Publications

  • Journal of Urology - J UROL. 01/2010; 183(4).
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    ABSTRACT: The Ras-MAPK pathway is important to orchestrating a cell's response to external and internal stimuli. This pathway is commonly dysregulated in cancer, including bladder cancer. Multiple components of this complex pathway have been identified as potential targets for drug development. After initial preclinical studies many drugs targeting the Ras-MAPK pathway are being studied in phase II clinical trials for advanced bladder cancer either alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. Drugs presently in clinical trials inhibit the tyrosine kinases, including FGFR, EGFR, ERBB2, and PDGF, either through small molecule tyrosine kinase, dual kinase or farnesyltransferase inhibitors. Recent drug patents targeting the Ras-MAPK pathway in cancer are becoming more selective with the potential for improved therapeutic response and better toxicity as compared to the more universal MAPK pathway inhibitors. In the present review we summarize the importance of the Ras-MAPK pathway in cancer with a focus on bladder cancer and discuss current drugs and recent patents (2004-2008) that target this important pathway in bladder cancer.
    Recent patents on anti-cancer drug discovery. 07/2009; 4(2):125-36.
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    ABSTRACT: Programmed cell death, or apoptosis, plays an important role during normal development, and is disrupted in a range of disease states. Although the key molecular events that occur during apoptosis are well characterized, less is known about the regulatory inputs that influence whether a cell will live or die. Work in mouse and human cells has shown that Pax transcription factors can influence cell death and promote cell survival, but the mechanism for their activity is not clear. Here, we show that two Pax2/5/8-related genes (egl-38 and pax-2) influence both somatic and germline cell death in C. elegans. Using genetic and molecular experiments, we show that the Pax proteins act as transcriptional regulators of ced-9, the C. elegans bcl-2 gene. These results identify a mechanism for Pax2/5/8-mediated regulation of cell death, and underscore the importance of transcriptional regulation of core apoptotic pathway genes in influencing cell survival.
    Development 12/2006; 133(21):4193-202. · 6.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Caenorhabditis elegans basic leucine zipper (bZip) protein CES-2 regulates the transcription of different genes in different cells. Here, we show that CES-2 mediates its effects in one cell (the excretory duct cell) together with another bZip protein, ATF-2. Both proteins influence transactivation of a target gene, lin-48. Although lin-48 is required for both anatomical and physiological features of the excretory duct cell, ces-2 and atf-2 mutants only exhibit anatomical defects. We show that CES-2 and ATF-2 modify the temporal transcription of lin-48, acting to initiate embryonic expression required for normal excretory system development and anatomy. In contrast, CES-2 and ATF-2 do not influence post-embryonic lin-48 expression. We provide evidence that CES-2 and ATF-2 can interact with each other, and that they cooperate to form a complex on lin-48 regulatory sequences. Thus, the two bZip proteins function together as one of several inputs that influence the spatial and temporal regulation of lin-48.
    Developmental Biology 02/2006; 289(2):456-65. · 3.87 Impact Factor

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