Publications

  • Martine Vanryckeghem, Gene J Brutten
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    ABSTRACT: The BigCAT and the Erickson S-24, self-report measures of communication attitude, were administered in a randomly determined order to 72 adults who stuttered (PWS) and 72 who did not (PWNS). The two groups of participants differed from each other to a statistically significant extent on both of these measures of speech-associated attitude, regardless of gender. However, the BigCAT showed a larger between-group difference and a greater effect size than was made apparent by the S-24. These findings, and the presence of a significant group by test interaction, suggest that the BigCAT is the more powerful of these two test procedures for discriminating the speech-associated attitude of PWS from that of PWNS. It follows from this that the BigCAT is likely a more useful attitudinal measure than the S-24 with respect to clinical decision making that relates to differential diagnostic assessment and the management of stuttering. LEARNING OUTCOMES: The reader will be (1) describe the BigCAT, a communication attitude test for adults who do and do not stutter, (2) discuss comparative data on the BigCAT and the Erickson S-24, based on information on the discriminative power of these measures of speech-associated attitude, (3) recognize that gender does not significantly effect the results of either the BigCAT or the Erickson S-24.
    Journal of Communication Disorders 06/2012; 45(5):340-7. · 1.55 Impact Factor
  • Martine Vanryckeghem, Gene J Brutten
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this investigation was to provide normative and comparative data for the BigCAT, the adult form of the Communication Attitude Test, a sub-test of the Behavior Assessment Battery. The BigCAT, a 35-item self-report test of speech-associated attitude was administered to 96 adults who stutter (PWS) and 216 adults who do not (PWNS). The difference in the extent to which the two groups of participants reported a negative attitude toward their speech and speech ability, as measured by the BigCAT, was statistically significant. Moreover, the overlap in the scores of the PWS and PWNS was minimal, and the effect size attributable to group membership was very large. The BigCAT's high Cronbach Alpha coefficients, together with the fact that each of its items significantly differentiated PWS from PWNS, indicate that the BigCAT is an internally consistent measure of the attitude that they have about their speech. Gender did not have a significant influence on the attitude toward speech or speech ability of either the PWS or PWNS. Overall, the present data suggest that the BigCAT holds promise as an aid to clinical decision making that relates to the assessment and treatment of those who stutter. Learning outcomes: (1) The reader will learn about the BigCAT, a self-report measure of speech-associated attitude. (2) The reader will be given normative and comparative data that relate to the speech-associated attitude of PWS and PWNS as measured by the BigCAT. This will enable the clinician to use the BigCAT data as a useful source of information in clinical decision making that relates to assessment and treatment. (3) The reader will be informed about the internal reliability and content validity of the BigCAT, a gender-free measure of the speech-associated attitude of PWS and PWNS.
    Journal of Communication Disorders 09/2010; 44(2):200-6. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this factorial study was to establish normative data for the Italian version of the Communication Attitude Test (CAT) in order to determine whether or not the speech-associated attitude reported by Italian children who stutter (CWS) differs significantly from that of their nonstuttering peers (CWNS). Toward this end, the Italian CAT was administered to 149 CWS and 148 CWNS between the ages of 6 and 14. The results showed that the mean CAT score of the CWS sampled is higher, to a statistically significant extent, than that of their nonstuttering peers. Moreover, age and gender did not differentially affect this result. Together, these findings and the large between-group effect size suggest that the CAT is a useful clinical aid in evaluating the attitude of Italian children whose fluency is problematic. It can serve well to determine if a child's speech-associated belief system needs to be addressed in therapy and, if so, whether or not the cognitive change tactics employed have been effective.
    Journal of Communication Disorders 12/2008; 42(2):155-61. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The data of recent research studies have shown that by 3 years of age children show an awareness of dysfluency and that by at least the age of six, youngsters who stutter have a speech-associated attitude that is more negative than that of their peers. These findings led to the present study in which the KiddyCAT, a self-report measure, was used to compare the attitude toward speech of 45 children, between the age of three and six, who stuttered with that of 63 who did not. The data of this investigation showed that, as a group, the preschool and kindergarten children who stuttered had significantly more in the way of a negative attitude toward their speech than was found among their non-stuttering peers of the same age and gender. This finding is not consistent with the classically held position that the reactive aspects of stuttering do not generally develop until well after its onset. It suggests the need to measure, by standardized means, the speech-associated attitude of incipient stutterers and, when appropriate, to make the assessment and treatment of negative attitude toward speech a meaningful aspect of therapy. Educational objectives: The reader will be able to: (1) describe the difference in the speech-associated attitude of preschoolers and kindergartners who do and do not stutter; (2) summarize what we currently know about self-report tests used to assess speech-related attitude among children as young as 3; and (3) evaluate the usefulness of assessing the belief system of children whose fluency is considered problematic.
    Journal of Fluency Disorders 02/2005; 30(4):307-18. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Behavior Checklist, a self-report test procedure, was administered to 42 adults who stutter and 76 who do not in order to investigate the number, frequency of usage, type and nature of the responses that they reportedly employ to cope with the anticipation and/or presence of speech disruption. As a group, the participants who stutter reported a significantly greater number of speech-associated coping responses and a greater use of them than their nonstuttering peers did. Moreover, factor analysis made apparent fundamental between-group differences in the type and nature of certain forms of the coping responses reported by those who stutter and those who do not. This suggests that the quantitative and qualitative differences in the coping responses of those who do and do not stutter are potentially useful with respect to differential diagnostic and therapeutic decision making. EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES: (1) The reader will be able to describe differences in the number, frequency and types of coping behaviors used by PWS and PWNS. (2) The reader will be able to list similarities and differences in the type and nature of coping behaviors used by PWS and PWNS. (3) The reader will be able to discuss the features and use of the Behavior Checklist, a self-report procedure for assessing the responses used by adults to cope with the anticipation and occurrence of speech disruption.
    Journal of Fluency Disorders 02/2004; 29(3):237-50. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mal-attitude and negative emotion specific to speech are known to correlate with severity among children who stutter. To determine if speech-associated mal-attitude and negative emotion also covary with each other, 143 grade-school children who stutter were administered Brutten's Communication Attitude Test (CAT). Then, independently, they also ranked their emotional reaction to those items of the CAT that had led them to report mal-attitude. The results revealed the existence of a statistically significant correlation of .89 between mal-attitude and negative emotion. Moreover, both speech-associated mal-attitude and negative emotion increased to a statistically significant extent with age and stuttering severity. These data highlight the importance of early detection and intervention as it relates to the cognitive and affective components of the stuttering syndrome. Educational Objectives: The reader will learn and be able to describe the relationship between school-age children's (1) stuttering and their mal-attitudes toward speech, (2) Their mal-attitudes and negative emotional reactions to speaking, and (3) the charges that occur in stuttering severity, mal-attitudes and negative emotional reactions between ages 7 and 13 years.
    Journal of Fluency Disorders 03/2001; · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Experimental support can be found in the literature for the hypothesis that increased variability in the motor part of the speech production system directly contributes to speech dysfluency. This hypothesis was tested once again in the present investigation by comparing the fluent speech of the two groups of stutterers and a control group of nonstutterers during the repeated production of a test sentence. One of the stuttering groups never achieved full fluency while the other did. Durational variability was descriptively greater for the stutterers than for the nonstutterers. However, variability did not significantly differentiate stutterers who could, with practice, produce the test sentence fluently in ten successive trials from those who could not. The latter result is contradictory to the prediction that results from the variability hypothesis. It suggests that the increased variability in speech-related variables found in the speech of those who stutter result from some other mechanism. Such a mechanism may be incomplete acquisition in childhood of the strategies necessary for the adult speech motor control. Educational Objectives: The reader will learn about and be able to describe (1) the variability that characterizes the normal speech production process, (2) the hypothesized relationship between durational variability in fluent speech and stuttering, and (3) how such variability is hypothesized to result in dysfluent speech.
    Journal of Fluency Disorders 03/2001; · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The timing and intensity variability of 8 adults who stutter and 8 age-matched fluent speakers was investigated under metronomic conditions. Participants were required to produce double or triple-stress patterns at a slow speech rate (1 syllable/870 ms) when repeating the syllable /staet/or/straet/nine times. Measures that are sensitive to cyclic rather than overall variation in syllable timing and intensity were employed. Specifically, durational variation between successive syllable onsets as well as intensity variation of the beginning consonant and vowel in successive syllables were computed. Results revealed that, although intensity variation was similar, the timing of successive syllables of persons who stutter was significantly more variable than that of persons who do not stutter. These outcomes are discussed in relation to previous experiments of timing control of persons who stutter and normally fluent persons during metronomic stimulation.
    Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research 05/2000; 43(2):513-20. · 1.97 Impact Factor
  • American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology 05/1999; 8(2):164. · 2.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this prospective study, 26 of the 93 preschool children with a parental history of stuttering who began to stutter were compared at preonset and 1 year later with those of a matched group of 26 children who continued to be seen as nonstutterers. These two groups of at-risk children were compared in terms of the development of their articulatory and language skills and in terms of the communicative style and speaking behaviors of their mothers. At preonset, the children who started to stutter demonstrated a faster articulatory rate than those who remained fluent. One year later, however, this difference was no longer statistically significant. The two groups of children did not differ in their linguistic skills at either of these time periods. Moreover, the communicative style and speaking behaviors of the mothers of the children who later began to stutter did not differ from that of the mothers of children who did not either prior to or after the onset of stuttering. This suggests that these variables did not contribute to the onset of stuttering or to its course.
    Journal of Fluency Disorders. 11/1998;
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    S Kloth, P Janssen, F Kraaimaat, G J Brutten
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine if mothers display identifiably different communicative styles in their interaction with their normally developing two- to five-year-old children. In order to investigate this issue an extensive coding system was developed, which assessed the structural organization and the communicative function of the speech of 71 mothers as they interacted with their children. By means of factor analysis three maternal communicative styles were distinguished: non-intervening, explaining and directing. In the non-intervening style there is no direct pressure from the mother on the child to respond verbally. The explaining mother is primarily concerned with providing information to her child in a way that gives the child little opportunity to take the speaking turn. The directing mother is mainly engaged in directing the child's behaviour by means of verbal control. The internal consistency of the three communicative styles appeared to be both satisfactory and related to relevant child and mother features.
    Journal of Child Language 03/1998; 25(1):149-68. · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this prospective study, 26 of the 93 preschool children with a parental history of stuttering who began to stutter were compared at preonset and 1 year later with those of a matched group of 26 children who continued to be seen as nonstutterers. These two groups of at-risk children were compared in terms of the development of their articulatory and language skills and in terms of the communicative style and speaking behaviors of their mothers. At preonset, the children who started to stutter demonstrated a faster articulatory rate than those who remained fluent. One year later, however, this difference was no longer statistically significant. The two groups of children did not differ in their linguistic skills at either of these time periods. Moreover, the communicative style and speaking behaviors of the mothers of the children who later began to stutter did not differ from that of the mothers of children who did not either prior to or after the onset of stuttering. This suggests that these variables did not contribute to the onset of stuttering or to its course.
    Journal of Fluency Disorders - J FLUENCY DISORD. 01/1998; 23(4):217-230.
  • Gene J. Brutten, Martine Vanryckeghem
    Journal of Fluency Disorders - J FLUENCY DISORD. 01/1997; 22(4):327-329.
  • Martine Vanryckeghem, Gene J. Brutten
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    ABSTRACT: This investigation was designed to determine the relationship, if any, between the speech-associated beliefs and fluency failures of grade-school children who do and do not stutter. Toward this end, a Dutch version of the Communication Attitude Test (C.A.T.) was administered to 55 age-matched Belgian children representative of the two groups. Their C.A.T. scores and the degree to which they emitted fluency failures during oral reading and conversation were correlated. For the children in the experimental group, the C.A.T. scores covaried to a statistically significant extent with both the failures thought to characterize stuttering and those considered to be normal disfluencies. In contrast, the communication attitude scores of the nonstutterers did not correlate with the display of either of these classes of fluency failure. These findings would seem to indicate both that the difference between children who stutter and those who do not involves more than the degree to which their speech is disrupted and that determining the communication attitude of children whose fluency is problematic can serve as an aid in differential diagnostic assessment and therapeutic considerations.
    Journal of Fluency Disorders 01/1996; · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    Journal of Fluency Disorders 01/1996; 21(2):105-108. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Theorists have increasingly suggested that both speech-motor and linguistic factors are involved in the etiology of stuttering. This contention has been supported by findings that tend to indicate that youngsters who stutter have a slower speech rate and are less linguistically skilled than nonstutterers. However, no inferences can be drawn from these findings as to the nature or the causation of this disorder. This is because the aforementioned findings might be a result rather than a cause of the disorder. In order to clarify the directionality issue, a multi-year prospective study was undertaken that involved 93 preschool children with a parental history of stuttering.At the initial session, none of the high-risk children sampled was regarded as having a stuttering problem. One year later, 26 children were classified as stutterers. Statistical analyses revealed that prior to the onset of stuttering these children did not differ from the other youngsters studied with respect to either their receptive or expressive language abilities. However, their rate of articulation was significantly faster. The latter finding is taken to mean that the children who developed stuttering were not limited in speechmotor ability. Rather, their fluency failures are seen as a result of a relatively high articulation rate. It is noteworthy, in this regard, that the rate of the high-risk children who continued to be viewed as nonstutterers was slower than that previously reported for youngsters of their age. This suggests that the slower rate served as a buffer against fluency breakdown.
    Journal of Fluency Disorders 06/1995; · 2.23 Impact Factor
  • G. Wieneke, P. Janssen, G.J. Brutten
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    ABSTRACT: The finding of distinctively greater temporal variability among stutterers is consistent with the hypothesis that the cause of their speech disruption is related to the excessive variability in their speech motor system. This hypothesis, would lead to expect that the stutterers' temporal variability would be reduced when they lower their speech rate, a condition known to reduce the frequency of stuttering. However, crucial for the variability hypothesis is the contention that the excessive variability deemed to be causative stems from the central timing mechanism of the speech production system. To find this component of variability, that which is due to speech rate variations and that due to peripheral mechanisms must be separated from the observed total variability in segment durations. A procedure to achieve this is outlined. The application of this procedure showed a normalization of the stutterers' variability during moderate slowing of speech.
    Journal of Fluency Disorders 06/1995; 20(2):171–189. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This portion of a multiyear prospective study was designed to investigate the communicative style, speaking rate, and language complexity of 93 mothers of preschool children with a parental history of stuttering. At the initial session none of the children sampled was regarded as being a stutterer. One year later, 26 of the children were classified as stutterers. Statistical analyses revealed that prior to the onset of stuttering the mothers of these children did not differ from the mothers of the children who continued to be seen as nonstutterers with respect to either communicative style or speaking rate. The only significant difference between the two groups of mothers was the complexity of their language. The pre-onset mean lengths of utterance (MLUs) of the mothers of children who later came to be regarded as stutterers were significantly shorter than those of the mothers whose children continued to be viewed as being fluent. These findings suggest that the communicative behavior of mothers of normally fluent children do not contribute to the development of stuttering.
    Journal of Fluency Disorders 01/1995; · 2.23 Impact Factor
  • Dale F. Williams, Gene J. Brutten
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to determine whether differences exist between stutterers and nonstutterers in the respiratory, laryngeal, and supralaryngeal events associated with the initiation of fluent, self-generated speech. Toward this end, respiratory, phonatory, and air flow measures were taken from 14 adult male stutterers and 14 nonstutterers prior to the production of phrases in which the initial word was varied. Stutterers presented air flow signals that were different in shape than those of the nonstutterers. In addition, the mean latency between initial speech-associated respiratory and laryngeal movements was significantly greater for the stutterers than for the nonstutterers. Respiratory onset movements also differed. To initiate speech respiration, the nonstutterers typically contracted the abdomen and expanded the rib cage while the stutterers generally contracted both structures. These results appear to indicate differences between the groups in both respiratory and laryngeal functioning.
    Journal of Fluency Disorders. 01/1994;
  • Gene J. Brutten, Martine Vanryckeghem
    Journal of Fluency Disorders 12/1993; 18(4):407–409. · 2.23 Impact Factor

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