Publications

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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the construct validity of two dietary restraint subscales, flexible control (FC) and rigid control (RC), identified by Westenhoefer (1991; Appetite, 16, 45–55) as a subset of the restraint scale items from the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ, Stunkard & Messick. [1985]. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 29, 71–83). The subjects were 31 women on long-term personality disorder units. Based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID), 68% has past anorexia and/or bulimia diagnoses and 94% were borderline. The subjects completed the TFEQ and supplied weight and height data for body mass index (BMI) calculations. The results supported the validity of the two restraint constructs by showing that FC was inversely related to BMI and predicted an anorexia diagnosis. In contrast, RC directly predicted BMI when tested concurrently with FC. RC was also more associated with a history of bulimia and problems with weight fluctuations than FC was. Thus, the FC-RC distinction was valid and useful in this population of women. © 1994 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    International Journal of Eating Disorders 02/2006; 16(2):187 - 198. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pathology of parents is thought to be associated with the emergence of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) among offspring by both genetic and environmental pathways (Links and Blum 1990). In an effort toward clearer delineation, not only reliable diagnoses of patients, but also direct study of families, are recommended (Gunderson 1990; Gunderson and Zanarini 1989; Links and Blum 1990; Ogata et al. 1990; Zanarini et al. 1990). With this in mind, we conducted a pilot, retrospective study of parental psychiatric status, developmental events, and family climate during the developmental years of 30 young women hospitalized for BPD, to be reported here. In studying these three dimensions of family life, we hoped to shed light on environmental underpinings (Gunderson 1990; Gunderson and Zanarini 1989; Links 1992; Rutter and Quinton 1984). Even though our cohort is small and select, and the data on a comparison group not yet available, our research approach holds promise of yielding fresh insights.
    Psychiatry Interpersonal & Biological Processes 02/1997; 60(2):171-81. · 2.58 Impact Factor
  • I Kemperman, M J Russ, E Shearin
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    ABSTRACT: This article explores the hypothesis that self-injurious behavior (SIB) of the type associated with borderline personality disorder (BPD) has an important mood regulatory function. Thirty-eight female inpatients with an Axis II diagnosis of BPD and a history of SIB rated a variety of mood and affective states, using visual analog scales recalled over the course of usual SIB experiences. Subjects were additionally divided into two groups according to whether they typically experience pain during SIB (BPD-P group) or did not (BPD-NP group). For both groups, the visual analog scale ratings revealed significant mood elevation and decreased dissociation following self injury, with a peak in dissociative symptoms during self injury. The ratings of dissociative symptoms were found to be higher in the BPD-NP group when compared to the BPD-P group across all stages of SIB. The ratings of sexual arousal did not change over the course of SIB for either group. These findings are discussed in light of current knowledge of the relationship between SIB and mood.
    Journal of Personality Disorders 02/1997; 11(2):146-57. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the construct validity of two dietary restraint subscales, flexible control (FC) and rigid control (RC), identified by Westenhoefer (1991; Appetite, 16, 45-55) as a subset of the restraint scale items from the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ, Stunkard & Messick. [1985]. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 29, 71-83). The subjects were 31 women on long-term personality disorder units. Based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID), 68% has past anorexia and/or bulimia diagnoses and 94% were borderline. The subjects completed the TFEQ and supplied weight and height data for body mass index (BMI) calculations. The results supported the validity of the two restraint constructs by showing that FC was inversely related to BMI and predicted an anorexia diagnosis. In contrast, RC directly predicted BMI when tested concurrently with FC. RC was also more associated with a history of bulimia and problems with weight fluctuations than FC was. Thus, the FC-RC distinction was valid and useful in this population of women.
    International Journal of Eating Disorders 09/1994; 16(2):187-98. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    E N Shearin, M M Linehan
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    ABSTRACT: Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is a cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy developed by Linehan for parasuicidal patients with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD). DBT is based on a biosocial theory that views BPD as primarily a dysfunction of the emotion regulation system. The treatment is organized around a hierarchy of behavioral goals that vary in different modes of therapy. In two randomized trials, DBT has shown superiority in reducing parasuicide, medical risk of parasuicides, number of hospital days, dropout from treatment and anger while improving social adjustment. Most gains were maintained through a 1-year follow-up. In one process study testing DBT theory, dialectical techniques balancing acceptance and change were more effective than pure change or acceptance techniques in reducing suicidal behavior.
    Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. Supplementum 02/1994; 379:61-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Twenty-seven female inpatients with borderline personality disorder were assigned to two groups on the basis of whether they did (N = 14) or did not (N = 13) report experiencing pain during self-injurious episodes. Ratings of depression, anxiety, impulsiveness, dissociation, and trauma symptoms were higher in the women who did not experience pain while injuring themselves, as were the number of suicide attempts and the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse.
    American Journal of Psychiatry 01/1994; 150(12):1869-71. · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A field experiment conducted in high schools throughout the country was aimed at increasing the number of high school students who donate blood. Special interventions that emphasized psychological or educational approaches to heightening motivation to donate, as well as a combined intervention, were compared with the usual approach taken at blood drives. Psychological interventions in which social learning principles (modeling, perceptions of social norms) played important roles either alone or in combination with an educational (informational) approach were more successful in stimulating blood donations than either an educational approach alone or the approaches traditionally followed by the participating local blood centers. The results demonstrated that use of social learning principles in designing interventions to strengthen socially relevant altruistic behavior could be valuable both practically and theoretically.
    Journal of Applied Social Psychology 05/1991; 21(11):896 - 918. · 0.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Investigated linkages between perceived social support and (1) perceptions of self and others and (2) others' perceptions of the self. In Study 1, undergraduates (56 men and 74 women) completed questionnaires assessing perceptions of themselves and typical others. Perceptions of support were positively related to perceptions of others. In Study 2, undergraduates (76 men and 134 women) completed questionnaires assessing self-perceptions and parents' and friends' perceptions of them. A subset of parents and friends completed questionnaires assessing their perceptions of the S. Perceptions of social support were positively related to self-perceptions and beliefs about others' views, and also to parents' and friends' actual views. Theoretical implications are discussed in terms of the role of personality and personal relationships in perceived social support. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 01/1991; 60(2):273-287. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To obtain a clearer picture of what constitutes social support, we conducted three studies to compare measures of different conceptions of social support. Relations of these instruments to various personality measures were also investigated. Subdividing the construct into discrete functions did not add to the sensitivity of the indices. Measures of received support and support networks were not strongly related to most of the perceived available support measures. Interview and questionnaire approaches were similar in the information they evoked about close supportive relationships. The results suggest that measures of perceived available support, regardless of the way the instruments attempt to break down the construct, generally assess the extent to which an individual is accepted, loved, and involved in relationships in which communication is open. Psychometric characteristics of the measures were associated with differential sensitivity over the range of supportive relationships. The theoretical implications of the findings are discussed with emphasis on the common core underlying social support indices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 03/1987; 52(4):813-832. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the relationship between interpersonal problem solving and suicidal behavior among psychiatric patients. Subjects were 123 psychiatric inpatients, admitted for current parasuicide, serious suicide ideation, or non-suicide-related complaints. A group of 16 orthopedic surgery patients was included to control for hospitalization trauma and current stress. All subjects completed a revised version of the Means-End Problem Solving Procedure, the Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, and a suicide expectancy measure. Psychiatric patients scored lower than the medical control group on the assertive schedule, but no differences were noted as a function of suicidal behavior status. Psychiatric patients expected suicide to solve problems more than did controls. Suicidal patients had higher expectancies than did nonsuicidal patients. Active interpersonal problem solving did not distinguish suicidal and nonsuicidal psychiatric patients but did separate parasuicides from suicide ideators. Among patients without a parasuicide history, less active and greater passive problem solving discriminated first-time parasuicides from suicide ideators and nonsuicidals. Results suggest that assertion deficits may characterize the psychiatric population in general, but suicidal behavior within psychiatric patients may be related to lower active problem solving.
    Cognitive Therapy and Research 01/1987; 11(1):1-12. · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two studies leading to the development of a short form of the Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ) are reported. In Study 1 three items selected for high correlations with the total score (SSQ3) were administered to 182 university students together with several personality measures. SSQ3 had acceptable test-retest reliability and correlations with personality variables similar to those of the SSQ. Internal reliability was marginal although acceptable for an instrument with so few items. Study 2 employed three sets of data in developing a six-item instrument (SSQ6). The SSQ6 had high internal reliability and correlated highly with the SSQ and similarly to it with personality variables. The research findings accompanying the development of the short form social support measure suggest that perceived social support in adults may be a reflection of early attachment experience.
    Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 01/1987; 4(4):497-510. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Presents results of 6 studies of cognitive interference and describes 2 instruments constructed to assess intrusive thoughts, the Cognitive Interference Questionnaire (CIQ) and the Thought Occurrence Questionnaire (TOQ). The CIQ obtains self-reports of cognitive interference immediately after performance on a task, and the TOQ assesses the general tendency to experience intrusive thoughts. In the 6 studies, which involved 2,157 undergraduates, situationally produced cognitive interference was assessed immediately after an S's performance on a task; cognitive interference was also investigated as a stable personality characteristic. The relation of cognitive interference as a personality variable and the tendency of individuals to describe themselves as having attentional problems was examined as well. Results suggest the value of assessing cognitive activity as a situationally influenced product and as a personality variable. The psychometric properties of the CIQ and the TOQ are discussed, and the instruments' scores are related to relevant dependent measures. (42 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 06/1986; 51(1):215-226. · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Irwin G. Sarason, Barbara R. Sarason, Edward N. Shearin
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    ABSTRACT: Investigated the stability of social support indices, the relation between these indices and measures of parental bonding, and the relation between the indices and ratings of social behavior. In Exp I, 76 undergraduates responded to a social support questionnaire (SSQ) several times at 5- and 36-mo follow-ups. Exp II partially replicated Exp I with 251 Ss, and it investigated the relation between the SSQ and a parental bonding instrument. In Exp III, 160 Ss rated videotapes of persons with different levels of social support and scored them with regard to indices of personal effectiveness. The studies demonstrate that social support levels are stable over periods up to 3 yrs. They also showed that Ss high in social support reported having received more parental care (affection, interest, empathy) than did those low in social support. High social support Ss were judged by observers to be more competent leaders and problem solvers than were low-support Ss. Female Ss were judged to be more considerate and friendly than male Ss. Results suggest the value of conceptualizing social support as an individual difference variable as well as an environmental provision. (29 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 03/1986; 50(4):845-855. · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Edward N. Shearin
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    ABSTRACT: Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Washington, 1990 Empirical studies of the treatment of borderline personality disorder patients have been few in number and only two have employed random assignment to groups. Thus there is little evidence to guide clinicians who attempt treatment of individuals with this serious disorder. The current study investigated the influence of the therapist-patient relationship upon the effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), a behavioral treatment developed by Linehan. The DBT treatment had shown effectiveness for reducing suicidal behavior in two earlier 1-year outcome studies. Subjects in the current study were four therapist-patient dyads. The patients were suicidal women who met criteria for borderline personality disorder and who were just beginning treatment with DBT. Hypothesis 1 predicted that when patients perceived therapists to be both controlling and nurturing, suicidal behavior would decrease in the following week. Hypothesis 2 predicted that when patients perceived therapists to be nurturing and protecting, patient behaviors would be higher on self-nurturing and self-protection. Hypothesis 3 predicted that patients would rate therapists as higher on warmth and friendliness in the week following less suicidal behavior. Hypothesis 4 predicted that when patients perceived therapists to be less helpful and more hostile, therapists would perceive patients as more passive and having less self-control. Hypothesis 5 predicted that therapist ratings of patients' warm feelings toward the therapists would be followed by decreases in suicidal behavior. Weekly therapist and patient perceptions of each other were measured with a short form of Benjamin's Structural Assessment of Social Behavior (SASB). Suicidal behavior was measured with weekly patient self-report. On a case by case basis, therapist-patient perceptions for 31 weeks were related longitudinally with time series analyses to predicted outcomes. All five hypotheses received support. Dialectical combinations of ratings (e.g., for hypothesis 1, nurturing, controlling, and simultaneous autonomy giving) were better predictors of suicidal behavior than less complex ratings. The specifics of the findings as well as an exception on hypothesis 5 for one dyad were discussed along with implications and limitations.
  • Edward N. Shearin, Marsha M. Linehan
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the influence of the patient-therapist relationship in reducing suicidal behavior in Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT). DBT is a behavioral treatment for borderline women developed by Linehan who demonstrated its effectiveness in two earlier 1-year outcome studies. Subjects were 4 therapist-patient dyads. Patients were parasuicidal women who met criteria for borderline personality disorder; therapists were psychology and nursing graduate students. Weekly patient and therapist relationship ratings were measured over 7 months of initial treatment with a short form of Benjamin's Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB). Four hypotheses encompassing dialectical theory, nonpejorative conceptualization, modeling, and contingency timing predictions were tested for each patient with time series analyses. Combined results of the four patients supported all hypotheses. Dialectical techniques balancing acceptance and change were more effective than pure change or acceptance techniques in reducing suicidal behavior. Therapist ratings consistent with nonpejorative conceptualization were also associated with less suicidal behavior.
    Behavior Therapy.

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