysis model, showed that age of child and ownership of a television set which is a proxy measure of socio-economic status of family were significantly associated with rubella seropositivity. The odds of rubella seropositivity in a child older than 13 years was more than that in children younger than 7 years (OR = 3.8 95% CI 2.56-5.78). The odds of rubella seropositivity in a child whose family did not own a television set was 3 times higher than that of child whose family owned a set (OR 3.06, 95% CI 1.17-7.97). The study provides important and highly useful information on rubella age specific seroprevalence rates in Kenya. Advancing age was found to be associated with increased risk of rubella. Low socio-economic factors suggest an increased risk of infection in certain categories of society, and control measures need to target this. Overall, the findings can also be used by policy makers to model introduction of routine rubella vaccination in the country and also other developing countries facing similar challenges. More than half of the children got infected in pre-primary and efforts to control rubella should target pre-school children. These data provides pre-vaccination information that can be used to guide immunization strategy as well as to determine success of an immunization programme.BMC Public Health 08/2009; 9:269. · 2.00 Impact Factor
Jennifer Rota, Luis Lowe, Paul Rota, William Bellini, Susan Redd, Gustavo Dayan, Rob van Binnendijk, Susan Hahné, Graham Tipples, Jeannette Macey, [......], Paul Chege, Janeth Kombich, Chantal Akoua-Koffi, Sheilagh Smit, Henry Bukenya, Josephine Bwogi, Frederick Ndhoga Baliraine, Jacques Kremer, Claude Muller, Sabine Santibanez[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Surveillance of measles virus detected an epidemiologic link between a refugee from Kenya and a Dutch tourist in New Jersey, USA. Identical genotype B3 sequences from patients with contemporaneous cases in the United States, Canada, and Mexico in November and December 2005 indicate that Kenya was likely to have been the common source of virus.Emerging infectious diseases 12/2006; 12(11):1779-81. · 6.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine morbidity and mortality from measles and to estimate measles vaccine effectiveness among children hospitalised with measles in two hospitals in Nairobi. A review of hospital records (index cards). Kenyatta National Hospital and Mbagathi District Hospitals covering the years 1996-2000. A review of index cards for measles morbility and mortality was undertaken in the two hospitals. Measles data at the Kenya Expanded Programme on Immunisation covering both hospitals was analysed for vaccine effectiveness. The incidence of measles was unusually high in 1998 between July and November (monthly range 130-305), reflecting on the occurrence of an outbreak at that time. There was no definite monthly incidence trend of measles in 1996,1997, 1999 and 2000. The median age of cases was 13 months (range 0-420 months) for Kenyatta hospital and 18 months (range 1-336 months) for Mbagathi Hospital. Significantly, 29.8% of all cases were aged below nine months when routine immunisation for measles had not begun. The median number of days spent in hospital were five days (range 0-87 days) for Kenyatta and four days (range 1-13 days) for Mbagathi. The overall case fatality rate was 5.6% and was similar for both males and females. The overall measles vaccine effectiveness among measles cases admitted to Kenyatta and Mbagathi Hospitals was 84.1%. The case admissions in Kenyatta and Mbagathi Hospitals suggest measles was prevalent in Nairobi over the latter half decade of the 1990's. Apart from 1998 when there was an outbreak, the seasonality of measles was dampened. The 1998 outbreak suggests a build up of susceptible children the majority of whom were born in the last quarter of 1996. The high mortality may have had to do with the majority of cases presenting late when symptoms were already complicated and severe.East African medical journal 08/2003; 80(7):361-4.