Ifeanyi Ndubuto Nwachukwu

B.Sc, M.Sc, PhD
Examination Officer
Michael Okpara University of A... · Department of Agribusiness and Management

Publications

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    N Agwu, I N Nwachukwu, C I Anyanwu
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    ABSTRACT: The study analyzed the relative effect of climate variability on cassava production in Nigeria. It elicited secondary data from reputable sources such as Food and Agriculture Organization statistical data base (FAOSTAT); World Bank database; Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin and the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) for the 1960 – 2008. Multiple regression model was employed in the course of data analysis and the results showed that the climate variables had no significant effect on the output of cassava within the period under study. On the basis of the outcome, the study suggested mounting of intensive expansion programs to boost cassava production since the crop is not influenced by climate variability as part of efforts to revitalize Nigeria's export subsector and national income generation drive. INTRODUCTION Issues bordering on climate change and variability have become topical and occupy the center of many scientific studies. Some of these studies have shown significant impacts of climatic variability on agricultural activities; especially during the last 40 years (Ayanlade et al., 2010). It has been observed with dependable empirical evidence that the earth's climate has exhibited marked "natural" variations and changes, with time scales varying from many millions of years down to a few years. This results in changes in soil moisture, increase in mean sea level, and prospects for more severe extreme high temperature events, floods and droughts in many locations (IPCC, 2001). Climate change has been known as one among the range of risks affecting the food security of poor people and in developing countries (Parry et al., 2009). As the largest sector in Nigerian economy, agriculture is important because it contributes 42 percent to the country's Gross Domestic Product; employs about 80 percent of the country's poor who live in the rural areas and work predominantly in agriculture (NBS, 2006). Nigeria's agriculture also depends highly on climate because temperature, sunlight, water, relative humidity are the main drivers of crop growth and yield. Given the rain-fed nature of agriculture in Nigeria, the sector has been adjudged to be vulnerable to climate change and variability. Interest in cassava production, arises from its dominance in terms of production over other crops in Nigeria. Comparing its output with various crops in Nigeria, cassava production ranks first with 34 million metric tonnes, followed by yam production at 27 million tonnes in 2002, sorghum at 7 million tonnes, millet at 6 million tonnes, and rice at 5 million tonnes. Nigeria's cassava production is by far, the largest in the world; a third more than the production in Brazil and almost double the production of Indonesia and Thailand. Cassava production in other African countries such as the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Madagascar, Mozambique, Tanzania and Uganda appears small compared to Nigeria's substantial output of 34 million metric tonnes (FAO, 2007). The major advantage cassava has over other carbohydrate/starch crops is the variety of uses to which it can be put to. Each component of the crop is valuable. The leaves may be consumed as a vegetable, or cooked as a soup ingredient or dried and fed to livestock as a protein feed supplement. The stem is used for plant propagation and grafting, while the roots are typically processed for human and industrial consumption (IITA, 2005). In addition to being a feed source, cassava is also being used in the production of yeast and alcohol. It is demanded as a starch for various industrial purposes in the textile, plywood, paper and pharmaceutical industries. It could also serve as a source of ethanol for fuel. Cassava is also tolerant to soil infertility and drought stress. It is highly productive, it is available throughout the year, and can be processed into many foods, depending on local customs and preferences (IITA, 2005). However, crop yield and production is extremely susceptible to climate change and climate variability. It has been estimated that climate changes are likely to reduce yields and/or damage crops in the
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    N Agwu, I N Nwachukwu, C I Anyanwu
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    ABSTRACT: The study analyzed the relative effect of climate variability on cassava production in Nigeria. It elicited secondary data from reputable sources such as Food and Agriculture Organization statistical data base (FAOSTAT); World Bank database; Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin and the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) for the 1960 – 2008. Multiple regression model was employed in the course of data analysis and the results showed that the climate variables had no significant effect on the output of cassava within the period under study. On the basis of the outcome, the study suggested mounting of intensive expansion programs to boost cassava production since the crop is not influenced by climate variability as part of efforts to revitalize Nigeria's export subsector and national income generation drive. INTRODUCTION Issues bordering on climate change and variability have become topical and occupy the center of many scientific studies. Some of these studies have shown significant impacts of climatic variability on agricultural activities; especially during the last 40 years (Ayanlade et al., 2010). It has been observed with dependable empirical evidence that the earth's climate has exhibited marked "natural" variations and changes, with time scales varying from many millions of years down to a few years. This results in changes in soil moisture, increase in mean sea level, and prospects for more severe extreme high temperature events, floods and droughts in many locations (IPCC, 2001). Climate change has been known as one among the range of risks affecting the food security of poor people and in developing countries (Parry et al., 2009). As the largest sector in Nigerian economy, agriculture is important because it contributes 42 percent to the country's Gross Domestic Product; employs about 80 percent of the country's poor who live in the rural areas and work predominantly in agriculture (NBS, 2006). Nigeria's agriculture also depends highly on climate because temperature, sunlight, water, relative humidity are the main drivers of crop growth and yield. Given the rain-fed nature of agriculture in Nigeria, the sector has been adjudged to be vulnerable to climate change and variability. Interest in cassava production, arises from its dominance in terms of production over other crops in Nigeria. Comparing its output with various crops in Nigeria, cassava production ranks first with 34 million metric tonnes, followed by yam production at 27 million tonnes in 2002, sorghum at 7 million tonnes, millet at 6 million tonnes, and rice at 5 million tonnes. Nigeria's cassava production is by far, the largest in the world; a third more than the production in Brazil and almost double the production of Indonesia and Thailand. Cassava production in other African countries such as the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Madagascar, Mozambique, Tanzania and Uganda appears small compared to Nigeria's substantial output of 34 million metric tonnes (FAO, 2007). The major advantage cassava has over other carbohydrate/starch crops is the variety of uses to which it can be put to. Each component of the crop is valuable. The leaves may be consumed as a vegetable, or cooked as a soup ingredient or dried and fed to livestock as a protein feed supplement. The stem is used for plant propagation and grafting, while the roots are typically processed for human and industrial consumption (IITA, 2005). In addition to being a feed source, cassava is also being used in the production of yeast and alcohol. It is demanded as a starch for various industrial purposes in the textile, plywood, paper and pharmaceutical industries. It could also serve as a source of ethanol for fuel. Cassava is also tolerant to soil infertility and drought stress. It is highly productive, it is available throughout the year, and can be processed into many foods, depending on local customs and preferences (IITA, 2005). However, crop yield and production is extremely susceptible to climate change and climate variability. It has been estimated that climate changes are likely to reduce yields and/or damage crops in the
    Gallup report (Princeton, N.J.: 1981) 09/2012; 4(2):11 - 14.
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    I. N. Nwachukwu, R. O. Mejeha, E. Kalu
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    ABSTRACT: This study assessed the managerial efficiency among agribusiness firms in Abia state, Nigeria with specific interest in analyzing their socio – economic characteristics, managerial efficiency levels and its determinants. Purposive sampling technique was used in the selection of locations and firms. Aba and Umuahia were selected given that most of the commercial firms are located. The study employed 50 firms on the basis of their investment value (less N5m).Descriptive statistics and stochastic frontier model were the analytical tools for the study. The result showed that majority of the firms were well established and managed by middle aged, sparingly literate and experienced managers with an appreciable income level and sizable household. The efficiency level of the managers was 0.62 on the average and managerial efficiency was found to be influenced positively by age of the firm, age, income, education of the managers. Efficiency was negatively affected by the household size of the managers. On the basis of the findings, the study suggested that periodic trainings and capacity building programs be organized for the managers to enhance their expertise and managerial competence.
    International Journal of Social Science and Humanity. 01/2011; 1:167 - 170.
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    N M Agwu, I N Nwachukwu, B C Okoye
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    ABSTRACT: Food crises triggered by high prices had been experienced in agricultural markets in the past. However, the current state of agricultural markets has raised a lot of concerns to policy makers, media, the public and all stakeholders. This is against the background of the fact that only a selected few crops were affected but nearly all major food and feed commodities were involved. It was observed that between late December 2006 and December 2007 there was an increase in the value of price index rising up to 37 percent. This paper reviewed some of the reasons for the price increase, consequences to the vulnerable, particularly in Nigeria where over 60 percent of the population live below poverty line and the associated widening inequalities. It also proffered solutions through some policy shifts and instrumentality of agricultural production and marketing which includes increased funding and investment in agricultural research and development among others.
    Sacha Journal of Environmental Studies April. 01/2011; 1:64-68.
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    ABSTRACT: The study examined the degree of market power in the export demand for Nigerian Cocoa with focus on the Dutch Market. The study covered the periods of 1961–2007 and data comprised published national aggregates on specific trade and macroeconomic variables from reputable sources. Two Stage Least Squares (2 SLS) approach was used in the estimation after instrumenting for simultaneity and establishing stationarity alongside cointegration relationship. Findings, on the demand side, showed that the demand for cocoa increases as income of Netherlands (importing country) increases. Total production of the non–participating countries traced out a positive relationship with demand for cocoa by the importing country while the coefficient of price of Coffee (substitute crop) possessed a negative sign. On the supply relation side, the demand for the export crop has a negative sign, indicating decreasing marginal output with respect to cost while the proxy for ocean freight rate with its negative sign, imply increasing export cost. The result further showed that there is relative competitiveness in the Dutch market on the strength of a market power coefficient -0.712 with a Lerner index of 0.122. Based on the findings, the study calls for government intervention in the agricultural export subsector with the aim to revitalize the country’s agricultural export capacity and enhance her market power via increased market shares. These interventions could be in the form of input/production subsidies, targeted export promotion programs, farm settlement, expanded export processing zones to mention but a few.
    Journal of Social and Development Sciences. 01/2011; 2:94 - 103.
  • Nwachukwu, I.N, N.M. Agwu, N. Onyemauwa
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    ABSTRACT: The study examined the socio-economic determinants of profitability among pig farmers in Abia State, Nigeria. Specifically, it described the socio-economic characteristics of the farmers and assessed their influence on profitability of pig enterprise in the study area. Purposive sampling technique was employed in the selection of respondents from the three agricultural zones that make up the state, and data obtained were through a set of questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression were used in analyzing the data. The findings showed that majority of the farmers were middle aged, fairly literate and earned reasonably high income with a relatively bloated household size. Cost of variable inputs, farm experience and farm income were found to be major determinants of profitability in the enterprise. Among other things, it is suggested that government should expand the subsidy regime to accommodate the livestock sub-sector in Nigeria in order to reduce the cost of variable inputs.
    International Journal of Agricultural Economics, Management and Development. 10/2010; 1(1):146-152.
  • N.M. Agwu, I.N. Nwachukwu, M.O. Nmeregini
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    ABSTRACT: This paper assessed the factors influencing the participation of cassava farmers in Abia State, Nigeria in the acquisition and use of improved cassava stems and fertilizers in their farming operations. One hundred and eighty cassava farmers from the three agricultural zones of the state were randomly selected and administered with questionnaire. Tobit model was used in analyzing the data collected. The findings showed that none of the farmers used agrochemicals and tractors in their farming operations. Tobit result indicated that distance from the house of the farmers to the place of purchase, farm income, availability of cassava stems, and farm size influenced farmers’ access to cassava stems in the study area at 1 and 5 percent significant level. While, distance from farmers’ house to the place of purchase, availability of fertilizer, price of fertilizer, rate of use and farm size were all positive and significant at 1 percent level in determining access to fertilizer. It was recommended that inputs should always be made available to the farmers even before the onset of each farming season, price reduction of the inputs as well as bringing the sales centres close to the farmers among others. Key words: Access, cassava stems, fertilizer, input, market participation
    The Nigerian Journal of Farm Management. 09/2010; 11(2):80-87.
  • Ifeanyi N. Nwachukwu, C. Samuel Alamba, Oko-Isu Anthony
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    ABSTRACT: Utilization and repayment of borrowed agricultural funds has been one of the numerous ofagricultural development in the developing world and Nigeria is no exception. As such, this studydelved into the determinants of loan repayment performance among farmers in Afikpo North LocalGovernment Area (LGA) of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. The study employed purposive sampling techniquein the selection of location and respondents. A sample of 100 small holder agricultural loanbeneficiaries from Nigeria Agricultural Cooperative and Rural Development Bank (NACRDB) served asrespondents for the study. A set of pretested and structured questionnaire was used to elicit data andinformation from the respondents. Data were analyzed using discriminant analysis. The discriminantfunction analysis result showed that 72% of the beneficiaries were operating performing loans while28% were non-performing loan beneficiaries. On the basis of the results, the study suggestedextensive loan periods and adoption of income support measures as panacea for efficient creditdelivery and utilization among farmers.
    Advances in Agriculture & Botanics. 01/2010;
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    C.E. ONYENWEAKU, I.N. NWACHUKWU, T.C. OPARA
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    ABSTRACT: Agriculture plays pivotal roles in Nigeria including food security, employment, foreign exchange earnings and poverty reduction. This study examined the growth in food crop productivity in Imo State in Nigeria with emphasis on the decomposition of total factor productivity (TFP) into technical progress, changes in technical and allocative efficiency and scale effects. A panel data set comprising 210 observations drawn over 2001 – 2007 periods was used. Using the translog stochastic frontier production function, the decomposition components were computed. The results showed that TFP decreased through time, while technical change was negative, implying downward shift of the production frontier. As a major component, technical change was the main constraint to the achievement of high levels of TFP during the study period. The scale effect, which is generally bigger than technical change component shows that the sampled farms had not taken advantage of scale economies. Furthermore, the allocative efficiency had an average magnitude closer to the scale effect and points towards decreases in the efficiency with which production factors are allocated. This is an indication of a decline in technical efficiency. We suggest reforms in the Agricultural Development Programmes (ADPs) geared towards enhancing their capacity in extending novel technologies and innovations to farmers.
    African Crop Science Journal. 01/2010; 18:89 - 95.
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    ABSTRACT: Since the introduction of Cocoa into Nigeria in about 1874, it has grown to become the fourth largest exporter in the world with production level, reaching 385, 000 metric tonnes per annum. In view of Nigeria’s significant contribution and export capacity to the world volume, the study examined the competitiveness by assessing her export performance and determinants of cocoa export from Nigeria. The Revealed Comparative Analysis (RCA) and multiple regression were employed as analytical tools using data set from various institutional sources that ranged from 1990 to 2005. The outcome of the analyses revealed that Nigeria has comparative advantage in the exportation of cocoa, based on the RCA and RSCA indices. The OLS estimates showed that world export volume, exchange rate and Nigerian cocoa output were determinants of cocoa export from Nigeria. As such, the study recommended that priority should be accorded to the rehabilitation of old cocoa farms and establishment of new ones as a means of sustaining output levels
    Report and Opinion. 01/2010; 7(2):51-54.
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    ABSTRACT: ExperimentalStation of Pastures and Forages „Indio Hatuey”, Central Republican Spain, Perico-Matanzas, Cuba
    Advances in Agriculture & Botanics. 01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: This paper assessed empirically Nigeria’s agricultural export and economic welfare. Data used for the study were obtained from secondary sources, bulk of which was collected from institutional and national databases over 1990-2005 and were analyzed using multiple regression and growth rate analysis. The results showed that agricultural output, inflation, subsidy, exchange rate, food import and export were statistically significant at various risk levels and have major implications on the economic welfare of Nigeria. Economic welfare was found to have grown at rate of 2.9% over the period and would be expected to reach N20, 480.64 million in 2010. The study suggested that Nigerian government should adopt appropriate monetary policies to ensure stability in the foreign exchange market in view of the bizarre implications of fluctuations on economic welfare.
    12/2008;
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    ABSTRACT: The Second National Fadama Development Project was borne out of the need to ensure all year round agricultural production using available Fadama resources in Nigeria and also a follow – up to Fadama 1 that was adjudged successful. Its approach was Community Driven Development (CDD) with emphasis on social inclusiveness and empowerment of the rural people to take charge of their development agenda. The Project focused on increasing sustainably the incomes of Fadama Users via empowerment in terms of capacity building, advisory services, acquisition of productive assets and rural infrastructure development. As at mid – term, beneficiaries have increased their income by about 25%. So far, an estimated 2.3 million Fadama households have benefited from the expansion in incomes and wealth (asset) derived from the previously unavailable services provided by the project. The project had created about 126, 000 permanent jobs and an additional savings of more than $40.8 million have been realized by the majority of the participating states.
    University Library of Munich, Germany, MPRA Paper. 01/2008;
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    Chima Innocent Ezeh, Onyema W Onwuka, Ifeanyi Ndubuto Nwachukwu
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    ABSTRACT: This paper investigated the correlates of inorganic fertilizer consumption among smallholder farmers in Abia State, Nigeria A multi – stage random sampling technique was employed in selected local government areas, communities and respondents from the three agricultural zones (Aba, Ohafia and Umuahia) of the state. The sample size was 150. The results of the linear functional model indicate that four (farmer incomes, farm experiences, transportation costs and price of 50kg fertilizer bag) out of the eight variables were key determinants of the smallholder farmers’ fertilizer consumption at 5% risk level. However the combined effects of all the variables explained 57.6 percent of the variations in the total fertilizer consumption rate of the smallholder farmers in Abia state Nigeria. Higher level of subsidy on fertilizer is recommended as a deliberate policy to increase the fertilizer consumption propensity of the smallholder farmers.
    University Library of Munich, Germany, MPRA Paper. 01/2008;
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    Ifeanyi N. Nwachukwu, Chima I. Ezeh
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    ABSTRACT: Rural development is a veritable tool for fighting poverty and achieving economic prosperity at the grassroots level. The concept of rural development embraced by most countries connotes a process through which rural poverty is alleviated by sustained increases in the productivity and incomes of low – income workers and households. The major thrust of this study was to examine the impact of selected rural development programmes in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria. The area under study was purposively selected because of its agricultural potential, high proportion of farmers as well as concentration of agricultural institutions. The selection of programmes for the study was impinged on their long years of existence. The study sought to determine the number of available rural development programmes with poverty alleviation objectives in the area; assess the extent of awareness and participation of rural people in the programmes; and examine the impact of the programmes on farmers’ income, farm size, production and productivity. Multi – stage random sampling method was employed in the selection of communities and respondents. A well-structured questionnaire was used to elicit responses on socio – economic characteristics and other relevant variables from a random sample of 160 respondents comprising beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries from Ikwuano local government of Abia state, Nigeria. The results showed that the rural development programmes which had poverty alleviation objectives impacted significantly on productivity and farm income at 5 percent level of probability. Awareness was perceptibly high while participation was more in Agricultural Development Programme (ADP), with an overwhelmingly percentage representation of about 79, than in others. Programme planners and implementers are therefore urged to intensify awareness creation among rural dwellers and adopt the use of community driven development approach (CDD) in the execution of
    University Library of Munich, Germany, MPRA Paper. 01/2007;
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    Ifeanyi Ndubuto Nwachukwu, Chris/E Onyenweaku
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this paper are to test the hypotheses of technical and price efficiency through estimating translog profit functions using the 1987-88 farm level survey data from the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan. The price efficiency hypothesis cannot be rejected while technical inefficiency is lowest for large sized farms. Despite the widespread use of family labor in NWFP, we find that there is no price inefficiency in the labor market when family labor is imputed at the appropriate wage rate. Moreover, there is no evidence of inefficiency in any of the input or output markets. This is plausible since the region is highly developed and a number of opportunities for work outside the family farm exist. Copyright 1993 by Oxford University Press.
    University Library of Munich, Germany, MPRA Paper. 01/2007;
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    Remy O. Mejeha, Ifeanyi N. Nwachukwu
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    ABSTRACT: The advocation of micro – financing was triggered by the poor performance of the conventional finance sector. The essence was to reach the overwhelming population of the poor to assist in the drive to alleviate poverty. Barely a million had been provided with some credit in Nigeria while a yawning 40 million poor people are yet to be attended to. In terms of supply, commercial and development finance institutions are in the fore front of the outfits that provide credits to the microfinance institutions. Despite their efforts, rates of interest, inequitable distribution of wealth and income and outreaching the poor constitute challenges to the operations. The establishment of microfinance institutions in Nigeria was based on weak institutional capacity, weak capital base, existence of a huge unserved market, utilization of SMEEIS fund among other things
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    Ifeanyi N. Nwachukwu, Chris E. Onyenweaku
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    ABSTRACT: The study investigated the allocative efficiency among Fadama Fluted pumpkin farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. It specifically sought to analyze the Farmers’ socio-economic profile; estimate their allocative efficiency as well as its determinants. A multistage random sample of 120 Fadama Fluted Pumpkin farmers drawn from the three agricultural zones of the state was employed. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-economic characteristics and other relevant variables. Allocative efficiency was deduced from the quotient between economic efficiency and technical efficiency scores and regressed against farm specific factors. The t-test statistic was employed in testing determinants of allocative efficiency. The descriptive statistical results showed that majority of the farmers are active small holders and literate with many years of farming experience. The enterprise was female dominated while household was large. The maximum likelihood estimation of the translog model revealed that allocative efficiency was influenced by education, farming experience, extension contact, credit access and household size. Given the mean allocative efficiency of 0.62, about 51.67% of the respondents are frontier farmers. Also, the average Fadama Fluted pumpkin farmer would require a cost savings of 37.37% in order to attain the status of the most allocative efficient producer. As more opportunities exist for improvement of allocative efficiency by the Fadama Farmers, the need to intensify the current family planning programme in Nigeria as well as eliminate extended bureaucratic processes associated with credit access cannot be over emphasized.

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