Article: A short amino-terminal part of Arabidopsis phytochrome A induces constitutive photomorphogenic response.András Viczián, Éva Ádám, Iris Wolf, János Bindics, Stefan Kircher, Marc Heijde, Roman Ulm, Eberhard Schäfer, Ferenc Nagy[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Phytochrome A (phyA) is the dominant photoreceptor of far-red light sensing in Arabidopsis thaliana. phyA accumulates at high levels in the cytoplasm of etiolated seedlings, and light-induced phyA signaling is mediated by a complex regulatory network. This includes light- and FHY1/FHL protein-dependent translocation of native phyA into the nucleus in vivo. It has also been shown that a short N-terminal fragment of phyA (PHYA406) is sufficient to phenocopy this highly regulated cellular process in vitro. To test the biological activity of this N-terminal fragment of phyA in planta, we produced transgenic phyA-201 plants expressing the PHYA406-YFP (YELLOW FLUORESCENT PROTEIN)-DD, PHYA406-YFP-DD-NLS (nuclear localization signal), and PHYA406-YFP-DD-NES (nuclear export signal) fusion proteins. Here, we report that PHYA406-YFP-DD is imported into the nucleus and this process is partially light-dependent whereas PHYA406-YFP-DD-NLS and PHYA406-YFP-DD-NES display the expected constitutive localization patterns. Our results show that these truncated phyA proteins are light-stable, they trigger a constitutive photomorphogenic-like response when localized in the nuclei, and neither of them induces proper phyA signaling. We demonstrate that in vitro and in vivo PHYA406 Pfr and Pr bind COP1, a general repressor of photomorphogenesis, and co-localize with it in nuclear bodies. Thus, we conclude that, in planta, the truncated PHYA406 proteins inactivate COP1 in the nuclei in a light-independent fashion.Molecular Plant 04/2012; 5(3):629-41. · 5.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Among the five phytochromes in Arabidopsis thaliana, phytochrome A (phyA) plays a major role in seedling de-etiolation. Until now more then ten positive and some negative components acting downstream of phyA have been identified. However, their site of action and hierarchical relationships are not completely understood yet.Plant signaling & behavior 11/2011; 6(11):1714-9.
Article: Light-regulated nuclear import and degradation of Arabidopsis phytochrome-A N-terminal fragments.Iris Wolf, Stefan Kircher, Erzsébet Fejes, László Kozma-Bognár, Eberhard Schäfer, Ferenc Nagy, Eva Adám[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The photoreceptor phytochrome-A (phyA) regulates germination and seedling establishment by mediating very low fluence (VLFR) and far-red high irradiance (FR-HIR) responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. In darkness, phyA homodimers exist in the biologically inactive Pr form and are localized in the cytoplasm. Light induces formation of the biologically active Pfr form and subsequent rapid nuclear import. PhyA Pfr, in contrast to the Pr form, is labile and has a half-life of ∼30 min. We produced transgenic plants in a phyA-201 null background that express the PHYA-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) or the PHYA686-YFP-dimerization domain (DD) and PHYA686-YFP-DD-nuclear localization signal (NLS) or PHYA686-YFP-DD-nuclear exclusion signal (NES) fusion proteins. The PHYA686-YFP fusion proteins contained the N-terminal domain of phyA (686 amino acid residues), a short DD and the YFP. Here we report that (i) PHYA686-YFP-DD fusion protein is imported into the nucleus in a light-dependent fashion; (ii) neither of the PHYA686 fusion proteins is functional in FR-HIR and nuclear VLFR; and (iii) the phyA-dependent, blue light-induced inhibition of hypocotyl growth is mediated by the PHYA686-YFP-DD-NES but not by the PHYA686-YFP-DD-NLS and PHYA686-YFP-DD fusion proteins. We demonstrate that (i) light induces degradation of all PHYA N-terminal-containing fusion proteins and (ii) these N-terminal domain-containing fusion proteins including the constitutively nuclear PHYA686-YFP-DD-NLS and predominantly cytoplasmic PHYA686-YFP-DD-NES degrade at comparable rates but markedly more slowly than PHYA-YFP, whereas (iii) light-induced degradation of the native phyA is faster compared with PHYA-YFP.Plant and Cell Physiology 02/2011; 52(2):361-72. · 4.70 Impact Factor
Anne Pfeiffer, Tim Kunkel, Andreas Hiltbrunner, Gunther Neuhaus, Iris Wolf, Volker Speth, Eva Adam, Ferenc Nagy, Eberhard Schäfer[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus is an essential step in phytochrome (phy) signal transduction. In the case of phytochrome A (phyA), this step occurs with the help of FHY1 (far-red-elongated hypocotyl 1), a specific transport protein. To investigate the components involved in phyA transport, we used a cell-free system that facilitates the controlled addition of transport factors. For this purpose, we isolated nuclei from the unicellular green algae Acetabularia acetabulum. These nuclei are up to 100 mum in diameter and allow easy detection of imported proteins. Experiments with isolated nuclei of Acetabularia showed that FHY1 is sufficient for phyA transport. The reconstituted system demonstrates all the characteristics of phytochrome transport in Arabidopsis thaliana. In addition, FHY1 was also actively exported from the nucleus, consistent with its role as a shuttle protein in plants. Therefore, we believe that isolated Acetabularia nuclei may be used as a general tool to study nuclear transport of plant proteins.The Plant Journal 11/2008; 57(4):680-9. · 6.16 Impact Factor