Publications

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    Udah Solomon Chinyere, Nwachukwu Ifeanyi Ndubuto, Akpan Brownson
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    ABSTRACT: In the last thirty years, the performance of the agricultural GDP in Nigeria has been decimally, declining from 64 percent share of gross domestic product (GDP) in 1960 to 44 percent in 2010. In response to this scenario, this study evaluated the performance of various policy regimes that managed the resources of Nigeria from 1961 to 2010. This is with the goal of identifying the regime that is the best in growing the agricultural sector for recommendation. The study estimated the exponential trend of the agricultural sector and analysed such growth under different policy regimes. Time series secondary data were used. Data analysis involved the use of exponential or log-linear trend. The result of the trend analysis confirmed deceleration of the agricultural sector. The result also showed that the period (1995-2010) of liberalization policy regime topped other policy regime periods in confirming acceleration in agricultural output growth. The result also showed that the mean growth of Agricultural GDP under liberalization policy regime fared better than the rest of the policy regimes. This implied that the liberalization policy is positively related to agricultural output growth and has some structures that could enhance growth. The study advocated for policy of accelerated investment on public goods that supports agricultural production and marketing such as development of human capital through education, rural infrastructure, irrigation and power supply. This is because the deceleration confirmed was as a result of sustained marginalization of the agricultural sector in the past. The study further recommended guided liberalization of the economy.
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    Ifeanyi Ndubuto Nwachukwu
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    ABSTRACT: The study examined the degree of competitiveness in the export demand for Nigerian rubber with focus on the Spanish Market. The study covered the periods of 1961 – 2010 and data comprised national aggregates. Two Stage Least Squares (2SLS) approach was used in the estimation after instrumenting for simultaneity and establishing stationarity cum cointegration relationship. The outcome of the analysis showed that the demand for Nigerian rubber by Spain was affected negatively by export price of the commodity and income of the importing country. The coefficients of export price of the substitute crop and world production excluding participating countries traced out a positive relationship. The result further showed that there is relative competitiveness in the Spanish market on the strength of the Lerner index of 0.015. The study recommends the allocation of more resources to the export crop through deliberate budgetary allocation to the producing states and exchange rate stabilization policies are strongly advocated among others
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    Ifeanyi Ndubuto Nwachukwu
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    ABSTRACT: The study analyzed the competitiveness of Nigerian cocoa (Theobroma cacao) in the Dutch market using the Error Correction Model (ECM) over 1961–2009 periods. Data were published in national aggregates on specific trade and macroeconomic variables from reputable sources. Prior to ECM es-timation, the variables were subjected to stationarity and cointegration tests before instrumenting for simultaneity. Findings showed that the cocoa exported was positively influenced by the quantity produced by non-participating countries, and negatively by the export price of cocoa and that of substitute crop in the long run. On the part of supply relation, cocoa exported had a negative sign implying decreasing marginal output with respect to cost in both long and short run. The coefficient of market power was -0.626 and -0.005, in the long and short run, respectively. Based on the findings, the study advocates intervention from government, private sector and donor agencies to revitalize the export capacity. RESUMEN Este estudio analizó la competitividad de la cocoa (Theobroma cacao) nigeriana en el mercado holandés usando el Modelo de Corrección de Error (ECM) en el período 1961-2009. La información usada fue publicada en compendios nacionales sobre comercio específico y variables macroeconó-micas de fuentes confiables. Antes de hacer la estimación del ECM, las variables se sometieron a pruebas de estacionalidad y de cointegración antes de aplicar la simultaneidad. Los resultados in-dicaron que la cocoa exportada fue afectada positivamente por la cantidad producida por los países no participantes, y negativamente en el largo plazo por el precio de exportación de la cocoa y de los cultivos sustitutos. En relación a la oferta, la cocoa exportada tuvo un signo negativo lo que implica incrementos marginales decrecientes con respecto al costo, tanto en el corto como en el largo plazo. El coeficiente de poder de mercado fue -0,626 y -0,005, en el largo y corto plazo, respectivamente. Basado en los resultados, el estudio sugiere la intervención del gobierno, del sector privado y de agencias donantes con el objeto de revitalizar la capacidad de exportación. Palabras clave: exportación, competitividad, mercado holandés, cocoa. Recibido: 27 junio 2012. Aceptado: 16 agosto 2012.
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    N Agwu, I N Nwachukwu, C I Anyanwu
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    ABSTRACT: The study analyzed the relative effect of climate variability on cassava production in Nigeria. It elicited secondary data from reputable sources such as Food and Agriculture Organization statistical data base (FAOSTAT); World Bank database; Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin and the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) for the 1960 – 2008. Multiple regression model was employed in the course of data analysis and the results showed that the climate variables had no significant effect on the output of cassava within the period under study. On the basis of the outcome, the study suggested mounting of intensive expansion programs to boost cassava production since the crop is not influenced by climate variability as part of efforts to revitalize Nigeria's export subsector and national income generation drive. INTRODUCTION Issues bordering on climate change and variability have become topical and occupy the center of many scientific studies. Some of these studies have shown significant impacts of climatic variability on agricultural activities; especially during the last 40 years (Ayanlade et al., 2010). It has been observed with dependable empirical evidence that the earth's climate has exhibited marked "natural" variations and changes, with time scales varying from many millions of years down to a few years. This results in changes in soil moisture, increase in mean sea level, and prospects for more severe extreme high temperature events, floods and droughts in many locations (IPCC, 2001). Climate change has been known as one among the range of risks affecting the food security of poor people and in developing countries (Parry et al., 2009). As the largest sector in Nigerian economy, agriculture is important because it contributes 42 percent to the country's Gross Domestic Product; employs about 80 percent of the country's poor who live in the rural areas and work predominantly in agriculture (NBS, 2006). Nigeria's agriculture also depends highly on climate because temperature, sunlight, water, relative humidity are the main drivers of crop growth and yield. Given the rain-fed nature of agriculture in Nigeria, the sector has been adjudged to be vulnerable to climate change and variability. Interest in cassava production, arises from its dominance in terms of production over other crops in Nigeria. Comparing its output with various crops in Nigeria, cassava production ranks first with 34 million metric tonnes, followed by yam production at 27 million tonnes in 2002, sorghum at 7 million tonnes, millet at 6 million tonnes, and rice at 5 million tonnes. Nigeria's cassava production is by far, the largest in the world; a third more than the production in Brazil and almost double the production of Indonesia and Thailand. Cassava production in other African countries such as the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Madagascar, Mozambique, Tanzania and Uganda appears small compared to Nigeria's substantial output of 34 million metric tonnes (FAO, 2007). The major advantage cassava has over other carbohydrate/starch crops is the variety of uses to which it can be put to. Each component of the crop is valuable. The leaves may be consumed as a vegetable, or cooked as a soup ingredient or dried and fed to livestock as a protein feed supplement. The stem is used for plant propagation and grafting, while the roots are typically processed for human and industrial consumption (IITA, 2005). In addition to being a feed source, cassava is also being used in the production of yeast and alcohol. It is demanded as a starch for various industrial purposes in the textile, plywood, paper and pharmaceutical industries. It could also serve as a source of ethanol for fuel. Cassava is also tolerant to soil infertility and drought stress. It is highly productive, it is available throughout the year, and can be processed into many foods, depending on local customs and preferences (IITA, 2005). However, crop yield and production is extremely susceptible to climate change and climate variability. It has been estimated that climate changes are likely to reduce yields and/or damage crops in the
    Gallup report (Princeton, N.J.: 1981) 09/2012; 4(2):11 - 14.
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    N Agwu, I N Nwachukwu, C I Anyanwu
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    ABSTRACT: The study analyzed the relative effect of climate variability on cassava production in Nigeria. It elicited secondary data from reputable sources such as Food and Agriculture Organization statistical data base (FAOSTAT); World Bank database; Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin and the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) for the 1960 – 2008. Multiple regression model was employed in the course of data analysis and the results showed that the climate variables had no significant effect on the output of cassava within the period under study. On the basis of the outcome, the study suggested mounting of intensive expansion programs to boost cassava production since the crop is not influenced by climate variability as part of efforts to revitalize Nigeria's export subsector and national income generation drive. INTRODUCTION Issues bordering on climate change and variability have become topical and occupy the center of many scientific studies. Some of these studies have shown significant impacts of climatic variability on agricultural activities; especially during the last 40 years (Ayanlade et al., 2010). It has been observed with dependable empirical evidence that the earth's climate has exhibited marked "natural" variations and changes, with time scales varying from many millions of years down to a few years. This results in changes in soil moisture, increase in mean sea level, and prospects for more severe extreme high temperature events, floods and droughts in many locations (IPCC, 2001). Climate change has been known as one among the range of risks affecting the food security of poor people and in developing countries (Parry et al., 2009). As the largest sector in Nigerian economy, agriculture is important because it contributes 42 percent to the country's Gross Domestic Product; employs about 80 percent of the country's poor who live in the rural areas and work predominantly in agriculture (NBS, 2006). Nigeria's agriculture also depends highly on climate because temperature, sunlight, water, relative humidity are the main drivers of crop growth and yield. Given the rain-fed nature of agriculture in Nigeria, the sector has been adjudged to be vulnerable to climate change and variability. Interest in cassava production, arises from its dominance in terms of production over other crops in Nigeria. Comparing its output with various crops in Nigeria, cassava production ranks first with 34 million metric tonnes, followed by yam production at 27 million tonnes in 2002, sorghum at 7 million tonnes, millet at 6 million tonnes, and rice at 5 million tonnes. Nigeria's cassava production is by far, the largest in the world; a third more than the production in Brazil and almost double the production of Indonesia and Thailand. Cassava production in other African countries such as the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Madagascar, Mozambique, Tanzania and Uganda appears small compared to Nigeria's substantial output of 34 million metric tonnes (FAO, 2007). The major advantage cassava has over other carbohydrate/starch crops is the variety of uses to which it can be put to. Each component of the crop is valuable. The leaves may be consumed as a vegetable, or cooked as a soup ingredient or dried and fed to livestock as a protein feed supplement. The stem is used for plant propagation and grafting, while the roots are typically processed for human and industrial consumption (IITA, 2005). In addition to being a feed source, cassava is also being used in the production of yeast and alcohol. It is demanded as a starch for various industrial purposes in the textile, plywood, paper and pharmaceutical industries. It could also serve as a source of ethanol for fuel. Cassava is also tolerant to soil infertility and drought stress. It is highly productive, it is available throughout the year, and can be processed into many foods, depending on local customs and preferences (IITA, 2005). However, crop yield and production is extremely susceptible to climate change and climate variability. It has been estimated that climate changes are likely to reduce yields and/or damage crops in the
  • NM Agwu, CC Eke, IN Nwachukwu, IV Ogbu
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    ABSTRACT: This paper is on the economic analysis of farm gate plantain marketing in Abia state, Nigeria. The study adopted a multi-stage random sampling technique. However, three local government areas of Bende, Ikwuano and Isiukwuato were purposively selected based on the fact that they are the major producers of plantain in the state. Four communities were then selected from the 3 LGAs. This gave a total of 12 communities. The next stage was the selection of 5 farm families from each of the 12 communities, giving a total of 60 respondents. For the selection of the middlemen and consumers, three urban local government areas of Umuahia North, Umuahia South and Aba North were selected purposively. 10 wholesalers, retailers and consumers were also randomly selected from these urban areas. This gave a total of 90 respondents. In all, 150 respondents were used for the study. Data were obtained by the use of questionnaire and were later analyzed using marketing margin and multiple regression. The result of the analysis showed that the margin for retailers were more than those of the producers and wholesalers. Output price was found to be positive and significant in determining profitability. Labour and fertilizer had negative relationship with profitability. It was recommended that costs of inputs be reduced as well as making information accessible to the producers.
    07/2011; 10(2). DOI:10.4314/jasr.v10i2.67576
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    ABSTRACT: The study examined the degree of market power in the export demand for Nigerian Cocoa with focus on the Dutch Market. The study covered the periods of 1961–2007 and data comprised published national aggregates on specific trade and macroeconomic variables from reputable sources. Two Stage Least Squares (2 SLS) approach was used in the estimation after instrumenting for simultaneity and establishing stationarity alongside cointegration relationship. Findings, on the demand side, showed that the demand for cocoa increases as income of Netherlands (importing country) increases. Total production of the non–participating countries traced out a positive relationship with demand for cocoa by the importing country while the coefficient of price of Coffee (substitute crop) possessed a negative sign. On the supply relation side, the demand for the export crop has a negative sign, indicating decreasing marginal output with respect to cost while the proxy for ocean freight rate with its negative sign, imply increasing export cost. The result further showed that there is relative competitiveness in the Dutch market on the strength of a market power coefficient -0.712 with a Lerner index of 0.122. Based on the findings, the study calls for government intervention in the agricultural export subsector with the aim to revitalize the country’s agricultural export capacity and enhance her market power via increased market shares. These interventions could be in the form of input/production subsidies, targeted export promotion programs, farm settlement, expanded export processing zones to mention but a few.
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    N M Agwu, I N Nwachukwu, B C Okoye
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    ABSTRACT: Food crises triggered by high prices had been experienced in agricultural markets in the past. However, the current state of agricultural markets has raised a lot of concerns to policy makers, media, the public and all stakeholders. This is against the background of the fact that only a selected few crops were affected but nearly all major food and feed commodities were involved. It was observed that between late December 2006 and December 2007 there was an increase in the value of price index rising up to 37 percent. This paper reviewed some of the reasons for the price increase, consequences to the vulnerable, particularly in Nigeria where over 60 percent of the population live below poverty line and the associated widening inequalities. It also proffered solutions through some policy shifts and instrumentality of agricultural production and marketing which includes increased funding and investment in agricultural research and development among others.
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    I. N. Nwachukwu, R. O. Mejeha, E. Kalu
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    ABSTRACT: This study assessed the managerial efficiency among agribusiness firms in Abia state, Nigeria with specific interest in analyzing their socio – economic characteristics, managerial efficiency levels and its determinants. Purposive sampling technique was used in the selection of locations and firms. Aba and Umuahia were selected given that most of the commercial firms are located. The study employed 50 firms on the basis of their investment value (less N5m).Descriptive statistics and stochastic frontier model were the analytical tools for the study. The result showed that majority of the firms were well established and managed by middle aged, sparingly literate and experienced managers with an appreciable income level and sizable household. The efficiency level of the managers was 0.62 on the average and managerial efficiency was found to be influenced positively by age of the firm, age, income, education of the managers. Efficiency was negatively affected by the household size of the managers. On the basis of the findings, the study suggested that periodic trainings and capacity building programs be organized for the managers to enhance their expertise and managerial competence.
    01/2011; 1:167 - 170. DOI:10.7763/IJSSH.2011.V1.29
  • Nwachukwu, I.N, N.M. Agwu, N. Onyemauwa
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    ABSTRACT: The study examined the socio-economic determinants of profitability among pig farmers in Abia State, Nigeria. Specifically, it described the socio-economic characteristics of the farmers and assessed their influence on profitability of pig enterprise in the study area. Purposive sampling technique was employed in the selection of respondents from the three agricultural zones that make up the state, and data obtained were through a set of questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression were used in analyzing the data. The findings showed that majority of the farmers were middle aged, fairly literate and earned reasonably high income with a relatively bloated household size. Cost of variable inputs, farm experience and farm income were found to be major determinants of profitability in the enterprise. Among other things, it is suggested that government should expand the subsidy regime to accommodate the livestock sub-sector in Nigeria in order to reduce the cost of variable inputs.
  • N.M. Agwu, I.N. Nwachukwu, M.O. Nmeregini
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    ABSTRACT: This paper assessed the factors influencing the participation of cassava farmers in Abia State, Nigeria in the acquisition and use of improved cassava stems and fertilizers in their farming operations. One hundred and eighty cassava farmers from the three agricultural zones of the state were randomly selected and administered with questionnaire. Tobit model was used in analyzing the data collected. The findings showed that none of the farmers used agrochemicals and tractors in their farming operations. Tobit result indicated that distance from the house of the farmers to the place of purchase, farm income, availability of cassava stems, and farm size influenced farmers’ access to cassava stems in the study area at 1 and 5 percent significant level. While, distance from farmers’ house to the place of purchase, availability of fertilizer, price of fertilizer, rate of use and farm size were all positive and significant at 1 percent level in determining access to fertilizer. It was recommended that inputs should always be made available to the farmers even before the onset of each farming season, price reduction of the inputs as well as bringing the sales centres close to the farmers among others. Key words: Access, cassava stems, fertilizer, input, market participation
  • IN Nwachukwu, MU Umezuruike, EO Effiong
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    ABSTRACT: The greatest constraints of commercial poultry production in Nigeria and other developing countries are low technology inputs, low productivity, poultry disease, poor breeds of poultry, unbalanced feeding of poultry and low level of education of poultry farmers. The study focused on the determinants and impacts of poultry technologies on productivity of farmers in Abia State, Nigeria. In its approach, random sampling technique was employed with a respondent capacity of 100 poultry farmers comprising both adopters and non – adopters of poultry technologies. Data were collected using structured questionnaire while analytical tools used were multiple regression analysis and paired t –test statistic. The findings showed that age, rearing experience, Total Variable cost, depreciation and household size stood out as the major determinants of productivity while impacts were felt on output, household size, labour used and farm income of the adopters. Intensification of farmer education and training (extension) and family planning campaigns were suggested by the study as a means of consolidating the gains of the impact.
    04/2010; 5(1). DOI:10.4314/gaep.v5i1.50166
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    C.E. ONYENWEAKU, I.N. NWACHUKWU, T.C. OPARA
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    ABSTRACT: Agriculture plays pivotal roles in Nigeria including food security, employment, foreign exchange earnings and poverty reduction. This study examined the growth in food crop productivity in Imo State in Nigeria with emphasis on the decomposition of total factor productivity (TFP) into technical progress, changes in technical and allocative efficiency and scale effects. A panel data set comprising 210 observations drawn over 2001 – 2007 periods was used. Using the translog stochastic frontier production function, the decomposition components were computed. The results showed that TFP decreased through time, while technical change was negative, implying downward shift of the production frontier. As a major component, technical change was the main constraint to the achievement of high levels of TFP during the study period. The scale effect, which is generally bigger than technical change component shows that the sampled farms had not taken advantage of scale economies. Furthermore, the allocative efficiency had an average magnitude closer to the scale effect and points towards decreases in the efficiency with which production factors are allocated. This is an indication of a decline in technical efficiency. We suggest reforms in the Agricultural Development Programmes (ADPs) geared towards enhancing their capacity in extending novel technologies and innovations to farmers.
    01/2010; 18:89 - 95. DOI:10.4314/acsj.v18i3.68636
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    ABSTRACT: ExperimentalStation of Pastures and Forages „Indio Hatuey”, Central Republican Spain, Perico-Matanzas, Cuba
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    Ifeanyi N. Nwachukwu, C. Samuel Alamba, Oko-Isu Anthony
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    ABSTRACT: Utilization and repayment of borrowed agricultural funds has been one of the numerous ofagricultural development in the developing world and Nigeria is no exception. As such, this studydelved into the determinants of loan repayment performance among farmers in Afikpo North LocalGovernment Area (LGA) of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. The study employed purposive sampling techniquein the selection of location and respondents. A sample of 100 small holder agricultural loanbeneficiaries from Nigeria Agricultural Cooperative and Rural Development Bank (NACRDB) served asrespondents for the study. A set of pretested and structured questionnaire was used to elicit data andinformation from the respondents. Data were analyzed using discriminant analysis. The discriminantfunction analysis result showed that 72% of the beneficiaries were operating performing loans while28% were non-performing loan beneficiaries. On the basis of the results, the study suggestedextensive loan periods and adoption of income support measures as panacea for efficient creditdelivery and utilization among farmers.
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    Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi Ndubuto, Nnanna Agwu, Jude Nwaru, George Imonikhe
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    ABSTRACT: Since the introduction of Cocoa into Nigeria in about 1874, it has grown to become the fourth largest exporter in the world with production level, reaching 385, 000 metric tonnes per annum. In view of Nigeria’s significant contribution and export capacity to the world volume, the study examined the competitiveness by assessing her export performance and determinants of cocoa export from Nigeria. The Revealed Comparative Analysis (RCA) and multiple regression were employed as analytical tools using data set from various institutional sources that ranged from 1990 to 2005. The outcome of the analyses revealed that Nigeria has comparative advantage in the exportation of cocoa, based on the RCA and RSCA indices. The OLS estimates showed that world export volume, exchange rate and Nigerian cocoa output were determinants of cocoa export from Nigeria. As such, the study recommended that priority should be accorded to the rehabilitation of old cocoa farms and establishment of new ones as a means of sustaining output levels
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    ABSTRACT: This paper assessed empirically Nigeria’s agricultural export and economic welfare. Data used for the study were obtained from secondary sources, bulk of which was collected from institutional and national databases over 1990-2005 and were analyzed using multiple regression and growth rate analysis. The results showed that agricultural output, inflation, subsidy, exchange rate, food import and export were statistically significant at various risk levels and have major implications on the economic welfare of Nigeria. Economic welfare was found to have grown at rate of 2.9% over the period and would be expected to reach N20, 480.64 million in 2010. The study suggested that Nigerian government should adopt appropriate monetary policies to ensure stability in the foreign exchange market in view of the bizarre implications of fluctuations on economic welfare.
  • CI Ezeh, OW Onwuka, IN Nwachukwu
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    ABSTRACT: This paper investigated the correlates of inorganic fertilizer consumption among smallholder farmers in Abia State, Nigeria A multi – stage random sampling technique was employed in selected local government areas, communities and respondents from the three agricultural zones (Aba, Ohafia and Umuahia) of the state. The sample size was 150. The results of the linear functional model indicate that four (farmer incomes, farm experiences, transportation costs and price of 50kg fertilizer bag) out of the eight variables were key determinants of the smallholder farmers\' fertilizer consumption at 5% risk level. However the combined effects of all the variables explained 57.6 percent of the variations in the total fertilizer consumption rate of the smallholder farmers in Abia state Nigeria. Higher level of subsidy on fertilizer is recommended as a deliberate policy to increase the fertilizer consumption propensity of the smallholder farmers.
    08/2008; 8(1). DOI:10.4314/jasr.v8i1.2886
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    ABSTRACT: The Second National Fadama Development Project was borne out of the need to ensure all year round agricultural production using available Fadama resources in Nigeria and also a follow – up to Fadama 1 that was adjudged successful. Its approach was Community Driven Development (CDD) with emphasis on social inclusiveness and empowerment of the rural people to take charge of their development agenda. The Project focused on increasing sustainably the incomes of Fadama Users via empowerment in terms of capacity building, advisory services, acquisition of productive assets and rural infrastructure development. As at mid – term, beneficiaries have increased their income by about 25%. So far, an estimated 2.3 million Fadama households have benefited from the expansion in incomes and wealth (asset) derived from the previously unavailable services provided by the project. The project had created about 126, 000 permanent jobs and an additional savings of more than $40.8 million have been realized by the majority of the participating states.
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    Chima Innocent Ezeh, Onyema W Onwuka, Ifeanyi Ndubuto Nwachukwu
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    ABSTRACT: This paper investigated the correlates of inorganic fertilizer consumption among smallholder farmers in Abia State, Nigeria A multi – stage random sampling technique was employed in selected local government areas, communities and respondents from the three agricultural zones (Aba, Ohafia and Umuahia) of the state. The sample size was 150. The results of the linear functional model indicate that four (farmer incomes, farm experiences, transportation costs and price of 50kg fertilizer bag) out of the eight variables were key determinants of the smallholder farmers’ fertilizer consumption at 5% risk level. However the combined effects of all the variables explained 57.6 percent of the variations in the total fertilizer consumption rate of the smallholder farmers in Abia state Nigeria. Higher level of subsidy on fertilizer is recommended as a deliberate policy to increase the fertilizer consumption propensity of the smallholder farmers.

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