Anahit Ghochikyan, Hayk Davtyan, Irina Petrushina, Armine Hovakimyan, Nina Movsesyan, Arpine Davtyan, Anatoly Kiyatkin, Drew Hannaman, Claire F Evans, David H Cribbs, Michael G Agadjanyan[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated that our second-generation DNA-based Alzheimer disease (AD) epitope vaccine comprising three copies of a short amyloid-β (Aβ) B cell epitope, Aβ 11 fused with the foreign promiscuous Th epitope, PADRE (p3Aβ 11-PADRE) was immunogenic in mice. However, since DNA vaccines exhibit poor immunogenicity in large animals and humans, in this study, we sought to improve the immunogenicity of p3Aβ 11-PADRE by modifying this vaccine to express protein 3Aβ 11-PADRE with a free N-terminal aspartic acid fused with eight additional promiscuous Th epitopes. Generated pN-3Aβ 11-PADRE-Thep vaccine has been designated as AV-1955. We also delivered this vaccine using the TriGrid electroporation system to improve the efficiency of DNA transfection. This third-generation DNA epitope vaccine was evaluated for immunogenicity in rabbits in comparison to the parent construct p3Aβ 11-PADRE. AV-1955 vaccination induced significantly stronger humoral immune responses in rabbits compared with p3Aβ 11-PADRE vaccine. Anti-Aβ 11 antibodies recognized all forms of human β-amyloid peptide (monomers, oligomers and fibrils), bound to amyloid plaques in brain sections from an AD case and reduced oligomer- and fibril-mediated cytotoxicity ex vivo. These findings suggest that AV-1955 could represent an effective DNA epitope vaccine for AD therapy, pending safety and efficacy studies that are currently being conducted in Rhesus monkeys.Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. 02/2013; 9(5).
Article: Two doses of bovine viral diarrhea virus DNA vaccine delivered by electroporation induces long-term protective immune responses.Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Zoe Lawman, Marlene Snider, Don Wilson, Jan V van den Hurk, Barry Ellefsen, Drew Hannaman[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pathogen of major importance in cattle, so there is a need for new effective vaccines. DNA vaccines induce balanced immune responses and are relatively inexpensive, and thus promising both for human and veterinary applications. In this study, newborn calves with maternal antibodies were vaccinated intramuscularly (IM) with a BVDV E2 DNA vaccine with the TriGrid™ Delivery System for IM delivery (TDS-IM). Two doses of this vaccine spaced six or 12 weeks apart were sufficient to induce significant virus neutralizing antibody titers, numbers of activated T cells, as well as reduction in viral shedding and clinical presentations after BVDV-2 challenge. In contrast to the placebo treated animals, the vaccinated calves did not lose any weight, which is an excellent indicator of the well-being of an animal and has a significant economic impact. Furthermore, the interval between the two vaccinations did not influence the magnitude of the immune responses or degree of clinical protection, and a third immunization was not necessary or beneficial. Since electroporation may not only enhance the magnitude but also the duration of immunity after DNA immunization, the interval between vaccination and challenge was extended in a second trial, which showed that two doses of this E2 DNA vaccine again significantly reduced clinical disease against BVDV for several months. These results are promising and support this technology for use against infectious diseases in cattle and large species, including humans, in general.Clinical and vaccine immunology: CVI 12/2012; · 2.37 Impact Factor
Article: A multiagent filovirus DNA vaccine delivered by intramuscular electroporation completely protects mice from ebola and Marburg virus challenge.Rebecca J Grant-Klein, Nicole M Van Deusen, Catherine V Badger, Drew Hannaman, Lesley C Dupuy, Connie S Schmaljohn[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of DNA vaccines expressing the codon-optimized envelope glycoprotein genes of Zaire ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, and Marburg marburgvirus (Musoke and Ravn). Intramuscular or intradermal delivery of the vaccines in BALB/c mice was performed using the TriGrid™ electroporation device. Mice that received DNA vaccines against the individual viruses developed robust glycoprotein-specific antibody titers as determined by ELISA and survived lethal viral challenge with no display of clinical signs of infection. Survival curve analysis revealed there was a statistically significant increase in survival compared to the control groups for both the Ebola and Ravn virus challenges. These data suggest that further analysis of the immune responses generated in the mice and additional protection studies in nonhuman primates are warranted.Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. 08/2012; 8(11).
Article: In vivo electroporation improves therapeutic potency of a DNA vaccine targeting hepadnaviral proteins.Ghada Khawaja, Thierry Buronfosse, Catherine Jamard, Fabien Abdul, Sylviane Guerret, Fabien Zoulim, Alain Luxembourg, Drew Hannaman, Claire F Evans, Daniel Hartmann, Lucyna Cova[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This preclinical study investigated the therapeutic efficacy of electroporation (EP)-based delivery of plasmid DNA (pDNA) encoding viral proteins (envelope, core) and IFN-γ in the duck model of chronic hepatitis B virus (DHBV) infection. Importantly, only DNA EP-therapy resulted in a significant decrease in mean viremia titers and in intrahepatic covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) levels in chronic DHBV-carrier animals, compared with standard needle pDNA injection (SI). In addition, DNA EP-therapy stimulated in all virus-carriers a humoral response to DHBV preS protein, recognizing a broader range of major antigenic regions, including neutralizing epitopes, compared with SI. DNA EP-therapy led also to significant higher intrahepatic IFN-γ RNA levels in DHBV-carriers compared to other groups, in the absence of adverse effects. We provide the first evidence on DNA EP-therapy benefit in terms of hepadnaviral infection clearance and break of immune tolerance in virus-carriers, supporting its clinical application for chronic hepatitis B.Virology 08/2012; 433(1):192-202. · 3.35 Impact Factor
Article: Low-dose cyclophosphamide administered as daily or single dose enhances the antitumor effects of a therapeutic HPV vaccine.Shiwen Peng, Sofia Lyford-Pike, Belinda Akpeng, Annie Wu, Chien-Fu Hung, Drew Hannaman, John R Saunders, T-C Wu, Sara I Pai[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although therapeutic HPV vaccines are able to elicit systemic HPV-specific immunity, clinical responses have not always correlated with levels of vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cells in human clinical trials. This observed discrepancy may be attributable to an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment in which the CD8(+) T cells are recruited. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are cells that can dampen cytotoxic CD8(+) T-cell function. Cyclophosphamide (CTX) is a systemic chemotherapeutic agent, which can eradicate immune cells, including inhibitory Tregs. The optimal dose and schedule of CTX administration in combination with immunotherapy to eliminate the Treg population without adversely affecting vaccine-induced T-cell responses is unknown. Therefore, we investigated various dosing and administration schedules of CTX in combination with a therapeutic HPV vaccine in a preclinical tumor model. HPV tumor-bearing mice received either a single preconditioning dose or a daily dose of CTX in combination with the pNGVL4a-CRT/E7(detox) DNA vaccine. Both single and daily dosing of CTX in combination with vaccine had a synergistic antitumor effect as compared to monotherapy alone. The potent antitumor responses were attributed to the reduction in Treg frequency and increased infiltration of HPV16 E7-specific CD8(+) T cells, which led to higher ratios of CD8(+)/Treg and CD8(+)/CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). There was an observed trend toward decreased vaccine-induced CD8(+) T-cell frequency with daily dosing of CTX. We recommend a single, preconditioning dose of CTX prior to vaccination due to its efficacy, ease of administration, and reduced cumulative adverse effect on vaccine-induced T cells.Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 08/2012; · 3.70 Impact Factor