Publications

  • Diana G. Cuadrado
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to analyze microbial mats and biofilms from the lower supratidal area of the Bahía Blanca estuary (Argentina), and explore their relationship with sediments and other physical forcings. Thirteen monthly sediment samples (uppermost 10 mm) were taken and their composition and abundance in microorganisms was determined by microscopy. Physical parameters (solar radiation and sediment temperature at −5 cm) were recorded with a frequency of 5 minutes by a coastal environmental monitoring station. Additionally, sediment grain size and moisture content were determined for distinct layers in the uppermost 20 mm, and the rate of inundation of the supratidal area was estimated from tidal gauge measurements. There were significant seasonal differences in the biomass of the microphytobenthic groups considered (filamentous cyanobacteria and epipelic diatoms), with the former consistently making up >70% of the total biomass. The relationships between microphytobenthos and sediment temperature and solar radiation fitted to linear regressions, and consistently showed an inverse relationship between microphytobenthic abundance and either one of the physical parameters. The granulometric analysis revealed a unimodal composition of muddy sediments, which were vertically and spatially homogeneous; additionally, there were significant seasonal differences in water content loss with drying conditions prevailing in the summer. Several Microbially-Induced Sedimentary Structures (MISS) were identified in the supratidal zone such as shrinkage cracks, erosional pockets, gas domes, photosynthetic domes, mat chips and sieve-like surfaces. In contrast to studies from analogous environments in the Northern Hemisphere, we found reduced microphytobenthic biomass in summer, which were explained by increased evaporation/desiccation rates as a consequence of increased radiation, despite frequent tidal inundation. In conclusion, the observed density shifts in the benthic microbial communities are attributable to physical forcings dependent upon seasonal variations in interplaying factors such as sediment temperature, solar radiation and tidal inundation.
    International Journal of Geosciences 01/2013; 4:352-361. · 0.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One of the aims of tidal sedimentology in recent years is to find signatures in the stratigraphic record that help in recognizing basic ancient tidal processes. The present study was carried out on the supratidal zone of the middle Bahía Blanca estuary which is colonized by extensive microbial mats. The purpose of the study was to relate the tidal and wave energy with the microbially-induced sedimentary structures (MISS) present in the tidal flat. The energy reaching the area was quantified by tidal and wave records, while MISS were simultaneously recognized and described after a strong storm event. The MISS and the microsequences of sediments in vertical cross-sections of the tidal flat were considered as tidal signatures over a supratidal zone, when high-tide in severe energy conditions can reach the zone. This paper contributes to the understanding of physical sedimentary parameters that control the modification of microbial structures in modern siliciclastic regimes and that, in turn, can aid in the reconstruction of ancient hydraulic settings.
    Sedimentary Geology 01/2013; 296:1–8. · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biofilms and microbial mats cover the tidal flats of the central zone of the Bahía Blanca estuary (Argentina), creating extensive layers. The objective of this study was to characterize the microphytobenthic communities in these biofilms and mats from sediment cores taken in March, June, September and December 2010. Microorganisms were identified and enumerated by microscopy, and their biomass (chlorophyll a, biovolume) quantified at two different stations in the lower supratidal zone, located ∼210 m apart from each other (namely S1 and S2). Additionally, the colloidal carbohydrates produced by these microbial communities were quantified, together with physical parameters such as temperature, granulometry, moisture and organic matter content of the sediment layers that comprise a typical epibenthic mat. On the other hand, changes in biomass and colloidal carbohydrate content were studied through a half-tidal cycle (7 h). There were significant seasonal differences in microphytobenthic biovolume (P Microcoleus chthonoplastes) was dominant on all dates at both stations, followed by pennate diatoms. Chlorophyll a and colloidal carbohydrate contents in sediment presented a similar pattern to that of microalgal biovolume; with a 5-fold variation in chlorophyll a for S1 between consecutive sampling events on September and December. There were significant differences between sampling dates in colloidal carbohydrates (P a contents did not show significant differences throughout a half-tidal cycle, likely the product of vertical migration along the section sampled. Conversely, the content of colloidal carbohydrates varied 5-fold, showing a significant (P Keywords: biofilms; cyanobacteria; diatoms; microbial mats; microphytobenthos; tidal flat Document Type: Research Article DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01490451.2012.757998 Affiliations: 1: Estación Costera “J. J. Nágera, ” Depto. de Ciencias Marinas, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina 2: Instituto Argentino de Oceanografía (IADO). CONICET, Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, Argentina 3: Instituto de Investigación en Paleobiología y Geología, Universidad Nacional de Río Negro/CONICET, General Roca, Río Negro, Argentina Publication date: September 14, 2013 More about this publication? Information for Authors Subscribe to this Title ingentaconnect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites $(document).ready(function() { var shortdescription = $(".originaldescription").text().replace(/\\&/g, '&').replace(/\\, '<').replace(/\\>/g, '>').replace(/\\t/g, ' ').replace(/\\n/g, ''); if (shortdescription.length > 350){ shortdescription = "" + shortdescription.substring(0,250) + "... more"; } $(".descriptionitem").prepend(shortdescription); $(".shortdescription a").click(function() { $(".shortdescription").hide(); $(".originaldescription").slideDown(); return false; }); }); Related content In this: publication By this: publisher In this Subject: Microbiology By this author: Pan, Jerónimo ; Bournod, Constanza N. ; Pizani, Natalia V. ; Cuadrado, Diana G. ; Carmona, Noelia B. GA_googleFillSlot("Horizontal_banner_bottom");
    Geomicrobiology 01/2013; 30(8). · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The preservation and cementation of sedimentary structures under the influence of microorganisms in siliciclastic environments have been poorly studied in contrast to carbonatic settings, where they have been extensively investigated. Whereas in carbonatic environments, microbial mat-induced precipitation of calcium carbonate results in a cementation process producing a quick lithification, in siliciclastic environments other minerals would act as cement. The focus of this paper is to document the presence of authigenic minerals within a biosedimentary fabrics and the possible link of these minerals with the extensive microbial mats that colonize the tidal flat of the temperate Bahía Blanca estuary. “Anoxic” minerals (e.g. pyrite) and authigenic zeolites such as analcime, clinoptilolite, mordenite, phillipsite and chabazite were recognized through SEM and EDX analyses. These minerals were most likely formed by alteration of volcanic ash, which is present in this tidal flat and also silica may result from dissolution of frustules of benthic diatoms. Minerals precipitated in this setting are significant as they would act as early cement in the eogenesis, enhancing the preservation of sedimentary and biogenic structures.
    Sedimentary Geology 10/2012; s 271–272:58–66. · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    Diana G Cuadrado, Eduardo A Gómez
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    ABSTRACT: RESUMEN. Se estudió la morfología de un campo de dunas submarinas desarrollado en una entrada de marea que conecta la plataforma continental argentina con bahía Anegada (sur de la provincia de Buenos Aires). Se infiere la circulación sedimentaria a partir del desplazamiento diferencial de las geoformas medido en relevamientos consecutivos. Como parte de la metodología se utilizó un ecosonda y un sistema batimétrico por medición de fase (SBMF) denominado GeoSwath que permitieron obtener la morfología submarina en detalle. Se observaron dunas grandes sobre el límite sur del campo de dunas con altura entre 4,5 y 5,0 m y espaciamiento entre 100 y 120 m, a profundidades de 24 m, que se desplazan hacia el exterior del canal a una rapidez entre 18 y 75 m año -1 . Hacia el límite norte del campo, a 21 m de profundidad las dunas eran de menor magnitud, entre 2,0 y 2,5 m de altura y espaciamiento entre 40 y 80 m, y se desplazaron a una rapidez entre 18 y 36 m año -1 hacia el interior de bahía Anegada. Se obtuvo la distribución del flujo de agua en toda la columna, en un perfil perpendicular al canal relevado, mediante ADCP. Los valores máximos de rapidez de corriente fueron durante la marea creciente, alcanzando 2,0 m s -1 . Los resultados obtenidos permiten definir un modelo circulatorio de transporte de sedimentos arenosos, con la formación de un delta de marea de flujo en la cabecera de la entrada de marea y un delta de reflujo en el límite del dominio oceánico, unidos por una garganta de marea profunda, exenta de sedimentos inconsolidados. Palabras clave: campo de dunas, velocidad de migración, transporte de sedimentos, GeoSwath, ADCP, Argentina.
    Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research 01/2012; 40(1):42-52. · 0.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The geochemistry, mineralogy, and grain size distribution of several estuarine cohesive sediment samples from potentially human-influenced areas without such an influence were analyzed to determine the natural heavy metal content and evaluate its impact on the Bahía Blanca estuarine environment. The data were compared with different ranges of concentrations for heavy metals in marine sediments established by the NOAA Screening Quick Reference Tables in which values range from background levels to those considered toxic to the marine environment. Our total heavy metal contents were below the established hazardous levels in all the analyzed samples, even though the potentially human-influenced areas (harbors, industry, urban spread) showed the highest total concentration values as well as greater percentages of bioavailable compounds. This would imply a low and not extensive anthropogenic input into the environment. The relatively high proportions in which Cd, Pb, and Cr appear as bioavailable compounds at some sites not influenced by human activity suggest the presence of a natural source for these elements. This could be attributed to the weathering of naturally occurring volcanic minerals, indicating that special care must be taken when monitoring of sediment for anthropogenic activity is carried out within this environment. According to the results obtained, and in order to minimize the environmental impact caused by periodic water injection dredging, relocation of sewage outfalls from vessel mooring areas into open waters is strongly recommended.
    Ocean Dynamics 01/2011; 61(2):285-293. · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Field studies in a siliciclastic mesotidal flat in Bahia Blanca Estuary, Argentina, reveal the presence of extensive areas with microbial mats, covering the upper intertidal and lower supratidal areas. Study of recent environments with microbial mats has increased considerably in recent years, not only because of their unique sedimentologic and ecologic characteristics but also because they provide important implications for the understanding of fossil environments. The main purpose of this research was to evaluate the role of microbial mats in the preservation of biogenic structures.We recorded the distribution of recent biogenic structures all over the siliciclastic tidal flat, focusing the analysis on the preservation of bird tracks. Several footprints were selected and photographed; we recorded the morphologic modifications they experienced over the course of 10 months. This study revealed that most of the footprints showed resistance to tide and wind erosion and also to the heavy rains and storms that affected the tidal flat. This resistance is clearly associated with the presence of the microbial mats, which are known to biostabilize the sediment. In addition, microscopic analysis of the tidal-flat sediment revealed the presence of zeolites, indicating early cementation, which may have favored the consolidation of the footprints. Mat thickness also affected the morphology of the footprints; in areas with thick microbial mats overlying water-saturated sands, the tracks were deeply impressed and did not show fine details. On the contrary, in zones with thin microbial mats overlying relatively stiff muds, the traces were shallowand preserved details such as skin impressions and skid marks. Both types of footprints were affected by mat growth, although in the shallow traces the modification was faster and the fine details were progressively obliterated. This study yields valuable insight into the relationship between microbial mats and the morphology of the footprints and provides key information for the analysis of fossil tracks in equivalent paleoenvironments.
    SEPM Special Publication No. 101 01/2011; Society for Sedimentary Geology., ISBN: 978-1-56576-314-2
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    Diana G. Cuadrado, Eduardo A. Gómez
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    ABSTRACT: A tidal inlet on the Argentinean coast is studied. An integrated approach of combining detailed bathymetry survey, seabed sampling and tidal current measurements was used to characterize the tidal inlet morphodynamics. A Phase Measuring Bathymetric System (PMBS) "GeoSwath Plus" from GeoAcoustics Ltd. with centimetric precision and a mean swath coverage of 160 m, was used to recognize bedform morphologies and to determine bedform dynamics by comparison of successive surveys . Tidal velocities were recorded during a complete tidal cycle using an ADCP mounted on a ship operating at a frequency of 650 kHz. Maximum tidal currents, of the order of 2 m s- 1, exhibit different patterns across the channel. While maximum ebb currents dominate in the central and southern area of the channel, flood maximum currents dominate on the northern flank. The complex morphology of a dune field in an inlet and the resulting 3-D dune movement mechanism are also presented. In the middle of San Blas channel, a field with symmetrical large dunes (10-100 m in spacing) and very large dunes (> 100 m in spacing) 4.5 to 5 m in height was found. Dune migration rates were measured by comparing two successive morphological maps of the field, reaching a rate up to 21 m year- 1 toward the ocean. In contrast, the smaller dunes present on the northern border of the field migrate in an inward direction at a rate of 15.7 m year- 1.
    Geomorphology 01/2011; 135:203-211. · 2.58 Impact Factor
  • Diana G. Cuadrado, Noelia B. Carmona, Constanza Bournod
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    ABSTRACT: Extensive microbial mats have been found in the siliciclastic tidal flats of the temperate Bahía Blanca estuary in the Atlantic coast of Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Several microbially induced sedimentary structures (MISS) occur especially in the upper intertidal and lower supratidal flats, among which the most conspicuous are erosional pockets, gas domes, microbial mat chips, and polygonal oscillation cracks. Biostabilization processes by epibenthic and endobenthic mats are also analyzed. Endobenthic mats occur in the upper intertidal area stabilizing ripples that despite the occurrence of severe storms persist in a fixed position for at least 2 months. Epibenthic mats occurring in the lower supratidal area also protect the substrate forming a thick microbial cover through the studied period. This thick cover was only affected by a strong storm that formed areas with erosional pockets and mat pieces. Nevertheless, the loose sediment within the erosional pockets was quickly colonized by microorganisms that developed a thin biofilm layer after a week. Changes in sediment accumulation were also recorded all over the upper tidal flat during a year, showing an important increase due to bioturbation activities of crabs. This situation also affected microbial mat growth, which evolved from a thin microbial biofilm into a thick, stratified microbial mat community in almost 2 years, mainly in the lower supratidal areas. The results of this study not only help us to better characterize the complex interactions between the microorganisms forming microbial mats, the tidal-flat sediment and the physical parameters that control this setting, but also have important implications for the understanding of analogous fossil sedimentary successions.
    Sedimentary Geology 01/2011; 237:95-101. · 1.80 Impact Factor
  • Diana G. Cuadrado, Eduardo A. Gómez
    Latin American journal of sedimentology and basin analysis. 07/2010; 17(1):3-16.
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    Eduardo A. Gómez, Diana G. Cuadrado, Jorge O. Pierini
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    ABSTRACT: By means of surveys carried out with a Phase Measuring Bathymetric System and current profiles obtained through an ADCP of the internal area of the Bahía Blanca estuary, a field of large dunes was analysed. There are two different and well-defined zones characterized by particular dune morphology and differing hydrodynamics. The reduction in the channel cross-section by a geological control leads to the increase in tidal current velocity, which together with the available sediment leads to the formation of Very Large Dunes (H > 4 m and L > 100 m) with the typical morphology of a limited amount of sediment overlying a rigid substrate. The migration rate of these dunes, between 65 and 130 m year− 1, decreases as the bedform height increases. Differing sediment transport rates across the channel result in a non-uniform migration rate, which is responsible for the formation of dunes with linear crests oblique to the tidal current direction. This fact indicates that determination of the sediment transport direction by using only large bedform orientation may be subject to a significant error.
    Geomorphology 01/2010; · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    Diana G. Cuadrado, Eduardo Alberto Gómez
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    ABSTRACT: The morphology of a submarine dune field developed in a tidal inlet that connects the Argentinean continental shelf with Anegada Bay (southern Buenos Aires province) was studied. The sediment circulation was inferred from the differential displacements of the bedforms evaluated by comparing consecutive surveys. An echosounder and a Phase Measuring Bathymetric System (PMBS) called GeoSwath were used to obtain a detailed submarine morphology. Large dunes, with heights between 4.5 and 5.0 m and from 100 to 120 m separating them, were present near the southern limit of the dune field at 24 m depth. These dunes move towards the outer part of the channel at a speed of 18 to 75 m year-1. At the northern end of the dune field, at 21 m depth, the dunes are smaller, being 2.0 to 2.5 m in height and separated by 40 to 80 m. The smaller dunes move towards the interior of Anegada Bay at 18 to 36 m year-1. The distribution of the water flow in the entire water column was obtained through a perpendicular profile of the channel by means of an ADCP. Maximum current speeds were 2 m s-1, and were found during flood tide. The results obtained indicate a circulatory transport model of sedimentary sands, with the formation of ebb and flood deltas at both ends of the deep inlet throat, which lacks of unconsolidated sediments.
    Latin American journal of sedimentology and basin analysis. 01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: In order to reach a navigational depth of 45 feet during the entire tidal cycle, the most internal section of the Access Channel to the Bahía Blanca harbour complex will be shortly dredged. At the outer end of this section, an unusual field of large dunes occurs. Within this field, results show two different and well defined zones characterized by particular dunes morphology each and a differing hydrodynamic profile, with lateral and vertical variations in tidal currents velocity and direction. Dunes migration also shows differential migration rate depending on the bed form size. Differences in speed and direction of tidal currents between both channel sides are responsible for the dunes field formation. Such asymmetry is caused by the occurrence of hard to erode materials cropping out at both channel flanks which generate a narrowing of the channel southward and by the presence of a submarine bank northwards.
    01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: The mesotidal estuary of Bahía Blanca (Argentina) has marked ebb-oriented residual flow and sediment transport. Along the Canal Principal, there is a series of subtidal dune fields with a well defined ebb displacement. Including some forms have very steep lee side where flow separation is evident. However, a sector of the Canal Principal of over 2.5 million m 2 has sandy bottom but no bedforms have developed even though currents reach values similar to those observed elsewhere. Therefore, the main objective is to analyze this sector of the estuary from the geomorphologic and sediment transport points of view towards defining the reasons for the lack of bedforms in the area. Detailed bathymetric surveys with a GeoSwath and bottom sediment sampling for the sector where made prior to define a set of cross sections where ADCP current profiles were made along a tidal cycle both in spring and neap tide conditions. The geomorphology of the area plays a major role in the sediment dynamics of the area. Ebb oriented residual sediment transport is about one order of magnitude larger than the equivalent for flood conditions. Most of the sediment transported from upstream is rapidly bypass over the area and very little is actually deposited in there.
    01/2009: pages 237-241; , ISBN: 978-0-415-55426-8
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    ABSTRACT: Even though the Queque Grande River Estuary has economic and strategic importance from an oceanographic point of view, it has been ignored until recently. Nevertheless, many anthropogenic modifications (i.e., dredging, jetty and harbour construction, etc.) have taken place in the last 100 years which, most of them, have resulted in significative economic expenses to the harbour and city authorities due to the lack of adequate prior studies. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the present status of the geomorphology and main physical characteristics of the estuary and describe the effects of these man-made modifications upon the estuary. Data were gathered in several field cruises from 1994 to 2000 plus from continuous recording devices installed at or near the estuary directed to define the present geomorphologic and oceanographic conditions of the estuary and to establish a monitoring program. The ultimate goal is to provide some practical solutions in diminishing the maintenance of the harbour and to provide pollution-control devices. The estuary is classified as a microtidal, primary, coastal-plain system. It can be considered as a partly-mixed system 2 km from the mouth up to its head (15 km inland). Artificial dredging to accommodate the Queque harbour in the last 2 km of the estuary has induced a highly stratified water column where the upper 2–3 m concentrates low salinity water and the lower layer is filled by water of the same or slightly higher salinity than the inner shelf waters. Due to the presence of a step at the head of the harbour, water circulation is very reduced and in some cases nonexistent, producing strong reductive and even anoxic conditions. The foot of the step is a sediment and organic matter trap that must be dredged periodically to insure adequate navigability.
    Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 01/2005; 62(1). · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to understand the subtidal marine dynamics relative to the coastal engineering works in the Bahía Blanca Estuary (Argentina), the balance of sediment transport caused by tidal currents was estimated in the Puerto Rosales area and compared with the predicted potential littoral transport. The breaking wave height used in the littoral drift calculation was estimated after applying different wave transforming procedures over the deepwater wave which was predicted by the occurrence of predominant wind, blowing long enough in an essentially constant direction over a fetch. The effect of a breakwater on currents and circulation was studied by bathymetric and side-scan sonar records, sedimentology, and tidal current measurements. Different modes of transport occur on either sides of the breakwater. On the east side, longshore transport is the principal mode, and on the west side, tidal transport is predominant.
    Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 01/2005; 62:291-300. · 2.32 Impact Factor
  • Revista de la Asociación Argentina de Sedimentología. 12/2003; 10(2):163-172.
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    D.G. Cuadrado, G.M.E. Perillo
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    ABSTRACT: The study area comprises a sector of the main channel of the entrance to Bahı́a Blanca system harbour. El Toro channel, characterized by recurrent accumulation processes, had to be dredged periodically to maintain the nominal depth of 10 m. Detailed surveys of the reach are made regularly to check the navigation conditions. A set of survey charts made within two dredging operations and covering about 1 year was analysed by means of principal component analysis (PCA). The first principal component obtained from PCA describes the mean depth of the area, while the second principal component explains the morphological variations over time. From it, the accumulation periodicity can be detected, and, therefore, when dredging becomes necessary. Based on dynamics studies, a large transverse flood current component is observed which is attributed to a postulated helicoidal flow pattern responsible for the large sediment accumulation observed in the south-east of the El Toro channel.
    Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 04/1997; 44(4):411–419. · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    Diana G. Cuadrado, Gerardo M. E. Perillo
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    ABSTRACT: Bahia Blanca is a mesotidal coastal-plain estuary characterized by a shore-connected ebb tidal delta closing the mouth of the Main Channel, an unusual feature in this kind of estuary. The study area comprises a series of banks and channels cut through the southern lobe of the ebb delta. The objective of the study is to determine the evolution of the banks in the last 160 years and to define their formation process. To study the dynamic conditions of the area, a transport model was applied, considering the predominant tidal current. Seismic information was available to define the subsoil structure. Historical maps dated back to 1833 to present and currents were employed to determine the movement of the banks. The geoforms migrate toward the west up to the Main Channel where the stronger ebb currents prevent a westward transport of the sediments. The detected migration is only a local process. This observation rejects previous theory that supposed a large sand transport toward the west that might fill the estuary. /// Bahía Blanca es un estuario mesomareal caracterizado por un delta de marea de reflujo conectado a la costa, hecho poco común en estos ambientes. El área de estudio comprende una sene de bancos surcados por canales de marea. El objetlvo de este estudio es determinar la, evolución de los bancos en los últimos 160 años y definir el proceso generativo involucrado. Para estudiar las condiciones dinámicas del área, se aplicó un modelo de transporte teniendo en cuenta la corriente de marea predominante. Para alcanzar los objetivos propuestos, es necesario además, tener un conocimiento de los sedimentos del subsuelo, y por medio de antiguos mapas esquemáticos que datan desde 1833 y un estudio de comentes se determinó el movimiento que sufrieron los bancos. Se arriba a la conclusión que las geoformas migran hacia el oeste hasta el Canal Principal donde las fuertes corrientes de reflujo impiden que continúe el transporte en ese sentido. Por lo tanto se determina que la migración detectada es sólo un proceso local. Este hecho refuta una teoría anterior que supone un transporte hacia el oeste que llenaria todo el estuario. /// L'estuaire du Bahía Blanca, du type mesomareal, est caracterisé par un delta du jusant lié à la côte, un phénomène assez rare dans ce milieu sédimentaire. Une série de bancs, qui sont traversée par de chenaux des marée ont été étudieé dans la région. Le but de ce travail est d'établir l'évolution des bancs pendant les dernières 160 ans ainsi que leurs processus de formation. Un modèle de transport utilisant le courant de la maré e dominante, a été utilise pour l'étude de conditions dynamiques. L'objetif a été aboutis en étudiant les sédiments du fond, des cartes schématiques faites en 1833 et des études des courants. On conclue que les géophormes ont migrés vers l'óuest jnsqu'au chenal Principal où le transport de sédiments est arrête par le jusant. Ceci contradite une téorie qui soutient le remplissage de l'estuaire du aux transport des sables vers l'ouest.
    Journal of Coastal Research - J COASTAL RES. 01/1997; 13(1):155-163.

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