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    ABSTRACT: Flash floods in urban areas caused by overload of drainage networks are a recurrent problem of raising importance. Greenroofs retain part of the stormwater, lowering surface flow and generating runoff hydrographs with lower and delayed peak flows. Therefore, this technology can contribute to mitigate the overload of drainage networks. The results of the study that was carried out in City of Buenos Aires along almost two years, showed that the retention capacity of the tested lots tasted varied, depending upon precipitation, coverage and depth of the substrate. With precipitation less than or equal to 20 mm, the retention fraction was high (73% to 100%), and when precipitation reached 35 to 40 mm, the maximum percentage of retention was around 60%. However, when the rainfall was approximately 100 mm, the retention fraction was reduced substantially, reaching values nearing 30%. The results of the test showed that green roofs system represent a good alternative in the integrated management of water runoff in urban watersheds.
    Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias. Universidad Nacional de Cuyo. 06/2013; 45(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Basic information about watershed relief, drawn from analytical-descriptive methodologies, allows for the physical parameters necessary to the study of natural resources, such as watershed integrated management, environmental impact, soil degradation, deforestation, water resource conservation, among others. All these processes linked to a strong spatial component allow the use of geographic information systems. Digital elevation models (DEMs) and their derivatives are an important component of these data sources. In this work we evaluated DEMs generated from indirect source data (digitized points from existing contour maps) to determine whether elevation accuracy varies with DEM spatial resolution (grid size). We also assessed the possible existence of some interaction between grid size and the software used that could influence the altimetric quality of the DEM. It was concluded that spatial resolution affects DEM quality. We also found that it is possible to find an ideal grid size in terms of the altimetric accuracy and computer weight size of the generated DEM. Regarding the existence of an interaction between grid size and the software used, which could affect the quality of models obtained based on the methodology of source data acquisition, we found that this possibility does exist when the database is generated from digitized points.
    Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias. Universidad Nacional de Cuyo. 06/2011; 43(1):1-17.
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    ABSTRACT: Basic information from analytical-descriptive methodologies on the relief of watersheds provides the necessary physical parameters for studying natural resources for, e.g., integrated management of watersheds, environmental impact, soil degradation, deforestation, conservation of water resources, and so forth. Geographic information systems can be used for all of these processes, which are linked to a strong spatial component. Digital elevation models (DEM) and their derivatives are a relevant component of these data sources. The parameters found from these models, such as the slope, are used directly or indirectly (as a component of these factors) in many surface runoff estimation equations. In Latin America, the Rational Method has been and continues to be one of the most widely used for the study of microdrainage in small watersheds. The experiment was conducted in the Yatasto district of the Province of Salta, North West Argentina and has an approximate surface of 270 hectares. This zone is located on the piedmont plain of the Metán sierra, where crops are grown, with relatively high slopes and high potential of soil erosion. In this area were studied five small rural watersheds all of them within the total DEM study area and none of them over 81 hectares. This work studied whether potential surface runoff found from the Rational Method (RAMSER) in small rural watersheds shows significant differences depending on whether the mean slopes are found from the DEM derived model or by the usual field methodology. We found that the small-sized grids increase the average slope (between 045% and 0.79%) found over those found from field data. The differences observed in volume of the peak runoff (between 0.003m3s−1 and 0.062m3s−1) were not significant. The results assure that there are no differences in the parameter evaluated (average slope) under the studied methodology and conditions.
    Soil and Tillage Research 01/2011; 112(1):8-17. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: El manejo sustentable de los recursos naturales relacionados con proyectos de utilización de los recursos hídricos (entre otros), requiere en muchos casos de la modificación del relieve existente. Esto conlleva la necesidad de adecuación de la capa homogénea superior del suelo, operación que suele denominarse “sistematización”. Como sostienen diversos autores, la sistematización de los suelos, es una práctica que facilita una entrega más uniforme del agua de irrigación. Ahora bien, “sistematizar” un terreno, es ajustar el relieve superficial del mismo al de un plano proyecto, cuya inclinación responda a las pendientes naturales o a las establecidas por el diseñador, de modo de lograr el menor movimiento de tierra. Al efectuar el movimiento del suelo, se produce un fenómeno asociado a la rotura de la estructura, conocido como “esponjamiento”. El “esponjamiento”, puede ser definido como un aumento del volumen del suelo al ser removido de su estado natural. Generalmente, como lo manifiesta la bibliografía, se expresa como un porcentaje de aumento de volumen sufrido, respecto del volumen original. Al realizar un desmonte (corte) se produce una disminución del peso específico aparente del suelo, que luego del terraplenado (relleno) y posterior compactación, se traduce en un aumento del peso específico aparente de mismo. Esta diferencia entre lo proyectado y lo ejecutado a campo, se contempla al realizar el diseño, incrementando el volumen de corte en un porcentaje que depende de la textura a trabajar. En la ejecución del diseño proyectado, en superfi cies de entre 1 y 2 hectáreas, el movimiento de tierra, se realiza con equipos pesados, que no aseguran un alto porcentaje de efi ciencia, ya que parte del material se pierde en el acarreo, pero muy especialmente, por la compactación desuniforme del mismo, asociada a las texturas complejas del suelo a trabajar. El presente trabajo determinó el porcentaje de efi ciencia de ejecución del proyecto de sistematización a partir de un índice estadístico internacionalmente aceptado, el “Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE)”, comparando “el antes y el después”, en tres situaciones de suelos del área del eje Pilar – La Plata, donde los suelos son complejos y asociaciones de difícil manejo en su sistematización. Los índices de precisión determinados (RMSE), permiten asegurar que para las condiciones estudiadas, de suelos arcillosos complejos, no puede asegurarse en la sistematización de terrenos valores inferiores a los cuatro centímetros de diferencia entre lo proyectado y lo construido.
    Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía y Ciencias Agroalimentarias. 06/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: RESUMEN La inundación repentina en áreas urbanas por sobrecarga de las redes de drenaje es un problema recurrente con impactos negativos de importancia creciente. Las cubiertas vegetadas ("naturadas") retienen parte de la lámina de agua precipitada, reduciendo el escurrimiento superficial y generando hidrogramas de esco-rrentía directa con caudales pico menores y más retardados. Dichas propiedades hacen que esta tecnología pueda contribuir a reducir la sobrecarga de cauces urbanos. En esta comu-nicación se presentan los primeros resultados (parciales) de la determinación de la eficiencia de retención hídrica (en forma indirecta a partir de la cantidad de agua percolada), en parcelas de ensayo que simulen "cubiertas naturadas", con dos profundidades de sustrato y con dos situaciones respecto a la cobertura (con y sin vegetación). Los mismos muestran una tenden-cia positiva de las "cubiertas naturadas" en la contribución a la reducción del escurrimiento, siendo mayor la retención en las parcelas ve-getadas y sustrato de mayor espesor.
    Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias 06/2010; XLII(Issue 1):213-219. · 0.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RESUMEN La información básica sobre el relieve d e c u e n c a s h i d r o g r á f i c a s , m e d i a n t e metodologías analítico-descriptivas permite contar con los parámetros físicos necesarios para el estudio de los recursos naturales tales como manejo integrado de cuencas, impacto ambiental, degradación de suelos, deforestación, conservación de los recursos hídricos, entre otros. Todos estos procesos ligados a una fuerte componente espacial permiten el uso de sistemas de información geográfica. Los Modelos Digitales de Elevación (DEM) y sus derivados son un componente relevante de estas fuentes de datos. En este trabajo se planteó evaluar
    Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias 06/2010; Tomo XLII(Issue 1):213-219.. · 0.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RESUMEN La información básica sobre el relieve de una cuenca hidrográfica, mediante metodologías analítico-descriptivas, permite a quienes evalúan proyectos relacionados con el uso de los recursos naturales, tales como el manejo integrado de cuencas, estudios sobre impacto ambiental, de-gradación de suelos, deforestación, conservación de los recursos hídricos, entre otros, contar para su análisis con los parámetros físicos necesarios. Estos procesos mencionados tienen un fuerte componente espacial y el empleo de Sistemas de Información Geográfica (SIG) son de suma utilidad, siendo los Modelos Digitales de Elevación (DEM) y sus derivados un componente relevante de esta base de datos. Los productos derivados de estos modelos, como pendiente, orientación o curvatura, resultarán tan precisos como el DEM usado para derivarlos. Por otra parte, es fundamental maximi-zar la habilidad del modelo para representar las variaciones del terreno; para ello se debe selec-cionar una adecuada resolución (grilla) de acuerdo con los datos disponibles para su generación. En este trabajo se evalúa la calidad altimétrica de seis DEMs generados a partir de dos sistemas diferentes de captura de datos fuente y de distintas
    Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias 12/2009; XLI(Issue 2):73-84.. · 0.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RESUMEN El manejo sustentable de los recursos naturales relacionados con proyectos de uti-lización de los recursos hídricos (entre otros), requiere en muchos casos de la modificación del relieve existente. Esto conlleva la nece-sidad de adecuación de la capa homogénea superior del suelo, operación que suele deno-minarse "sistematización", la cual facilita una distribución más uniforme de las lluvias y del agua de riego. Esta modificación de la capa superior del suelo es realizada en base a un proyecto, cuya inclinación responda a las pen-dientes naturales o a las establecidas por el diseñador. En la ejecución del diseño proyec-tado, en superficies superiores a una hectárea, el movimiento de tierra se realiza con equipos pesados, que no aseguran un alto porcentaje de eficiencia en lo que al movimiento de tierra se refiere, ya que parte del material se pierde en el acarreo, pero muy especialmente, por la 1 El presente trabajo es el resultado de parte de los estudios financiados por el proyecto "Sistematización de superficies: comportamiento del suelo removido" -Programación Científica de la Universidad de Morón. Buenos Aires. Argentina.
    Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias 06/2009; Tomo XLI.(Issue 1):85-92. · 0.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper was to quantify soil compaction induced by tractor traffic on two tillage regimes: conventional tillage and direct drilling. Traffic was simulated with one pass of a conventional 2WD tractor, using four configurations of cross-ply rear tyres: 18.4–34, 23.1–30, 18.4–38 and 24.5–32, and four configurations of radial tyres 18.4R34, 23.1R 30, 18.4R 38 and 24.5R 32, with two ballast conditions used in each configuration. The experiment was conducted in the east of the Rolling Pampa region, Buenos Aires State, Argentina at 34°25′S, 59°15′W; altitude 22 m above sea level. Rut depth after traffic and soil bulk density and cone index in a 0–450-mm profile were measured before and after traffic. Considering topsoil level, in two tillage regimes, all treatments induced significant values of soil compaction as compared to the control plot without traffic. Subsoil compaction increased as total axle load increased and was independent of ground pressure. For the same tyre configuration, radial tyre caused less soil compaction than the cross-ply.
    Soil and Tillage Research 01/2008; · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This initially high level of soil compaction in some direct sowing systems might suggest that the impact of subsequent traffic would be minimal, but data have not been consistent. Soil compaction is caused by the high traffic intensity and weight of tractor and combines in harvest operations, especially when these operations are carried out on wet soil or with high-pressure tyres. Traffic effects on the yield of soybean and on some physical soil properties were studied over a period of 3 years. After this period, the reduction of traffic intensity from 38 to 15 Mg km−1 ha−1 produced an increase on the yields of 29.2% from the base year improving the incomes by US$134 ha−1 besides the reduction of fuel consumption of 35.5%. With the results obtained in this work it can be assumed that traffic reduction at harvest has a good potential to increase yields and reduce soil compaction under direct sowing system on the Rolling Pampa Region, Argentina.
    Soil and Tillage Research 01/2007; · 2.37 Impact Factor
  • Chilean journal of agricultural research 01/2007; 23(2):7 - 16. · 0.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Deserts cut cross our planet along two fringes parallel to the equator, at 25–35° latitude in both the northern and southern hemispheres. The Desert Biome can be defined climatologically as the sum of all the arid and hyper-arid areas of globe; biologically, as the ecoregions that contain plants and animals adapted for survival in arid environments, and, physically, as large contiguous areas with ample extensions of bare soil and low vegetation cover. A map produced by overlaying areas under these three criteria shows a composite definition of the world’s deserts, occupying almost one-quarter of the earth’s land surface, some 33.7 million square kilometres. Deserts landscapes are diverse; some are found on a flat shield of ancient crystalline rocks hardened over many millions of years, yielding flat deserts of rock and sand such as the Sahara, while others are the folded product of more recent tectonic movements, and have evolved into crumpled landscapes of rocky mountains emerging from lowland sedimentary plains, as in Central Asia or North America. Over the last two million years — the Pleistocene period — climatic variations of the earth have transformed the world’s deserts, forcing them to shrink during cold glacial periods and expand during the hot interglacials, leading finally to the current warming and aridization trend of the last 5 000 years, from the mid-Holocene to date. Some of the Ice-Age species still survive in arid mountain ranges, or desert “sky-islands”, as rare relictual organisms. Most large deserts are found away from the coasts, in areas where moisture from the oceans rarely reaches. Some deserts, however, are located on the west coasts of continents, such as the Namib in Africa, or the Atacama in Chile, forming coastal fog-deserts whose aridity is the result of cold oceanic currents.
    12/2006: pages 73-88; , ISBN: 92-807-2722-2
  • 11/2006: pages 1 - 12; , ISBN: 978-950-29-0996-7
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    ABSTRACT: The main function of deep tillage is to alleviate subsoil compaction, but how long do the benefits of this technique remain? Traffic on loose soil causes a significant increase in soil compaction. Subsoiling and chisel plowing were carried out at 450 and 280 mm depth, respectively on a compacted soil in the west Rolling Pampas region of Argentina. The draft required, physical soil properties, root growth, sunflower (Helianthus annus L. Merr.) yield and traffic compaction over the subsequent two growing seasons were measured. Cone penetrometer resistance was reduced and sunflower yields increased following deep tillage operations. Subsoil compaction caused changes to the root system of sunflower that affected shoot growth and crop yields. Although subsoiling and chiseling had an immediate loosening effect, it was evident that after just 2 years, when traffic intensity was >95 mg km ha−1, re-compaction and settling had occurred in the 300–600 mm depth range.
    Soil and Tillage Research 01/2006; · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Direct seeding production in Argentina requires frequent traffic with farm machinery, in example 6–12 passes. The initially high level of soil compaction in some no till systems might suggest that the impact of subsequent traffic would be minimal, but data have not be consistent. Our objective was to quantify soil mechanical behavior related to compaction from farm machinery traffic on Typic Argiudoll under wheat (Triticum aestvium L. Merr.), soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) rotation in the northeastern Rolling Pampa region at Argentina. Treatments included five different traffic frequencies (0, 6, 8, 10 and 12 passes of a two wheel-drive, 52 kW tractor running repeatedly on the same track). Total weight of the tractor was 3.1 Mg, with 1.0 and 2.1 Mg on the front and rear axles using 7.50 × 16 and 18.4 × 34 tyres, respectively. The speed of tractor traffic was 5.5 km h−1. Variables measured were: (1) soil bulk density, (2) cone index in the 0–600 mm depth profile and (3) rut depth. Only 10 and 12 tractor passes produced significant increases in cone index and dry bulk density throughout the soil profile. Dry bulk density and cone index increased with number of passes. All frequencies compacted the top soil generating physical soil conditions that would be unsuitable for seedling emergence. Although soil had high bulk density prior to traffic treatments, a significant increment of compaction still occurred due to the high traffic frequencies applied.
    Soil and Tillage Research 01/2006; 86(1):9-14. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With the aim to evaluate the soil mechanic reaction-traffic relationship to different tillage systems, penetration resistance and soil bulk density measurements were made. Four traffic conditions (6, 8, 10 and 12 passes of a 2WD, 52.25 kW tractor) were evaluated in a typic Argiudol soil with six years of wheat-soybean rotation under no-tillage and conventional tillage. Bulk density and penetration resistance were used to evaluate the traffic effects on soil compaction. After the six-year rotation, no-tillage system showed significant higher penetration resistance values with respect to conventional tillage system in the topsoil layer. The bulk density values recorded in the non tillage system determine root growth limitation at low number of passes and at shallow depth. The greater the number of passes, lower the depth at which the penetration resistance can reach potential root growth limiting values.
    Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental 03/2005; 9(1):120-124. · 0.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: El objetivo del presente trabajo fue cuantificar la reacción mecánica del suelo al tránsito, a través de la resistencia a la penetración y la densidad aparente para visualizar posibles diferencias debido al sistema de labranza utilizado. El ensayo se instaló sobre un suelo Argiudol típico, sobre dos lotes, provenientes cada uno de seis años de cultivo trigo-soja bajo dos formas de labranza: siembra directa (SD) y labranza convencional (LC). Se establecieron 4 tratamientos de tránsito, correspondientes a 6, 8, 10 y 12 pasadas de un tractor de diseño convencional (2WD) Massey Fergusson 1175 de 52,25 kW (71 CV) en el motor. Para determinar los efectos del tránsito sobre la compactación inducida, se determinaron la densidad global (DA) y la resistencia a la penetración (RP). Luego de 6 años de rotación trigo-soja bajo estas dos formas de cultivo (siembra directa y labranza convencional) la condición mecánica de los suelos resultó ser significativamente diferente, al menos en las capas más superficiales, resultando el suelo trabajado con SD mayores valores de RP que la condición de LC. La siembra directa registró valores de DA limitantes para el normal desarrollo radicular a menores intensidades de tráfico y desde menores profundidades. A medida que aumentó la intensidad de tráfico disminuyó la profundidad donde se alcanzaron valores de resistencia a la penetración potencialmente determinantes de la detención en el crecimiento radicular.
    Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental 01/2005; 9(1):120 - 124. · 0.66 Impact Factor
  • Agro-Ciencia Chile. 01/2005; 21(2):5 - 12.
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of different traffic intensities on soil physical properties and soybean ( Glycine max L.) yields under a direct drill system were compared in the western part of the Rolling Pampas Region. The traffic intensity treatments were 0, 60, 120 and 180 Mg km ha−1, applied using a tractor in the same track in a soybean crop. The tractor used was a 2WD with a 102.6 kW engine and 39.38 kN total mass, equipped with 7.50-16 tyres on the front axle and 23.1-30 tyres on the rear axle. Five months later, the soybean yield was evaluated in the tractor track areas and yields decreases in the range 9.8-38%, were measured. Yield reductions of 38, 22.6 and 9.8% occurred under the 180, 120 and 60 Mg km ha−1 traffic intensities treatments, respectively. Measurements of soil penetration resistance, bulk density and rut depth, gave an indication of the soil compaction due to tractor traffic. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Soil and Tillage Research 01/2004; 78(1):53-58. · 2.37 Impact Factor
  • SPANISH JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH 12/2003; 1(2):75 - 80. · 0.66 Impact Factor

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