Publications

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    ABSTRACT: Constitutional t(11;22)(q23;q11) is the most frequent recurrent non-Robertsonian translocation in humans. Balanced carriers of t(11;22) usually manifest no clinical symptoms, and are often identified after the birth of offspring with an unbalanced form of this translocation, known as Emanuel syndrome. To determine the prevalence of the disorder, we sent surveillance questionnaires to 735 core hospitals in Japan. The observed number of Emanuel syndrome cases was 36 and of t(11;22) balanced translocation carriers was 40. On the basis of the de novo t(11;22) translocation frequency in sperm from healthy males, we calculated the frequency of the translocations in the general population. Accordingly, the prevalence of Emanuel syndrome was estimated at 1 in 110,000. Based on this calculation, the estimated number of Emanuel syndrome cases in Japan is 1,063 and of t(11;22) balanced translocation carriers is 16,604, which are much higher numbers than those calculated from our questionnaire responses. It is possible that this discordance is partly attributable to a lack of disease identification. Further efforts should be made to increase the awareness of Emanuel syndrome to ensure a better quality of life for affected patients and their families.
    Pediatrics International 07/2014; · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been unclear whether chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus-6 (ciHHV-6) can be activated with pathogenic effects on the human body. We present molecular and virological evidence of ciHHV-6A activation in a patient with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency. These findings have significant implications for the management of patients with ciHHV-6.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 05/2014; · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Kidneys procured by donation after cardiac death (DCD) may increase the donor pool but are associated with high incidence of delayed graft function (DGF). Urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) level is an early biomarker of renal injury after kidney transplantation (KTx); however, its utility is limited in DGF cases owing to urine sample unavailability. We examined whether serum L-FABP level predicts functional recovery of transplanted DCD kidneys. Consecutive patients undergoing Ktx from living-related donors (LD), brain-dead donors (BD), or DCD were retrospectively enrolled. Serum L-FABP levels were measured from samples collected before and after KTx. Serum L-FABP decreased rapidly in patients with immediate function, slowly in DGF patients, and somewhat increased in DGF patients requiring HD for >1 week. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that DGF was predicted with 84% sensitivity (SE) and 86% specificity (SP) at cutoff of 9.0 ng/mL on postoperative day (POD) 1 and 68% SE and 90% SP at 6.0 on POD 2. DGF >7 days was predicted with 83% SE and 78% SP at 11.0 on POD 1 and 67% SE and 78% SP at 6.5 on POD 2. Serum L-FABP levels may predict graft recovery and need for HD after DCD KTx.
    Clinical Transplantation 04/2014; · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Copy number abnormalities such as deletions and duplications give rise to a variety of medical problems and also manifest innocuous genomic variations. Aberrant DNA replication is suggested as the mechanism underlying de novo copy number abnormalities, but the precise details have remained unknown. In our present study, we analyzed the del(2)(q13q14.2) chromosomal junction site observed in a woman with a recurrent pregnancy loss. Microarray analyses allowed us to precisely demarcate a 2.8 Mb deletion in this case, which does not appear in the database of human genomic variations. This deletion includes only one brain-specific gene that could not be related to the reproduction failure of the patient. At the junction of the deletion, we found that 11-13-nucleotide sequence, originally located at the proximal breakpoint region, was repeated four times with a single-nucleotide microhomology at the joint between each repeat. The proximal region and the distal region was finally joined with six-nucleotide microhomology. The structure of the junction is consistent with backward replication slippage proposed previously. Our data lend support to the notion that a common DNA replication-mediated pathway generates copy number variation in the human genome.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 20 March 2014; doi:10.1038/jhg.2014.20.
    Journal of Human Genetics 03/2014; · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a rare case with pheochromocytoma as the first manifestation of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A with RET mutation S891A. Bilateral pheochromocytomas were identified in a 54-year-old woman. Screening for RET revealed a rare S891A mutation located in the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. This mutation was previously recognized as one of the mutations only in cases manifesting solely medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTCs). Since calcitonin stimulation test indicated positive result, total thyroidectomy was performed 1 year after the bilateral adrenalectomy, and C-cell hyperplasia was diagnosed by histopathological examination. Our report suggests that cases with S891A mutation, akin to those with other RET mutations, require screening for pheochromocytoma. In addition, it is indicated that calcitonin stimulation test should be performed even in the unaffected elder cases with S891A mutation although the mutation is classified as lowest risk group on MTC in guidelines.
    Surgery Today 01/2014; · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Approximately 1 percent of healthy individuals carry human herpesvirus-6 within a host chromosome. This is referred to as chromosomally integrated herpesvirus-6 (CIHHV-6). In this study, we investigated the chromosomal integration site in six individuals harboring CIHHV-6B. Using FISH, we found that HHV-6B signals are consistently located at the telomeric region. The proximal endpoints of the integrated virus were mapped at one of two telomere-repeat-like sequences (TRSs) within the DR-R in all cases. In two cases, we isolated junction fragments between the viral TRS and human telomere repeats. The distal endpoints were mapped at the distal TRS in all cases. The size of the distal TRS was found to be ~5 kb which is sufficient to fulfill cellular telomeric functions. We conclude that the viral TRS in the DR regions fulfill dual functions for CIHHV-6: homology-mediated integration into the telomeric region of the chromosome and neo-telomere formation that is then stably transmitted.
    Scientific Reports 01/2014; 4:4559. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aneuploidy in fetal chromosomes is one of the causes of pregnancy loss and of congenital birth defects. It is known that the frequency of oocyte aneuploidy increases with the human maternal age. Recent data have highlighted the contribution of cohesin complexes in the correct segregation of meiotic chromosomes. In mammalian oocytes, cohesion is established during the fetal stages and meiosis-specific cohesin subunits are not replenished after birth, raising the possibility that the long meiotic arrest of oocytes facilitates a deterioration of cohesion that leads to age-related increases in aneuploidy. We here examined the cohesin levels in dictyate oocytes from different age groups of humans and mice by immunofluorescence analyses of ovarian sections. The meiosis-specific cohesin subunits, REC8 and SMC1B, were found to be decreased in women aged 40 and over compared with those aged around 20 years (P<0.01). Age-related decreases in meiotic cohesins were also evident in mice. Interestingly, SMC1A, the mitotic counterpart of SMC1B, was substantially detectable in human oocytes, but little expressed in mice. Further, the amount of mitotic cohesins of mice slightly increased with age. These results suggest that, mitotic and meiotic cohesins may operate in a coordinated way to maintain cohesions over a sustained period in humans and that age-related decreases in meiotic cohesin subunits impair sister chromatid cohesion leading to increased segregation errors.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(5):e96710. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Tamae Ohye, Hiroki Kurahashi
    Nippon Geka Gakkai zasshi 01/2014; 115(1):34-8.
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    ABSTRACT: It has emerged that palindrome-mediated genomic instability generates DNA-based rearrangements. The presence of palindromic AT-rich repeats (PATRRs) at the translocation breakpoints suggested a palindrome-mediated mechanism in the generation of several recurrent constitutional rearrangements: the t(11;22), t(17;22) and t(8;22). To date, all reported PATRR mediated translocations include the PATRR on chromosome 22 (PATRR22) as a translocation partner. Here, the constitutional rearrangement, t(3;8)(p14.2;q24.1), segregating with renal cell carcinoma in two families, is examined. The chromosome 8 breakpoint lies in PATRR8 in the first intron of the RNF139 (TRC8) gene while the chromosome 3 breakpoint is located in an AT-rich palindromic sequence in intron 3 of the FHIT gene (PATRR3). Thus, the t(3;8) is the first PATRR-mediated, recurrent, constitutional translocation that does not involve PATRR22. Furthermore, similar to the t(11;22) and t(8;22), we detect de novo translocations involving PATRR3 in normal sperm. The breakpoint on chromosome 3 is in proximity to FRA3B, the most common fragile site in the human genome and a site of frequent deletions in tumor cells. However, the lack of involvement of PATRR3 sequence in numerous FRA3B-related deletions suggests that there are several different DNA sequence based etiologies responsible for chromosome 3p14.2 genomic rearrangements.
    Cancer Genetics 01/2014; · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is the only virus known to integrate into human chromosomes and be transmitted from parents to offspring. Less than 1% of the population carries integrated HHV-6 in their genomes. Here, we report the case of a 9-year-old Japanese girl with an extraordinarily high copy number of HHV-6B in her genome. The integrated virus genome was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in cerebrospinal fluid and serum during the treatment of meningoencephalitis and pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Furthermore, the HHV-6B genome was detected in hair follicle, plasma, and whole blood in the patient and her mother, but not in the patient's father. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that the viral genome was integrated into chromosome 22. Therefore, these results emphasize the importance of screening for chromosomally integrated HHV-6 prior to starting unnecessary antiviral therapies, particularly for patients harboring HHV-6 with a high copy number.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 12/2013; · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidences suggest RET involvement in development of the kidney in mice and humans. Although it is well known that RET mutation causes multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A), thus far only 3 individuals have been reported to have MEN2A and renal agenesis/dysgenesis. We report a MEN2A family with RET mutation in which two asymptomatic carriers presented with unilateral renal agenesis. A 48-year-old woman underwent total thyroidectomy with regional lymph node dissection in our department for medullary thyroid carcinoma. She had earlier surgical treatment for a left adrenal pheochromocytoma at the age of 45. In the screening for MEN type 2 for her three sons, a CT scan for adrenal pheochromocytoma incidentally found unilateral renal agenesis in two of the sons, one of whom had suffered from Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR). They had contralateral kidneys exhibiting compensatory hypertrophy and normal renal function. Genetic analysis detected C618R RET mutation in the proband and her 3 sons, and no other mutations were found in RET as well as glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Our data lend support to the hypothesis that constitutive active RET mutation in MEN type 2 might partially impair RET function and thereby cause loss of function phenotype such as renal agenesis or HSCR.
    Endocrine Journal 10/2013; · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A common haplotype M2 consisting of minor SNP alleles located in the ANXA5 gene promoter region has been described as a risk factor for various obstetric complications such as recurrent pregnancy loss, pre-eclampsia and pregnancy-related thrombophilic disorder. However, the question of whether it is the maternal or fetal genotype that contributes to the onset of these disorders remains to be resolved. We analyzed ANXA5 gene variants in the blood and placental tissues from pre-eclampsia patients and normotensive controls. ANXA5 expression was examined by qRT-PCR, Western blotting and immunostaining. Results were compared between M2 and non-M2 carriers. The M2 haplotype was found to be significantly frequent in placentas from pre-eclamptic patients relative to the controls (25.5% versus 10%, P = 0.044), In contrast, no significant differences were observed in maternal blood (13.0% versus 11.3%, P = 0.597). The placental expression of ANXA5 mRNA was found to be lower in M2 carriers. When examined by Western blot and immunostaining, the ANXA5 protein levels were found to be affected more by the placental than the maternal genotype. Histological examination of the placentas from the pre-eclamptic patients demonstrated that a placental M2 haplotype correlated more closely than maternal M2 with the severity of perivillous fibrin deposition. Although preliminary, these results suggest that hypomorphic M2 alleles in the in placental ANXA5 promoter, whether transmitted maternally or paternally, might be an essential determinant of an increased risk of pre-eclampsia via local thrombophilia at the feto-maternal interface.
    Placenta 10/2013; · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) deficiency is an autosomal recessive type of combined immunodeficiency with elevated IgE. In this report, we describe a Japanese girl of non-consanguineous family suffering from acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) as a presenting feature of DOCK8 deficiency. Although AEP was self-limiting, consecutively experienced recurrent respiratory infections, severe atopic dermatitis, and vulnerability to viral infections, prompted us to evaluate the possibility of DOCK8 deficiency. Immunological assessments demonstrated decreased IgM, increased IgE, T lymphocytepenia, especially in CD4 T cells, decreased PHA blastogenesis, and decreased CD27(+) CD19(+) memory B cells. Western blotting revealed the absence of DOCK8 protein. Investigation of genomic DNA by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) revealed a heterozygous large deletion of 77 kb spanning from intron 5 to exon 22. DOCK8 cDNA sequencing revealed a nonsense mutation at position 740 (E740X). As far as we know, this is the first Japanese case of DOCK8 deficiency. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Pulmonology 09/2013; · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using a very high-resolution oligonucleotide array for copy number variant (CNV) screening of samples comprising schizophrenic patients, we detected a novel CNV within the critical region (NCBI36/hg18, Chr7: 158,630,410-158,719,410) previously shown to be associated with schizophrenia. We investigated the association between the novel CNV identified in the current study and schizophrenia. Three independent samples were used: (1) Screening set, 300 Japanese schizophrenic patients (53.28 ± 14.66 years); (2) Confirmation set, 531 schizophrenic patients (46.03 ± 12.15 years); and (3) 711 healthy controls (47.12 ± 11.03 years). All subjects enrolled in the study were Japanese. Chromosomal position was determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization. We identified a novel duplication within the region associated with schizophrenia identified on 7q36.3 that is adjacent to VIPR2 and is not associated with schizophrenia. In the Japanese population, the 35-kb region that harbors the common, novel CNV should be excluded from the region associated with schizophrenia on 7q36.3.
    Scientific Reports 09/2013; 3:2587. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: It is well documented that anti-angiogenic factors are likely to play essential roles in the etiology of pre-eclampsia. Apelin is a small peptide that may potentially act as an angiogenic factor. The expression of apelin was examined at the RNA and protein levels in this study. Methods: We compared the expression of apelin, examined using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunostaining, between pre-eclamptic patients and normotensive controls. Results: Apelin messenger RNA is significantly decreased in pre-eclamptic placentas compared with normotensive pregnancies (p < 0.05). Apelin protein levels are also lower in pre-eclamptic placentas than the controls but higher in the maternal circulation in pre-eclampsia patients. Immunohistochemical signals for apelin and its receptor APJ were detected mainly in the cytoplasm of syncytiotrophoblasts in chorionic villi and trophoblast-lineage cells in the decidua of term placentas. In early gestation, stronger APJ signals were observed at the cellular membrane. Conclusions: A functional role of the apelin--APJ system is likely in early gestation, and this raises the possibility that a dysfunctional apelin--APJ system contributes to the onset of pre-eclampsia via decreased angiogenic activity in placental implantation.
    Hypertension in Pregnancy 07/2013; · 0.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Secreted by the placental trophoblast, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is an important hormone during pregnancy and is required for the maintenance of pregnancy. Previous studies have shown that dys-regulation of hCG expression is associated with preeclampsia. However, the exact relationship between altered hCG levels and development of preeclampsia is unknown. Metastasis associated protein 3 (MTA3), a chromatin remodeling protein, is abundantly expressed in the placental trophoblasts, but its function is unknown. Inbreast cancer, MTA3 has been shown to repress the expression of Snail and cell migration. However, whether MTA3 acts similarly in the trophoblast has not been investigated. In the present study, we examined the role of MTA3 in regulating the hCG β-subunit gene (gene name: CGB5) and Snail expression in the trophoblast cell line, BeWo, as well as its relevance to the high hCG expression levels seen in preeclampsia. First, we investigated MTA3 expression in preeclamptic placenta as compared to normal control placenta via gene expression microarray and qRT-PCR and found that MTA3 was significantly down-regulated, whereas both CGB5 and Snail were up-regulated in preeclamptic placenta. Secondly, we knocked down MTA3 gene in trophoblast cell line BeWo and found Snail and hCG were both up-regulated, suggesting that MTA3 represses Snail and hCG gene expression in trophoblasts.Next, we cloned the CGB5 and Snail promoters into the pGL3-basic vector individually and found that silencing of MTA3 by siRNA resulted in an increase of both CGB5 and Snail promoter activities. To confirm that this MTA3 inhibition is a direct effect, we performed a chromatin immune-precipitation (ChIP) assay and found that MTA3 occupied the proximal promoter regions of both Snail and HCG within BeWo cells. Furthermore, we examined MTA3 expression in placental trophoblast by immunohistochemistry and found that MTA3 expression was higher in villous cytotrophoblasts versus syncytiotrophoblasts, which supports an inverse association of MTA3 with hCG expression. Lastly, using the well-characterized trophoblast fusion model, we examined MTA3 and hCG levels in forskolin-treated BeWo cells and found that MTA3 down-regulation was accompanied by an up-regulation of hCG. These data further suggest that MTA3 is repressing placental hCG expression. In summary: MTA3 plays a critical role in repressing hCG and Snail in placenta trophoblast and its deregulation is associated with preeclampsia.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 03/2013; · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gross chromosomal rearrangements (GCRs), such as translocations, deletions or inversions, are often generated by illegitimate repair between two DNA breakages at regions with nucleotide sequences that might potentially adopt a non-B DNA conformation. We previously established a plasmid-based model system that recapitulates palindrome-mediated recurrent chromosomal translocations in humans, and demonstrated that cruciform DNA conformation is required for the translocation-like rearrangements. Here we show that two sequential reactions that cleave the cruciform structures give rise to the translocation: GEN1-mediated resolution that cleaves diagonally at the four-way junction of the cruciform and Artemis-mediated opening of the subsequently formed hairpin ends. Indeed, translocation products in human sperm reveal the remnants of this two-step mechanism. These two intrinsic pathways that normally fulfil vital functions independently, Holliday-junction resolution in homologous recombination and coding joint formation in rearrangement of antigen-receptor genes, act upon the unusual DNA conformation in concert and lead to a subset of recurrent GCRs in humans.
    Nature Communications 03/2013; 4:1592. · 10.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Meiotic chromosome segregation requires homologous pairing, synapsis and crossover recombination during meiotic prophase. The checkpoint kinase ATR has been proposed to be involved in the quality surveillance of these processes, although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In our present study, we generated mice lacking HORMAD2, a protein that localizes to unsynapsed meiotic chromosomes. We show that this Hormad2 deficiency hampers the proper recruitment of ATR activity to unsynapsed chromosomes. Male Hormad2-deficient mice are infertile due to spermatocyte loss as a result of characteristic impairment of sex body formation; an ATR- and γH2AX-enriched repressive chromatin domain is formed, but is partially dissociated from the elongated sex chromosome axes. In contrast to males, Hormad2-deficient females are fertile. However, our analysis of Hormad2/Spo11 double-mutant females shows that the oocyte number is negatively correlated with the frequency of pseudo-sex body formation in a Hormad2 gene dosage-dependent manner. This result suggests that the elimination of Spo11-deficient asynaptic oocytes is associated with the HORMAD2-dependent pseudo-sex body formation that is likely initiated by local concentration of ATR activity in the absence of double-strand breaks. Our results thus show a HORMAD2-dependent quality control mechanism that recognizes unsynapsis and recruits ATR activity during mammalian meiosis.
    Genes to Cells 10/2012; 17(11):897-912. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High temperature requirement A (HtrA) family proteins are serine proteases that may serve in the quality control of misfolded or mislocalized proteins. Recently, possible involvements of HtrA1 in the normal development of the placenta and in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia were reported. In this study, we characterized HtrA4, a previously uncharacterized HtrA protein family member, in pre-eclampsia. Elevated expression levels of placental HtrA4 in pre-eclampsia patients were observed by qRT-PCR. Western blotting also showed an increased production of HtrA4 at the protein level in pre-eclamptic placentas. In normal chorionic villi, HtrA4 protein was more abundant in the cytoplasm of cytotrophoblasts than in syncytiotrophoblasts. In contrast, the amount of HtrA4 protein in syncytiotrophoblasts was dramatically increased in pre-eclamptic placentas. Circulating HtrA4 was detected at higher levels in sera from women with pre-eclampsia than from those with normotensive pregnancies. Serum HtrA4 levels were higher in patients with early onset and inversely correlated with the weights of the newborn and placenta. Furthermore, serum levels correlated with serum PAPP-A and PAPP-A2 levels, indicating a functional role for HtrA4 in the common pathway. These data suggest that increased HtrA4 may be involved in the onset of pre-eclampsia, and elevated levels in sera imply a potential application as a biomarker for this disorder.
    Placenta 09/2012; 33(11):919-26. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The events that take place during the prophase of meiosis I are essential for the correct segregation of homologous chromosomes. Defects in these processes likely contribute to infertility or recurrent pregnancy loss in humans. To screen for candidate genes for reproductive failure due to meiotic defects, we have analyzed the gene expression patterns in fetal, neonatal and adult gonads of both male and female mice by microarray and thereby identified 241 genes that are expressed specifically during prophase of meiosis I. Combined with our previous data obtained from developing spermatocytes, a total of 99 genes were identified that are upregulated in early prophase I. We confirmed the meiotic prophase I-specific expression of these genes using qRT-PCR. To further screen this panel for candidate genes that fulfill important roles in homologous pairing, synapsis and recombination, we established a gene transfer system for prophase I oocytes in combination with in vitro organ culture of ovaries, and successfully determined the localization of the selected genes. This gene set can thus serve as a resource for targeted sequence analysis via next-generation sequencing to identify the genes associated with human reproduction failure due to meiotic defects.
    Journal of Human Genetics 05/2012; 57(8):515-22. · 2.37 Impact Factor

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